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Author of "Historical Sketches of Northern New York and the Adirondack Wilderness," 
" History o! Garaio^a County, New York," etc. 







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In the preparation of this work the object aimed at has been to furnish in its pages an authentic 
and exhaustive history of Rensselaer County, from its earliest settlement to the present time, in all its 
varied interests. To accomplish this object, several writers have spent many months in its preparation, 
equaling in all the work of one person for several years. 

Considerable material has been gathered from published works, and more has been obtained t'r 

the tiles of old newspapers, the State archives, and the county and town records. In the preparation 
of the town histories much information has been furnished by the oldest residents and well-informed 
people of the county. 

It is impracticable to give separate acknowledgment to each and all when so many have kindly 
rendered aid and encouragement by furnishing valuable' material and otherwise. Especial thanks are, 
however, due to the newspaper press of the county, particularly to the Troy Daily Times, the Troy 
Daily Press, to the Daily Whig, and the Northern Budget, for the use of valuable material found in 
their columns and kindly and freely proffered to us. 

Acknowledgments are also due to the excellent " History of Troy," by A. J. Weise ; to Messrs. 
Benjamin H. Hall, Robert H. McClellan, John Fitch, Dr. C. C. Schuyler, Dr. E. S. Coburn, Rev. Father 
Havermans, William H. Young, Dr. Nathan B. Warren, De Witt Clinton, James Forsyth, Harvey -I. 
King, William Gurley, F. J. Parmenter, Mrs. Sarah Vail Gould, Gen. Alonzo Alden, and Mr. Rousseau, 
of Troy; to Col. Park and Col. Walter L. Church, of Albany, and Col. Colvin, of New York City. 





I. — Introduction ........ 9 

II. — Civil Divisions — Original Counties- -Towns II 
III. — Topography . . . . . . . .13 

IV. — Geological Outlines Hi 

V.- — Indian Occupancy . . . . . . .17 

VI.— Early Navigators 22 

VII. — The Manor of Rensselaerswick 27 

VIII.— The French-and-Indian Wars— 1642-1763. . . 31 

IX.— War of the Revolution 35 

X. — War of the Revolution — ( Continued) .... 49 

XI. — The Hampshire Grants ...... 54 

XII. — County Organization — County Buildings — Early 

Courts ......... 57 

XIII.— County Civil List Gil 

XIV.— The Early Militia of Rensselaer County ... 68 

XV.— Anti-Rent Troubles 73 

XVI. — Rensselaer County in the Great Rebellion of 1861 . 74 

XVII.— The Bench and Bar 109 

XVIII.— The Medical Profession 135 

XIX.— The Press— Books and Authors 144 

XX. — County Societies ........ 159 


XXI. — Internal Improvements River Navigation, Rail- 
roads, etc. . . . . . . . .hil 

XXII.— Statistical Tables 167 



Town of Lansingburgh ........ 292 

" Greenbush :::::: 

" North Greenbush 344 

" East Greenbush 352 

" Hoosick 300 

•' Schodack 397 

" Nassau . . . . . . . . .119 

" Schaghticoke 438 

" Petersburgh 459 

" Pittstown 171 

" Stephentown 491 

" Berlin 5112 

Sand Lake 518 

" Brunswick ......... 532 

" Grafton ... ...... 546 

11 Poestenkill ......... 557 



Alden, Gen. Alonzo ......... 106 

Archibald, John ....... facing 217 

Anthony, Jesse B. ...... " 256 

Abbott, Royal ........ "472 

Armstrong, Dr. Asher " 368 

Armstrong, J. P " 368 

Allen, Dr. Charles S 343 

Allen, Col. J. H 544 

Allendorph, Lewis W. ........ 531 

Ball, Hon. Levi Chandler 372 

Bratt, Nicholas 439 

Buell, James 279 

Buel, Jr., Hon. David 262 

Beach. William A 114 

Bolton, Samuel 332 

Bullard, Gen. E. Fitch 132 

Browne, Irving 133 

Breese, Abram facing 370 

Butts, Judge Elihu •' 443 

Button, William Pitt 457 

Bulkley, Cassius E 134 

Bloss, M.D., Richard facing 143 

Brinsmade, M.D., Thomas C 1411 

Bontecou, M.D., Reed B 141 

Burton, M.D., Matthew 11 142 

Bloomingdale, William 352 

Barton, William between 280, 281 

Bosworth, Benjamin 490 

Blatchford, A.M.. Thomas 139 

Burden, Henry 218 

Clough, Moses T 132 

Colby, John H facing 132 

Clowes, Thomas .... 

Carr, Brevet Maj.-Gen. Joseph B 

Cluett, William . 

Cluett, George B. 

Cornell, Gerothman W. 

Clark, Otis G. . 

Corliss, John M. 

Clark, Hamilton . 

Coleman, Rev. I. B. . 

Carpenter, Sylvanus . 

Coleman, Thomas 

Carmichael, Dr. Eber W. 

Collyson, John L. 

Cottrell, William L. . 

Davis, Kenneth M. 

Dickerman, Jairus 

Derrick, Richard C. . 

Eaton, Amos 

File, Hiram 

Fitch, Hon. John 

Forsyth, James . 

Fursioan, Edgar l.uv-ter 

Flagg. John Lamson . 

Flagg, John 

Francis, John M. 

Freeman, Jonathan W. 

Frear, William H. 

Griswold, Hon. John A. 

Green, David H. 

Gurley, William 

Gould, George . 

Graves, Timothy 



facing 134 
facing 460 
between 280, 281 
facing 520 
. 545 
. 564 
facing 120 
between 216, 217 
538, 539 
. 236 
. 189 
. 435 
. 128 
. 1311 
facing 135 
between 216, 217 






. Hannibal 
Huntington, SamuH tirar M.I' . U 

I, U D l 

arles I.. 

Hart. Kirhani P. 


Harder, Krank P. 



I.. . 
Hafth"rn. fl 

Hall. Daniel 

Hall, I ■ i 

r. Jr.. William II. 
Hull. 1 
Hull. Nelaon 
Hull. ' il. . 

Huff, ' 

,•■ I hi\. IL. 


I. . 

\m . 


ho . 

Lao* Paeally, n.. 

am Learn- I 

Murr.hT. J- 

usai . 

Franklin J. 
Pern I A. 


i.i".. n 880, 281 

Parmcntor, Jerome 11. 

. 281 

Pawling, Col. Albert . 

. 281 

Parmolc, Dr. Pranok It. 




Pcck. Joel II. . 


Peek, Bli uer A. 


Quackonbusb, Peter . 


Robertson, .Ir.. Qilberl 


Rousseau, I>r. Alexander 


Robbing, M.D., Amain- 

l 02 

Roj ii. .L1-. Qideon 

. 118 

Reynolds, E. C. . 


Rogers, Harper . 

oolds, Dr. II. M. . 


Reed, Qeorge I. 

Rousseau, Henry 


harlea 11. 


Reynolds, William W. 


Reynolds, Elijah 


1:. . n. .1.1-. I'a]. lain S. 1 . 

•J II 

Roberts, James 1.. 

lb, Levi 


Smith, '/.. V.. . . . 


Smith, Harvey . 

lu-'iir. David Lowery 


Strait, B. Smith . 


Shirland, William 11. . 


Sbopard, Henry Vail . 


Skill M.D., Avery .1. 

Soymonr, William P. . 


Strong, Col. Latham C. 


Squire, Dr. .loho 


Spalding, A.M.. Rev. Nathi 


w. . 

. 286 

Strung. Henry Wright 

Stiles, Robert B. 


Silliman, Robert Dai i- 


. irt. Philo 1'. 




Townsond, Martin 1. . 


Townscnd, Rufiu M. . 

Thompson 1 . 


Th.'rn, M.I'.. J ami - . 

Tibbits, George . 

■ M. 

Tibbits, William It. . 

Thnnnan, Richnrdnon II. . 

1, John B. 


Burtoo \. 


\'ni . Stephon . 

Van Seboonhoven, Jaeob 1. 


Van - in"ii 

u :. 

Vail. Henry 




Virgil, Cept, Bbenesar II. . 

w arras Pamlly, The . 

w arran, Moses . 

Warren, Hon. IVrrv . 

Ward, Ml' l: HalsUd . 

f acini 

Willarl. .fnhn I). 

Willard, Mrs, Bmma . 


« •• 1. Henry E. 



1. Walter A. 


tkjms, I'r. Alfred . 

Whu ■.„. M.n. Henrj B, 

ing, William II. 






facing 362 
. 41G 
. 436 
. 193 
192 » 
192 I 
192 " 
lacing 211 








Outline Map of Rensselaer County (colored) . faoing '■) 

Map of the Manor "t' Itonsselaerwiok, 1767 ■ . " 27 

Autograph of Eiliaen Van RensBelaer ..... 30 

\ i endt Van Curler . . . . . '■'> I 

Plan of Battle of Bennington, 1780 .... facing 4!) 

Portrait of Gen. Alonzo Alden (steel) ... " 106 

Charles R. [ngalla " ... " 110 

•' David L. Seymour " ... "112 

John H. Willard •• ... " 115 

Samuel G. Huntington ...... 1 Hi 

" Martin I. Townsend lis 

" Francis N. Mann (steel) .... facing 121 

" Gilbert Robertson, Jr 122 

Robert II. MoClellan (steel) . . . faoing 123 
" Roswell A. Parmenter "... " 121 

. I ami's Forsyth "... " 128 

Levi Smith "... •• 129 

E. Smith Strait "... •• 130 

" James Lansing "... " 131 

John 11. Colby "132 

" Harvey J. King "133 

" Thomas Clowes •• 134 

John L. Flagg "135 

Alfred Wotkyns, M.D " 136 

" R. H. Ward, M.D. (steel) ... •• 112 

R. Bloss, M.D "III! 

Fac-simile of first page id' the first number of the Budget issued 

in Lansinghurgh . . . . . . . .147 

Fac-simile of third page of the first number of the Budget pub- 
lished in Troy ......... 148 

Portrait of C. L. MaoArthur (steel) .... facing 14!) 

John M. Francis " " 152 

" Col. Latham C. Strong .... "156 

" William II. Young (steel) ... " 158 


View of the Polytechnic Institute 

" Poestenkill Falls . 

Church of the Holy Cross . 

Mount Ida 

Portrait of Richard P. Hart (steel) 

" Derrick Lane 

" Jacob L. Lane " 

" George Tibbits " 

" George M. Tibbits " 

Portraits of Ebenezer Prescott and Wife 
Portrait of Richardson H. Thurman . 

" Otis G. Clark . 

" Jairus Dickcrnian 

" John Flagg 

" John Archibald 

" Henry Burden (steel) 

View of the Oakwood Stove-Works 
Portrait of John M. Corliss (steel) 

" George B. Cluett " 

View of Troy Female Seminary 
Portrait of Mrs. Emma Willard (steel) 

Father Peter Havermans 
St. Mary's (R. C.) Church . 

" Commercial Academy 

St. Joseph's Theological Provincial Seminary 
Seal of the Young Men's Association 
Portrait of Jesse B. Anthony 

Charles H. Rising . 

" Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool (steel) 

" David Buel, Jr. " 

" John A. Griswold " 

Hon. Isaac McConihe " 

" Mrs. Sarah S. McConihe " 

facing 17.0 


. 185 

. 186 

facing 187 


1 90 

" 192a 

" 192p 

" 198 



between 216, 217 
facing 217 
" 218 
. 223 
facing 228 
" 233 
. 245 

between 274, 275 
274, 275 




between 276, 277 

276, 277 

facing 277 



between 280, 281 

280, 281 

2-". 2-1 

280, 281 

280, 281 

280, 281 

facing 281 



between 284, 2-:. 

" 284. 285 

taeing 2n> 




" 289 

between 290, 291 

290, 2!)1 

I'm trait "t [saac Met lonihe I steel i 

" Gen. John MoConibe i steel I 

(mil Samnel McConihe . 
" .1. Lansing Van Sohoonhoven (steel) 

James Baell (steel) . 

Jonas I ' Hes i " itcel) 

.1. W. Freeman " 

Thomas I loleman 
11 William Barton 

" John Le Grand K mix 

Liberty G Libert 
'• 1'ri Gilbert (steelj . 

" Harvey .Smith (steel) 

" Henry W. Strong (steel) . 

" Ebenezer II. Virgil " 

" William Gurley " 

" Edward Murphy, Jr, i steel I 
" William Kemp 

" Gen. Joseph B. Can- " 

E. A. Peck (steel) . 
" William Cluett (steel) 

" William H. Frear " 

" Albert L. Hotchkin (steel) 


Residence and Brewery of S. Bolton and Sons 
Portrait of" Hon. Samuel Bolton 
Residence of J. K. P. Pine 
Portrait of Robert B. Stiles 

" Thomas W. Hartborn 

" Gerothman W. Cornell 

dill AIM Ml 

Portrait of Dr. Francis B. Parmele . 
" Dr. Charles S. Allen 


Residence of William Bloomingdale (with portraits) . facing 

Portrait of Garret De Freest 

Residence of Delia Koon (with portrait of Alfred Koon) lacing 
" Lewis Kinney (with portrait) 

" James Henderson (with portrait) . 

Portraits of John S. Myers and Wife 


Residence of N. Davenport .... 
" Wm. P. Irwin .... 

" Alex. Livingston .... 

" David Phillips .... 

" David H. Greene (with portraits) 

" John C. Karner 

t;i ■ - 1 n _r 






facing 352 


" 356 

" 356 

between 358, 359 

35S, 359 


Portrait of Gideon Reynolds 

" E. C. Reynolds 

Portraits of Peter Quackenbush and Wife 

" Timothy Graves and Wife 

Portrait of J. P. Armstrong 
Portraits of Harper Rogers and Wife 

" Abram Breese " 

" Wm. H. H. Haynes and Wife 

Church of the Immaculate Conception 
House of the Augustinian Fathers 
Portrait of Walter A. Wood (steel) . 

" Sylvanus D. Locko (steel) 


Residence of J. I. Knickerbocker (with portrait) 

" Milton Knickerbocker (with portraits) . 

" Col. N. S. Miller (with portrait) . 






Portrait* -f Dn ■ | imo mil .liinip> 1 M 
Portrait of Dr. John Squire 

I>r. Bomaol UoOlallui rtoel) . 
B ■ • Bogh W. UeClellan 

It II. If. 1'.. mi ■: i . 
Rai R. '.. 3p tiding 

/.. /.. Smith .... 

RtaUhnM if N. G ... 

Portrait of prank P. II u In 
i;<"i danoc ■•:' Prank P. Harder . 






i I'- 

1 1 7 



facing 120 

N \ss \i . 

Portrait of Kenneth M. Davi. an-1 vl 

Straw Wrapping Paper Mill- t J. D. Tompkini 


• of Hon. John flush iteal 
■;• rgi I. Reed 


Ratidaoeeol Charii \ Benutnel with portraits facing 

William Pitt llutton 
Portrait of JodgC Klihu Hutu 

Thciirant Fan Mill and Cradlo-Mannfactory 
The S.-h»ithtif-ik<- Powder - Company*! Work- double page 
i i<-w ........ bclwi 


Portrait of Hamilton Clark ..... facing 

William W. Reynolds 
portrait- of Klijah Reynolds ami Wife 

Portnil of 8. F.. Reynolds 

Portrait- "f Kl^n' tod Wife 


Portrai' \Kbott facing 

Boo. IVrrv Warr<-n 


I in 

1 1 1 



u; i 

In I 



Residenoe and Mill- of Hiram File (with portraits! 
Portrait ol Thomas Lape (steel) 

Nath'l Mo-worth .... 
Portraits of Benjamin Boewortfa ami Wife 
Portrait of John B. Twog 1 .... 


Portrait- of ReT. I-aiah P. I'oleman anij Wife 

hoc of Sylvanus Carpenter 


Portrait nt |lr. A. K. Hull .... 















nee of Joel P. Peok (with portraits) 
Portrait- of Dr. B. W. t'artnichael ami Wife 
Residence of Lewis w. Allendorph (with portraits) 
Qoorge P. Hull with portraits I 
P. \ . Thomas .... 
Portrait of B. A. Thomas (steel) 
Dr. A. H. Hull (steel) 


K< -nl.-ncc of John L. Collyson (with portraits) 

1'errick V. Leveraee with portraits) 
Sylvester McChcsney (with portraits) 

Portrait of Richard C. Derriok .... 

Residenoe of Riohard A. Derrick 

James L. Robert- (with portraits) 
John Han- with portraits 

P. P. Link | with p'.rlrail- | . 

I ph Kilmer .... 

t'ol. .1. II. Allen (Willi porlr.u 

Edward McCbesney with portrait) 

Residenoe of W. I,, t'ottrell (with portraits) 









ictweeu 52S 











■el ween 538 


















^ -OF 

Rensselaer Co., 









THE county of Rensselaer is not renowned in war. Her 
name is not, like Saratoga, forever associated with one of 
the world's decisive battles* Nay, the historic page gives 
the credit to a neighboring State of the one important 
event of the Burgoyne campaign of the year 1777, which 
took place wholly within the borders of the territory which 
now constitutes the county of Rensselaer, and what should 
have been called the battle of Hoosac, or the battle of 
Sancoik, is known to the world as the battle of Benning- 

Neither was the territory of the county of Rensselaer, 
like that of Washington County, crossed by the old Indian 
trail and provincial northern war-path, over which vast 
armies traveled in their toilsome marches through the old 
blood-stained wilderness during the long French-and-Indian 
wars. Yet, of a truth, across Rensselaer County once ran 
an old Indian trail and war-path, now quite forgotten and 
left almost unnoticed in our histories, which, during the 
Indian occupancy and the early colonial period, was scarcely 
less famous than the great northern and western trails. 
This was the great eastern Indian trail. The reader will 
bear in mind that the northern trail led up the valley of 
the Hudson and down Lake Champlain, while the western 
trail led up the Mohawk Valley to the basin of the great 
lakes. The great eastern trail led from the Hudson up 
the valley of the Hoosac River and over the Hoosac Moun- 
tain, now pierced by the Hoosac Tunnel, to the head- 
waters of the Deerfield River, and down along that stream 
to the broad valley of the Quon-eh-ti-cut,-\ so called in the 
Indian tongue, and from thence to Massachusetts Bay. 

* Henry Hallain, author of the celebrated work, the " View of the 
State of Europe during the Middle Ages," defines decisive battles as 
" tli...-,' few battles of which a contrary event would have essentially 
varied the drama of tho world in all its subsequent scenes." E. S. 
Creasy, professor of history in the University College of London, has 

selected fifteen battles, beginning with Maratl which took place 

two thousand three hundred and sixty-six years ago, and ending with 
Waterloo, in 1815, as the only ones coming within this definition. 
Al ^ r fie fifteen he names Saratoga. 

t Prom Quin-ni-tuk, long-tidal or wind-swept river. Qmn-ni-tuk-ut, 
tl"' country mi either side of "long-tidal river."— Collections Conn. 
Hist. Society, vol. ii. p. 8. 

This was the great highway leading from the Iroqi 
tribes of Central New York— the " Five Nations" — to the 
Algonquin tribes of New England, — the Squak-heags and 
Pa-comp-tucks, the Nbn-o-lucks and Ag-a-wams, of the 
Connecticut Valley, and the Mass-ad-chu-sits, Narragan- 
setts, and Po-kan-o-kets of the Atlantic coast. Between 
these Algonquins of the east, and the Iroquois of the west 
there was perpetual war. The valley of the Hoosac across 
Rensselaer County lay between them, and this valley was, 
in the olden time, the scene of many a bloody conflict 
between the red men. Thus, in the year 1663, several 
hundred Mohaicks went up the Hoosac Valley on the war- 
path, and, crossing the mountains, fell upon the Pa-cowp- 
tucks and Squakheags, of the Connecticut Valley, at Deer- 
field and Northfield, and laid waste their country. 

In retaliation, the Mass-ad-chu-sits and Narragaiiselts 
united with the Sguak-heags and Pa-comp-tucks, in the 
year 1669, in an expedition against the Mohawks. The 
band consisted of seven hundred warriors, led by Chic-ka- 
taw-but, chief sachem of the Mass-ad-chu-sits. They 
passed down the Hoosac Valley, penetrated the Mohawk 
country, and laid siege to the nearest castle, called Te-hon- 
de-lo-ga, at the mouth of the Schoharie Kill, afterwards 
the site of Fort Hunter. The Eastern allied tribes failed 
in their attempt and retreated towards their own country. 
The Mohawks followed, and, making a ditour, formed an 
ambuscade, into which the Eastern Indians fell and suffered 
fearful loss. 


So also King Philip, in the winter of 1G75-76, left for 
a while the scene of his great conflict with the white men 
for the mastery of the land, and traveled over this great 
eastern war-trail to rest for a while on the banks of the 
Hudson. Thus writes Governor Andross, of New York, to 
the Governor of Connecticut: 

" Xkw York, Jan. 6, 1676. 
"This is to acquaint you that late last night I had intelligence that 
Philip and four or five hundred (forth Indians' fighting-men were 
come within forty or fifty miles of Albany, northerly, where they talk 
of continuing this winter; that Philip is sick, and one Sahamtisjch- 
aha| the commander-in-chief." 

The wiuter of 1675-76 was the darkest period in New 
England history. The war with the Indian tribes had 
lasted with unabated fury through the summer and autumn 
months of the year 1675, and was stopped for the time 

% San-cum-a-cha was a tfan-o-tuek chief. 




being by the Dnoommoii depth of snow which fill that 

winter. In February ■ sudden thaw came and left the 

Taking advantage of this, the Mohawks li fl 

their castles, and, attacking Philip and his band, drove him 

back np the II - o Valley to the Squak-heags country, 

mi tin- Connecticui River, where all the tribes under Philip 

gathered for tin- final struggle of the year 1676. 

On the 12th of August of thai year, King Philip, a 

hunted fugitive, was killed on tin' very threshold of his lodge, al Mount Hope, and liis followers tl • • I from 

their ancient homes forever. 

\ fticfts, whose country was in the vol- 

lej of the Connecticut, at the mouth of the Decrfield River, 
in their Sight went up that Btream along tin' old trail, ami, 
-in;,' tin- mountain, came down the valley of the Boosac, 
•1 at ii- month i'i) tin' Hudson, ami afterwards became 
In. .uii to tin- whites as tin- Schaghlicoke Indians, a name 
still familiar in the annals of Rensselaer County. 

Willi these Pa-comp-tuckt, who settled at Schaghlicoke, 
win- ..!--■ - remnants of the NarraganteUs, Wampanoogs, 
A E stern tribes. 

OR \', LOOK. 

tig the fa us Indian war chiefs wl ft en passed 

over the II Vallej was Gray-Lock, of Wo-ro-noak. 

I n the downfall of King Philip, Graj Lock -so called 
from the color of his hair — fled from the home of the II • 
thi \ _ awam River, to the Mo- 
hawk country. In the year \~1'.\ he lived at bis fort, on 
Missisqnoi Bay, al the northerly end of Lake Champlain. 
I G Lock, al the head of a band 
flowers, made numerous r.ii^U into the Connecticui Val- 
1 . -_v . ili.- most noted of which were the attacks on North- 
field on the 13th ol 1723, and the 18th of June, 
1T_'I The highest mountain in Massachusetts, standing 

the old eastern trail, perpetuates the na f Gray- 

I. I of I H ro-noata. 

< OL, > PBRAIM Mil. 1. 1 \ ' 

the breaking out of the French ami-Indian war of 
1 7 1 1 I- the proi inet to protect 

her w. stem frontier settlements, erected a line "I foruj alone 
this eastern trail, the i rn of which was Porl 

N l iw Williamstown, in the 

1711. In the month of kugust, 1746, the Marquis 
• I V.imlr. nil led ■ hostile Prcoch-and Indian force, nuin- 
berii ;.-lit t.. nine hundred men, up the valley of 

II tern «ar path, to attai k I 

H Vandrouil invested the fort on the 26th 

- - -nt I ■ \t the lime there were but twenty-two 

John H Por twenty- 

i bruin ili.- l.r.iv.' liti -, held '"it against rach 

fearful odtfa in bo] Bui no help came, ami 


7 1- Port Massachu- 
was ati.i. • hundred Indians. Tlie 

little fort wi< . no linmlr.'.l men, un 

lir.iim Williams. After 
the Indi 
1 the at' f..rt ami 

with tin in dead and wounded. Capt. Williams be- 
camc the hero of Fori Massachusetts and the founder of 
Williams College, which, mar the site of the old fort, now 
overlooks the old eastern war-trail of the Boosac Valley. 

li was not until the peace of Paris, concluded between 
England and France on the 7th of February, 17G3, — of a 
truth, aol until the close of the war of the Revolution, — that 
tlii- great eastern trail ceased to be a war-path, and became 
the busy pathway of peaceful men. 


And further still, Rensselaer County has not, like her 
sister county of Albany, a long colonial and provincial his- 
tory, dating from the earliest navigation of the Hudson 
I; ■■]■. in the opening years of the seventeenth century, 
when the hardy navigators of the Netherlands, of England, 
France, and Spain, were braving the dangers of the wild 
Atlantic in seeking this New World in quest of gold and 

\Vt. notwithstanding all this, the annals of the county 
of Rensselaer are nol without interest to the student of his- 
tory. Situate at the head of tide-water navigation on the 
Budson, directly opposite the eastern terminus of the 
Mohawk Valley, through which flows one of the great 
streams of the vast products of the teeming West on their 
way to the great markets of the world, this county could 
not he otherwise than an important factor in the world's 
trade and commerce. 

Bui this trade ami commerce, as well as the vast manu- 
facturing interests of our country, in which Rensselaer 
County leu plays so important a part, like our own great 
nation itself, are the creatures of comparatively modern 

This volume, therefore, though by no means barren of 
early historic incidents, will, from the necessity of the ease, 
deal largely with this modern growth, and in the wonderful 

develo] ml of her material and industrial interests. In 

the marvelous progress she has made in these interests dur- 
ing the prosaic years of the present century, Rensselaer 
County presents a striking illustration of the often quoted 
Words of England's immortal bard, 

" Poacc both hor »iotoi 
N<> loss rcnownod than war."* 

In pursuing the history of this county through the 

somewhat monotonous scenes of iis almost two centuries of 

". occupation by white men along the banks of its 

principal streams, we shall first Bee, in our mind's eye, the 
little opening clearing at what is now (ireenbush, upon the 
Lank of the Budson, opposite Fori Orange, now Albany, 
by the early Dutch settlers, about the year 1630, and from 

thence spreading slowly a ffw miles np and down the river. 

Wt shall next see the planting of Schodack in the year 
1630, ol Schaghlicoke in the year 17»i7, and of Iloosac in 
the year 1 726. 

We -le.ll see in each .ail;, settlement, as they success- 
ively spring up in the depths of the virgin wilderness, the 

firs) half-doscn isolated log huts, each in tin ntre of its 

little clearing, bordered on either side by miles of almost 

M \vi. 



pathless forests. We shall sec at these rude pioneer homes 
the father with his sun by his side planting his corn among 
the blackened stumps and logs. We shall see the mother 
surrounded by her infant children, busily plying her daily 
toil within the single room of her humble home, and often 
easting anxious glances into the shadowy woods, which her 

imagination peoples with hordes of wild beasts and savage 
men, and ofttimes with troops of ghosts and goblins and 
other uncanny things. Yet, in the daily Struggle for the 
daily bread, in the hardships and fengers, in the peaceful 
religious lives of those early pioneer homes, wc shall also 
see, what is better than all else, the origin and the growth 
of those homely and sturdy virtues upon which the present 
prosperity of our county is surely buildcd, and upon which 
the prosperity of great States, stretching across tin; conti- 
nent from ocean to oeean, has since been so securely 

We shall follow the varying fortunes of these pioneers of 
the old wilderness through the long French-and-Indian wars 
and the war of the Revolution, through the weary years it 
took to clear off the forests and prepare the soil for cultiva- 
tion, and bring our story to a close in recounting some of the 
results of the wonderful development of the last fifty years, 
— a progress which has brought forth a splendid city, and 
filled our county from one end to the other with smiling 
villages and fruitful fields, the home of more than a hun- 
dred thousand people, counting their aggregate wealth by 
tens of millions, and enriching all lands by the products of 
their labors. 

But this attempt to write a history of Rensselaer County 
is not without many and serious difficulties. A hundred 
years, even, in passing have taken, one by one, all the old 
settlers from us, and much that could once have accurately 
been learned from living lips, now that those lips are sealed 
forever, must be sought for in the all-too-meagre records 
left us by the fathers, or we must grope our way for it 
among the often-conflicting stories of the fragmentary lore 
of uncertain tradition. 




The couuty of Rensselaer is centrally distant twelve 
miles from the Capitol at Albany. It is bouuded on the 
north by Washington County, on the east by the States 
of Vermont and Massachusetts, on the south by the county 
of Columbia, and on the west by the Hudson River, which 
separates it from the counties of Albany and Saratoga. 

The county of Rensselaer is situated between latitude 
42° 25' and 42° 55' north, and longitude 3° 15' and 3° 
45' east from Washington, which corresponds to 73° 15' 
and 73° 45' west from Greenwich, England. 

Its extreme length from north to south is about thirty- 
two miles, and its average width from east to west is about 
twenty-two miles. It contains six hundred and ninety 
square miles, or four hundred and forty-one thousand six 

hundred acres. The total population of the county in 
1875, the date of the last census, was on.- hundred and 
four thousand five hundred and fifty four. 

In the devised Statutes 'if the State this county i- de- 
scribed, and its boundary lines define. I, as follow-, lo wil : 

"The county of Rcnsselaei Bhall contain all that part of this - 
bounded Easterly by the eastern bounds of il* mtherly l<y 

the county of Columbia) Westerly by the middle "I the main stream 

<if [Iudson'e River, with Buch variation a I ludi the islands 

lying nearest to the east bank thereof; and Northerly by a lini < 

ginning at the thof Lewis' Creek or Kill, and running thenee south 

eighty-four degrees east, to the middle of Boosich River; then up 
along tin- same until it is intersected by a continuation of the before- 
mentioned liiH'. and then along such continuation to 'In' casl bounds 
of 1 1>.^ State." 


From the time of the first division of tin' State into 
counties, under Charles II., on the first day of November, 
in the year lb"83, until the 24th day of March, 1772, all 
the territory lying northerly and westerly of what was then 
the county of Ulster was included in the county of Albany. 
On the 24th day of March, 1772, the vast county of 
Albany was divided, and two new counties set off, namely, 
the counties of Tryon and Charlotte. 

The county of Tryon included all that part of the State 
lying westerly of the aforesaid " established line," whirl, 
ran from the Mohawk, as above set forth, to the Canada 
line, at a point near the present Indian village of St. Regis. 
Tryon County was thus nearly two hundred miles wide on 
its eastern border, and stretched out westward two hundred 
and seventy miles to the shores of Lake Erie. The shire- 
town of Tryon County was Johnstown, near the Mohawk, 
the residence of Sir William Johnson, Bart. It was named 
in honor of William Tryon, the last colonial governor of 
the State. 

The county of Charlotte, scarcely less in size than Tryon 
County, included within its boundaries all the northern part 
of the State that lay easterly of the " Tryon County line," 
and northerly of the present county of Saratoga and the 
Batterskill, in Washington County. Charlotte County also 
included the westerly half of what is now the State of 
Vermont, and was then the disputed territory known as 
the New Hampshire Grants. The easterly half of Vermont, 
lying west of the Connecticut River, also claimed by New 
York, and since forming part of Albany County, was set 
off into two counties, — Cumberland, in 1776, and Glouces- 
ter, 1770. 

Charlotte County was so named in honor of the Princess 
Charlotte, daughter of George III., or, as some say, of the 
Queen Consort Charlotte of Meckleuburgh Strelitz. 

The county-seat of Charlotte County was Port Edward. 
The first court was held in that village on the 19th of Octo- 
ber, 1773, by Judge William Duer. The first clerk of the 
court was Daniel McCrea, a brother of Jeanie McCrea. 
whose tragic death soon after occurred near where the court 

On the 2d day of April, 17S4, the Legislature of the 
then new State of New York passed an act by which it 
was ordained that 

*Sce Seotion 2, Title I.. Chapter II.. Part I.. New York Revised 


: .iflcr the |>n-sinj; "f llii- act, lli uiitj I 

be railed mii-1 known bj the du f Montgomery, nnd the oountj of 

Ctarlollt I'v ihi i hinglon." 

Thus these two counties, >n_\- Judge Gibson, in his 
B nob and liar of Washington County," organized origi- 
nally I'V one legislative act, and simultaneously named in 
I inn. hi i" royalty and it.- satellite by a subsequent leg- 
islative act, afteT passing through a sea of fire and famine 
and desolation and war. were simultaneously born again in a 

baptism ofbl I, and 01 fthem named after the greatest 

of iis slaughtered heroes on the battle-field, Montgomery, 
and the other after the most distinguished of her living 
survivors, the immortal Washington. 

It will thus be seen thai what is now the county of Sara- 
was not bcI "IT in the division of the 24th of March, 
177'J. but constituted and remained a part of Albany 
County until the 7th day of February, 1791, when Albany 
i igain divided, being reduced to its present 

limits, and the counties • I R • laer and Saratoga Bel "flf. 
|i - the county of Albany, there are nine other origi- 
nal countii » in what is now the State of New York, — namely, 
the counties of Dutchi --. Kings, New Fork, < (range, (Queens, 
Richmond, Suffolk, I'lstor. ami Wostchostor. 

•. original counties were all formed mi the Isl 

■ lav of November, 1683, by order of the Duke of York, 

dun tli.- solo proprietor of the provinces, ami who ascended 
the throne of England on the 6th of February, 1685 is 
- [I., of unfortunate memory. These countieswere 
all named after James ami his near relatives. 

Thus tli' Fork ami Albany wei 

called in honor of lii- twin titles, of the Duke of York in 
Ubany in Scotland. 
The counties of Kintft ami \ now Kings ami 

without tin- possessive) were named in honor of the 
duke's royal brother, then King Charles II.. and hi- wife, 
1 : I '. 

/' now Dutchess), containing also what are now 

1 imbia ami Putnam Counties, complimented James 1 wife, 
Byde, do Yoik. 

I Died after K ing < Ibarles, in whom 

I the title of Duke of Suffolk. 'Phis title 

by Charli G I 'lor of Lady Jane Grey, in 

■ her r> bcllion. 

Rii bmond County was named in honor of Charles Lenox, 

Duke of Richmond, a natural -on of Charles II. by a 

I rise do Querouaille. Tin royal dukedom 

oi Richmond had descended from the brother of Henry 

.In I ' El [ ill. and had he- 

rn t on tho death of James Stuart, -on of the fir-t 
1 L It was then confi rred by Charles 1 1. 

upon tli. son ol bis favorite mistn named, the an- 

al family of Richmond. 
. th>n including Rockland County and ill 
of ti i'h ofa lino running 

1 in 
honor "I William. 1'rin I ' with hi- wife, 

' nded the 

In 1 ' - ' id tho 

Irish title ■•< the D ad Ulster I aunty was 

named in his honor. Tho county has since been divided, 
and from it taken the enmities of Sullivan, Greene, and 
Delaware, ami the northern part of Orange. 

(lii the death of the last Earl of Chester, the most 
important of tho peerages of the old Norman kings, the 

titlo beci ■ merged in the crown, but was always conferred 

upon tho Print f Wales. As Charles II. had no legiti- 
mate son, he himself retained the title, and it was also in 
his honor that tho county of Westchester received its name. 

Bui at the time nfiwhc division of Nov. 1, 1G83, there 
were two other counties made out of what was then con- 
sidcrcd the duke's province of New York, viz., the coun- 
ties of Dnke's and Cornwall, and where are they? The 
title of Duke of Cornwall also remains with the crown of 
England when there is no Prince of Wales to hold it. and the 
islands on tin- sea coast of Maine, being claimed by James, 
were erected into the county of Cornwall. Martha's Vine- 
yard and Nantucket Islands, also claimed by him, were set 
off as Iluko's County. But Massachusetts, having the pos- 
ion of all these islands, refused to give them up. James, 
therefore, yielded hisclaims, and Cornwall and Duke's be- 
came the lost enmities of Now York. Dukes is now one of 
the counties of the State of Massachusetts. 


At the time of the division of the ancient county of 
Albany, and the setting nil' therefrom the counties of 
Tryon and Charlotte, as above described, on the 24th day 
of March. 1 7 7 L' . tho territory now constituting the county 
of Rensselaer, then still remaining in Albany County, was 
divided by tho same act of the provincial Legislature into 
I'our districts, namely, the districts of Rensselaerwick, 
Iloosiek, I'ittstowu. Schaghticoke. The district of 

PlXXSTOWN, however, was erected as a township by 
pai. nt Julj 23, 1761. What is now Rensselaer County 
remained thus divided into these four districts until after 
tho war of the Revolution. 

In 1784, StEPHENTOWN was formed from Rensselaer- 

(In tho Tib day of March, 178S, three years before 
I! dssi laer County wa- organized, the name "district" was 

dropped, ami Kensselaerwick, Boosick, Pittstown, 

ami SCHAGHTICOKE wore organized as towns of Albany 
( 'oiinty. 

(in the Tib day of February, 1791, tho county ofRens- 
sclaer wa- erected, ami by the -aim- act tho town of Troy 
taken from Rensselaerwick. Pbtbbsburgh was taken 
from Stephentown on the 18th of March, 1791. 

Thus al the lir-l li ting "f the board of suporvisnrs, ill 

tho year 1791, there were Beven town- in tho county, to 
wii Rensselaerwick, Boosick, Troy, Schaohti- 

OOKE, I'l i i -T'\vv PBTBR8B0R0H, and Sti rn in mwN. 

li. in ih. .. . v. a, ■ mother-towns" of Rensselaer County 
other town- have been from time to time sel off ami sub- 
divided, until ilo count] contained its presenl number of 
ii towns, and the city of Troy, a- follows, to wit : 
i niu sit wa- formed from Rensselaerwick on the 
Huh d.iv of April. 1792. Another acl of incorporation is 
i I. 17. 1795. A part of Sand Lake was setoff 
in 1812, an. I I, Clinton," and North 



Greenbush were set off by act of Feb. 23, 1855, leaving tbe 
town of Greenbush coextensive only with the corporate 
bounds of the village of Greenbush as defined by the act 
of April 9, L852. 

Schodack was formed from the remainder of Konsselacr 
wick March 17, 1795, and from that date Rensselaerwick 
ceased to be the name of a town in Rensselaer County. was formed from Petersburgh, Schodack, and 
Stephentown on the 21st day of March, 1806. 

Nassau was firmed from Petersburg!), Schodack, and 
Stephentown March 21, 1800. 

BRUNSWICK was formed from Troy March 20, 1.SII7. 

GRAFTON was formed from the towns of Troy and 
Petersburgh Man-h 20, 1807. 

LansinQBURQH was formed as a town from Troy and 
Petersburgh March 20, 1807. A tract from Schaghticoke 
was annexed in 181 9. A part of the city of Troy was 
taken off in 1836, and a part of the town of Brunswick 
in 1839. 

Sand Lake was formed from Greenbush and Berlin 
June 19, 1812. 

Poestenkill was formed from Sand Lake March 2, 

East Greenbush was formed from Greenbush as 
Clinton Feb. 23, 1855, and its present name adopted April 
14, 1S58. 

North Greenbush was formed from Greenbush Feb. 
23, 1855. 

The City of Troy was incorporated as a city April 12, 
1816. It was formed as a town March 18, 1791. A 
village charter was first granted in 1791, and another in 
1798. A part of Brunswick was annexed in 1814. 



The long valley in which Rensselaer County is nearly 
centrally situated is, topographically considered, one of the 
most remarkable in the world. It stretches in almost a 
Btraight line due north and south across the continent for 
a distance of nearly four hundred miles, from the Atlantic 
Ocean at tbe island of Manhattan on the south to the 
island of Montreal in tbe river St. Lawrence on the north. 
From near the centre of this valley tbe waters of the Hud- 
son River run southerly to the Atlantic, and the waters of 
Lake Champlain run northerly to the St. Lawrence. The 
highest elevation of the bottom of this long valley is less 
than one hundred and thirty feet above the level of tide- 
water, and the waters flowing north and those flowing south 
are naturally separated from each other by a carrying-place 
overland of less than a dozen miles.* 

*This carrying-place is at Fort Edward, and is from the Hudson 
or from Fort Edward Creek into Wood Creek, which empties into Lake 
Champlain at Whitehall. In tho history of the old French-and-rn- 
dian wars this is uniformly called the "Great Carrying-Place," to 
distinguish it from the " Little Carrying-Place," at Fort Miller. 

This valley seem* to have assumed its pn-senl outlines 
iii some tremendous convulsion of nature, omc npheaval 
of mountain masses and disruption of mountain systems in 
the formative period of the world's ci u I 

Its northern part, or the Champlain Valley proper, di- 
vides the Green .Mountains of Vermont, which belong to 
the Appalachian Bystem of the Atlantic slop'-, from the Adi- 
rondack .Mountains of Northern New York, which are a 
part of the Laurentian system of Canada. Its southern 
part, or the Hudson Valley proper, extends entirely through 
the Appalachian range, rending it from top to bottom, so 
that the Hudson virtually comes up to Troy, a distance of 
one hundred and fifty miles from the sea. through the 
whole width of the Appalachian system, as an arm of the 
sea in which the tide ebbs and flows. 


Into the centre of this great northern valley on its western 
side, directly opposite the county of Rensselaer, there enters 
from the west another long, deep valley quite as remarkable, 
which is tbe Valley of the Mohawk. This long western 
valley connects the waters of the Hudson with the basin of 
the great lakes and tbe Valley of the Mississippi by an 
almost continuous level running between high mountain 


The mountains of Rensselaer County all belong to the 
great Appalachian system. The Appalachian mountain 
system, which forms the back-bone of the Atlantic Slope of 
the continent, extends from Nova Scotia and the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence on the north in a southwesterly direction to 
the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The highest ranges of 
tbe Appalachian system in the United States are the White 
Mountains, in New Hampshire, rising to the height of six 
thousand two hundred and eighty-eight feet in Mount 
Washington, and the Black Mountains in North Carolina, 
tbe highest peak of which is six thousand seven hundred 
and seven feet high, being the highest land east of tbe 
Mississippi. The highest range of the Appalachian in the 
State of New York is the Kattskills, reaching an altitude 
of four thousand and fifty feet in Mount Hunter. The 
highest land in the State is the summit of Mount Marcy, 
the Indian Ta-ha-was of the Adirondacks, which is five 
thousand four hundred and two feet above tide- water. From 
springs on this dizzy height of old Ta-ha-was rise the head- 
waters of the Hudson, which, in their course to the sea, 
wash for many a mile the western border of Rensselaer 

laurentian mountain system. 

Although the mountain ranges of Rensselaer County be- 
long wholly to the Appalachian system, and no part of the 
Laurentian system enters the county, yet the near proximity 
of the Adirondacks renders some description of the Lauren- 
tides necessary to a proper understanding of this chapter. 

That part of the continent of North America which 
lies to the eastward of the valley of the .Mississippi River 
is traversed by only two great mountain systems, — the Lau- 
rentian system on the north, and the Appalachian system on 
the south and east. The dividing line between these two 

1 1 


mountain Bystems is the river St, Lawrence and the 
great lake.-, which are bal expansions of that greal river. 


But al one point only do the mountain ranges of the 
L:mr. iiti.m system cross t li ■ - St. Lawrence. Thai poinl is 
at the Thousand [elands. After crossing the St Lawrei 
and, i» crossing it. forming the Thousand islands, the Lau- 
renddes spread easterly to Lake Champlain, southerly '•' 
the Valley of the Mohawk, westerly to the Black River, 

and rise centrally into the greal plateau of the Adir lack 

wilderness, with its thousand gleaming lakes and thousand 
mountain ; 

There are five separate ranges of the Adirondacks,— the 

Palmcrtown, the Knyadrosscra, t ]» . ■ Scarron Schr 1 1, the 

B |uet, and the Adirondack range proper. The mosl east- 
erly—the Palmertown— range fills up the northern pari of 
W ishington County with its mountain masses, and, crossing 
the Hudson ah G - Falls, extends southerly, and ends 
at the upper pari of the village of Saratoga Springs. The 
other Adirondack ran.-.- need nol be described here.* 


mountain ranges of the greal Appalachian system 

ad in a nearly due north-and-soutb direction through 

the whole extent of Rensselaer County, giving nearly its 

whole surface an extremely rugged, nneven, and broken 

character, Thea two ranges are the Taghkanic on the 

and the Petersburgh Mountains on the west. The 

ig opies il xtreme eastern border of 

the county, and is divided from the Petereburgh range by 
the long, deep valley through which tin- BLinderhook Creek 
flows southerly, and the Little Uoosac ind FJoosac Rivers 
flow northerly, and then turn westerly near the north 
mds of the county. 

The Pctcrsburgh rang upies the whole central pari 

of the county between the above-mentioned valley and the 
Valley of the Hudi 8 le of the highest peaks of these 
ran- ■ of from one thousand i" two thou- 

watcr. They generally have precipitous 
thi • ist, with more gentle declivities on the west, 
,.|..i J|y down t" the banks of the Hudson. 

- the summits of the Pctcrsburgh range 

instituting a high Btcrile 

in brokei and hills. At the north the prin- 

M luntain, in the towns of Lansing- 

l„i: .1 Heshodao, in the town of 


>,tl, ihc I' down into 

the bighl I 9ohod ick. We 

i the Kinder! 
(he following description of one "I the southerly peak 
ih. I 

Till M> 

\ if the will i N .'i is 

| lint of land, the highest in the whole adjoining 
between the fat-kiil and the 1' una, 

■ : 

pyramidal in form, and deriving its name from the River In- 
dian name [sodao, meaning a ' burned district.' From a cor- 
ruption of this word originated the name of Schodack. On 
this mountain il is said ilie River Indians and the Stock- 
bridge Indians used to meet. It was their place for hold- 
ing their annual pow-WOW, — such, at least, being the early 
tradition in thai part of the country of its original use by 
the savages. Liter, and during the Revolution, it is said 
t.i have been used as one of the chain of hills, or points, 
upon which beacon-fin - were made during the Revolution, 
giving signals to the Whigs throughout the Valley of the 
Hudson. On the southwest side of the mountain there is 

a place called Kak it. an Indian appellation, which is 

equivalent to our English expression landslide, or the fall- 
ing of rocks, near which were piles of si. me. which iudi- 
] that fires were ..nee made over or upon them, this 
being the first signal Btation cast of the Hudson River, 
and the .me next to Raid Mountain, Massachusetts. We 
understand the range of beaeon mountains upon which 
fires were built by the Whigs as signals during the Revo- 
lution, were the first and sec 1 beacon mountains in the 

highlands, also a prominent point on, we think, the Shan- 
dak, n Mountains in Orange County, then on prominent 
points of the Catskills, which lights could be clearly seen 
al Meshodac. Then came Bald Mountain in the Berkshire 
range, and next a station on the Green Mountains, thus 
completing the line of signal stations. 

■The view from Meshodac is grand and magnificent 
beyond description. East you have a view obstructed by 
the Berkshire bill-, north by the I In en Mountains and the 
spurs of the Adirondacks, wesl by the Catskills. The 
panoramic scenery of the valley of the Hudson in full 

vi.-w for a bundled and fifty miles is gorgeous to behold.' 

The Taghkanic range culminates a short distance beyond 
the eastern bounds of Rensselaer County in the high 
mountain-peak called Gray-Lock, so named in honor of 
the Indian chief of that name. Mount Gray-Lock rises 
to the height of three thousand live hundred feet above 
tide, it- summit being the highest land in Massachusetts. 


The Hudson River for mOIC than thirty miles of its 

COUl along and Washes the Western border of 

l: , icr County. The Hudson is fed bj a system of 

( braii.b.- that over the whole mountain belt. 

of tie- Adirondack wilderness. One of the principal eastern 
branches of the Hudson i- the Hoosac, which in much of 
ii- career runs through Rensselaer County. The Mohawks 
called ibe Hudson Ska-nek-ta-de, meaning " the river be- 

y 1 the open pines." To the Mohawles, when going across 

th ying-placc from the Mohawk River al Schenectady 

I., the Hudson at Albany, the latter riverwas literally " the 

i the pin..-." and thus they bo called ii in their 

I-- llgonquin nun., however, was Caho-ta- 

i, ,. mi ming ' the river thai comes from the mountains 

lying beyond the Cohocs Fall-." Henry Hudson, its first 

cplon r. translating it- Algonquin name, called it the 

i: ci of ib" Mountains." 



Tlio early Dutch settlers on its banks sometimes called it 
The Nassau, after the reigning family of Holland, and 
sometimes The Mauritus, in honor of the stadtholder, 
Prince Maurice. But it was not called The Hudson until 
the English wrested it from the Dutch in 1664, when they 
so named it in honor of their countryman, its immortal dis- 
coverer and lirst explorer. 

The Hudson is literally a " river of the mountains." It 
is hum among the clouds on the Bhaggy side of Mount 
Mclntyre, and in the mountain meadows and lakelets near 
the top of Mount Marcy, almost five thousand I'eet above 
the level of the sea. The infant Hudson is cradled in the 
awful chasms of the Panther Gorge, the Gorge of the Dial, 
and in the Indian pass called by the Indians Da-yeb-je- 
ga-go, " the place where the storm-clouds meet in battle 
with the great serpent." 

Near the centre of this wondrous chasm of the Indian 
pass, high up on the rugged side of Mount Mclntyre, two 
little springs issue from the rocks so near to each other that 
their limpid waters almost mingle. From each spring flows 
a tiny stream. The streams at first interlock, but soon sep- 
arate and run down the mountain side into the chasm, 
which is here two thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven 
lilt above tide. After reaching the bottom one runs south- 
erly as the headwaters of the Hudson, the other northerly 
into the St. Lawrence. 

Upon the south side of Mount Marcy is a little lake 
called " Summit Water" by the old guides, and by Ver- 
planck Colvin, in his " Adirondack Survey," " Tear of the 
Clouds." This little lakelet is four thousand three hundred 
and twenty-six feet above tide-water. It is the highest lake- 
source of the Hudson. 

After thus rising upon its highest mountain peaks, the 
Hudson in its wild course down the northern slope of the 
wilderness crosses four of the mountain chains, which all 
seem to give way at its approach as if it were some wayward 
child of their own. 

After bursting through the Palmertown range, its last 
wilderness mountain barrier, it encounters in its more placid 
course to the sea the Appalachian system of mountains, and 
seems to rend them from top to bottom. Or, rather, from 
the natural head of tide-water, some two miles above Water- 
ford, in Saratoga County, the Hudson virtually ceases to be 
a river, and becomes an estuary or arm of the sea, iu which 
the tide throbs back and forth, and on whose peaceful bosom 
now float the navies and the commerce of the world. 

This long arm of the sea, through which the tide ebbs 
and flows and which is navigable by large steamers, termin- 
ates at the city of Troy, in Rensselaer County. Lansing- 
burgh may be considered the head of sloop-uavigation. 


The Hoosae is the largest stream of water that crosses 
Rensselaer County. It rises in a valley of the county of 
Berkshire, in Northeastern Massachusetts, which extends 
between the Taghkanic range and the Hoosae range, under 
which the Hoosae Tunnel passes. Along this valley the 
Hoosae first runs northerly into and across the southwest 
comer of Vermont, and enters Kensselaer County in the 
northeast corner of the town of Petersburgh. It then 

continues northerly, through the town of II the 

Washington Count v line. Crossing into tie- town of Cam 

bridge, Washington Co.. It soon makes a shorl bend south- 
westerly, and re-entere Rensselaer County in the town of 
Pittstown. It then How- westerly through the town- of 
Pittstown and Schaghticoke, emptying into the Hudson in 
the latter town near the extreme northwest corner of Itens- 
sclaer County, ami directly opposite the village of Stillwater 
in Saratoga County. 


After the Hoosae, the stream next in importance in 
Rensselaer County is the Kinderhook Creek. It rises in 
the town of Petersburgh, ami, running south in the deep 
and narrow valley which extends between the two mountain 
ranges (the Taghkanic and Petersburgh mountains), it 
crosses the towns of Berlin and StephentOWD into Columbia 
County. Taking a short turn, it again enters Rensselaer 
County in the southwest corner of Stephentown, and. en 
ing the corner of Nassau again, enters Columbia County, 
and runs southwesterly to the Hudson. 

For a description of the other streams, as well as of tin; 
numerous lakes and ponds found in Rensselaer County, see 
the histories of the several towns in which such waters are 
to be found, farther on in this volume. 

We again copy from the Kinderhook Rough Notes an 
interesting article on the fish of these waters : 

"kinderhook and rocnd lakks. 

"A friend of ours who years ago took great delight in fishing in 
Kinderhook Lake, sends us the following for publication: 

" The early settlers of Columbia and Rensselaer Counties found tho 
streams and lakes filled with large, luseious speckled trout. Few 
other fish were then sought for, except tie- Band in the Hudson River. 
The cat-fish, or bull-heads, and eels were plentiful, but trout abounded 
everywhere, in lakes especially. 

'• At that time the pickerel was scarcely known or heard of in all 
this region of country. Black-fish and bass were also scarcely heard 
of. The perch was the first enemy of the trout in our creeks and 
lakes. With the perch the trout can make a fair tight, and perhaps 
hold its own, and up to the last century trout were found everywhere 
and were speared, caught in fykes and nets, the same as suckers then 
and now are. "With the ordinary hook and line a person could catch 
a basketful in a few hours. 

'• Since the introduction of the pickerel into this part of the country, 
trout have disappeared. Pickerel are very fond of trout; they love 
them so that they feast on them whenever they can. Trout and , 
pickerel do not long exist in the same pond or brook, for the pickerel 
are known to consume the trout, and in a short time drive them from 
a stream, lake, or pond. 

'• It is now about fifty years ago since a subscription was taken up 
in Kinderhook to send a person cast to procure a quantity of live 
pickerel with which to stock Kinderhook Lake. The Bough Notet 
published the subscription list and the names of the subscribers a few 
years since, the highest sum subscribed, we think, being two dollars, 
and the whole amount less than seventy-five dollars. The introduc- 
tion of the pickerel into Kinderhook and Round Lakes destroyed tho 
trout-fishing in these lakes ami the streams connecting therewith, 
the pickerel finding their way everywhere, destroying the trout in 
the estuaries feeding Kinderhook Creek, and thus annihilating tho 
trout in this region of country. It has been so wherever pickerel 
have been plaeed. 

" In stocking lakes and ponds with fish, wherever it i- practicable 
to draiu the same, it is advisable to do so, in order to get rid of the 
pickerel, as trout, freed from the preseuce of pickerel, inoreast 
rapidly and grow so fast, that these delicious fish would soon again 
become abundant." 


HISTORY of i: i:\sski. vki: corNrv. \i:\v york. 

'ii \ i'T i: R i \ 

I.-l i: \- I.GES PERIODS. 
Tin rocky groundwork of the county of Rons 

man] features of considerable interest t" the stu- 
denl of geology. It 1..-I. .mr-. however, t.> the developments 
exhibited in Western New England rather than to the more 
ilar gradations of the New Zork system as seen weal of 
the Hudson River. Like the rooks of Western New Eng- 
land, therefore, such has 1 n the disturbance and up- 

hi tval of in the whole region east <>f the Hudson 
River, including the whole of Rensselaer Count;, thai it 
has been so far a matter of extreme difficulty to correlate 
their various groups with those groups of rocks <>f known 
age situate t- the weal of the Hudson, which have given 
■ its American nomenclature. Yrt it 
is thai the most if nol all the rocky strata underlying 
H - laei C mnty belong to the Silurian age. 

Hut it is n..t within the province or scope of this work 
to enter into the details of this interesting subject. No 
more than the mere outline of the geology of Itenss 
Oounty will be attempted here. 

gy has been defined as the science of the earth's 

structure. It aims to show not only what thai structure 

is. bul to explain its origin. It i- eminently a historical 

science, and it unfold to us to some extent the 

and mysteries of the world's creation. 

Tl artli itself, lik" th" planl or animal it sustains on 

it- surface, is a thing of growth, of development out of the 
original chaos, when " it was without form and void," into 
its present wonderfully complicated and varied structure. 
The different periods of this growth arc more or less dis- 
tinctly marked upon the earth's rocky structure by the 
various fossil forms of vegetable .and animal lit'.' found 
imbedded there. 

Th fossil forn inio nature seem to rise succes- 
sively from the dawn of life, to be found in tl Idesl rocks, 

up through all the w Irous chain of being to the pn -■ nl 

! nun. the crowning life of all. In this view of the 

. r..ik mark- a period in the earth's growth, every 

group of r-ek- an age, and .-till larger groups of rocks, 
called f >,- mark great era- of geologic time. 

'• issify all r..ek- as belonging to one "r other 

of li marked by various 

I km hi in Eba, including I ■■'■ and / 
/' (ten of [,; ■ 
l Laurent \ l Ipper and Lower. 

II I'm > izoic Kba,- 

■J I The Silurian, or Ago ol Mollu 

PI I • mian, "r \ lies. 

t'h The • ' trb mil I ! Plants. 

III. Ms / 

."nil. The Reptili in 
IV IV- .'.. . • / 

\ Paw am 

Tth Tl, ' I ,,ii 

The geological formations found in Rensselaer County, as 
already stated, belong mostly, if not entirely, to the Palaeo- 
zoic era and the Silurian age. 


The lower Silurian rocks ] it- next above the old Lauren- 
tian series of crystalline rocks. First comes the Potsdam 
sandstone, and next above it rests the calciferous sand-rock. 
The calciferous sand-rock appears along the western border 
of the county, cropping out in places like the diamond-rock 
in Lansingburgh. These ridges of calciferous sand-rock 
illj referred to the Quebec group. 

In this Primordial period the remains of life appear in 
it- lower marine < but not fresh water) forms in great abun- 
dance. Alga ox sea weeds are the only plant-forms found 
in the Potsdam sandstone and calciferous sand-rock epochs. 

The animal remains of this period arc all marine. 

1 -t. Among Protozoans are found sponges and rhizopods. 

2d. Among Radiates are found crinoids, graptolites, and 
coral-making polyps perhaps. 

3d. Among MoUusks are found bryozoans, brachiopods, 
conchifcrs. pieropods, gasteropods. and cephalopods. 

4ih. Among Articulates may be found marine worms, 
crustaceans of the trilobite tribes. 

The talcose slates found in the eastern part of Rensselaer, 
belonging to the Green Mountain system, have been re- 
ferred by Mr. Dana to the Quebec and Chazy epochs of the 
Lower Silurian age.* We quote from the "Natural His- 
tory of New York'' in reference to these rocks: 

" In Ronssolftor County, the talcose and chloritic reek- and the 
limestone*, variously modified by mctnmorphic ngency, may be Been 
along the Vermont line, rvod thence on towards Williamstown. The 
river hero Taconic Mountains through a gorsr.-. and the 

transverse section exhibits the nature and position of the Blrata, In 

localities the limcsl i- n white, crystalline, granular, dolomi- 

tic rock; in others it is scarcely altered from the calciferous rocks, 
ami the compact and sparry blue limestones. The slate is in Borne 

pli like argillac i- slate and roof-slate; in others it is highly 

t il iosc or ohloritic, and the red -late is also pure common. 

" Rocks of the sai haractor, bul less altered, the limestone lieing 

sparry and ill" Blato li -- talcose and ohloritic, range along the western 

Bide and through the i alloy "I (he Little Hoosick, in Petersburgh and 


"Tho Taconic Mountain cxtonds south, through the east parts of 

burgh, Berlin, and Stcphontown, into Columbia County, and ii 

ios :> rariablo breadth also in tho towns of Williamstown and 

Han k. in M« u oils, li contains the same kind- of rook as 

l in tho gorge through which the Efoosick crosses i In* 
luntain. Tin- surface in very many places is strewi id with 

bowldors and looso frag nts of milky quarts, much of which con- 

il ehloritis, in nests and cavities in lie- rocks. The 

rlilnrito is in small aggrogatc green seal masses of 

quarts ;,r<- derived 1 1 "in ilc di iposition, disintogrotion, and wash. 

oil- away "f the slate r.»'k-. in <\hi. h tin , i parts of reins 

and nests; and as tho quarts withstands atmosphorii agents and 
on bettor than tho Blato, groat quantities ol il ;>n- found on and 
in the -"il near t" where it abounds in tho slate-rock. 

" Prof. D ... v. | ■ , ;| .. ,, ,| iroy 

i n vi illiamstown, 

i thai tho reeks ..| tho Taconic range 

in this town ate, chlorite slate, and 

prodomioates and :ii I tho descent of 

iburgh. This valley, of variable 

north and south, and i- traversed by a 

i which runs northward Into thi Uoosics River. In this valley 

* Dana's Manual of oology, ?,,,., , n ,| edition, page 163. 



is found abundantly the same mixture of chloride and quartz which is 

, mmon in Williamstown, though the two ralleys are Boparated 

bv the Taconic range, having an elevation of one thousand ne 

thousand four hundred feet. On the wcsl aid ' thi rnlloy, and 

„l„,„i Boventee iles east of Troy, lies chlorite elate vory distinctly 

characterised. H is Bomeliuies narrow and sometimes iw<> or three 

miles in width, often rising into hills two hundred or three I Ired 

feel high.' 

•• Muoh of the Blato called tatcoee elate is not the talooso slate a 

posed oi' quarts and talo desoribed by some authors, but its po i 

lion would bo expressed generally by i"i njiltaceoue tlate, and some 

places by talco micaceous elate. 

"The slate-rocks arc talcy, and associated with red, green, and 
ohloritic slat.- .01 the hills east "I' Tuokawassiok Hill, in the northeast 
part of Nassau aid Bouthwest purl of Berlin. The same may be seen 
south "I' Nassau." 


Next above the Potsdam sandstone and caleiferous sand- 
rocks lie the limestones and slates and shales of the Tren- 
ton period. In the western half of the county, along the 
Petersburgh mountain range, the slates and shales are sup- 
posed to belong to the Hudson River group of the Trenton 

In the Trenton period also sea-weeds are the ouly fossil 

The seas of the Trenton period were densely populated 
with animal life, but of no higher forms than the Primordial 
period preceding. 

With the Trenton period first appear species of un- 
doubted polyps, — the true coral animals of the seas. Prof. 
Hall, of Albany, State geologist, truly calls the rocks of 
the Trentou period a vast fossil coral-reef. 


Above the Old Silurian iu Rensselaer County appears 
the Post-Tertiary period, which ushers in the present state 
of things on the earth's surface, — the age of man. Be- 
tween the Old Silurian and the age of man there is a 
mighty gap, representing whole eras and age upon age of 
geologic time, all unfilled in the rocks of Rensselaer County. 

The Post-Tertiary period in America includes two epochs: 

1. The Glacial, or that of drift. 

2. The Champlain, or that of terrace-sands and clay- 
beds bordering the Hudson River. 

The Drift epoch is well represented in all parts of Rens- 
selaer County. The term Drift includes the gravel, sand, 
cobble-stones, and bowlders, often forming low hills, and 
covering even the mountain tops in many places. 

The Drift is derived from the rocks to the north of 
where its beds occur, and is supposed to have been trans- 
ported by the vast ice-fields of the glacial period. 

The Champlain and Terrace epochs are well represented 
in the beds of clay and gravel bordering the valley of the 

It would seem that after the termination of the Glacial 
period the valley of the Hudson was for a long period 
again sunk beneath the ocean to the depth of about three 
hundred feet. During this subsidence the valley was filled 
up with soft clay-beds. When, in the course of ages, the 
Hudson River Valley again rose out of the sea, the river, 
ID seeking its former channel, cut down through these clay- 

* Natural History of New York, part iv. p. 425. 

beds, leaving its present banks bordered with tin-in in many 

\ volume could be written upon the interesting geology 

of Etenssel ■ County, of which a mere outline is above 





Rensselaer County was the original home of the 
famous Mohicans. Uncas, the last noted chieftain of the 
tribe, was once the lord of the territory out of which was 
carved the Manor of Reusselaerswick, or at leasl thai part 
of the manor which lay to the eastward of the Hudson. 
The Mohicans, or Ma-hi-cans, as the Dutch culled them, 
occupied the region that now comprises the southern part 
of the county, while the northern part of Rensselaer and 
the southern part of Washington County were originally 
inhabited by a tribe called the Bb-ri-cons. It will readily 
be seen that the novelist Cooper borrowed his appellation 
for Lake George, which he named Lake Horicon, from 
this Algonquin tribe, although that beautiful lake never 
belonged to the Horicons, but was always within the coun- 
try of the Mohawles, the fiercest nation of the Iroquois, 
their hereditary enemies. This leads us to the considera- 
tion of the two great families into which the Indians of the 
Atlantic slope were divided. 


When the Europeans first landed on the continent of 
America, the Indians who inhabited the Atlantic slope, 
and dwelt in the fertile valleys of the Alleghany range of 
mountains, in the basin of the great lakes, and the valley 
of the St. Lawrence, were divided into two great families of 
nations. These were soon known and distinguished by the 
whites as the Iroquois and Algonquin families, so named by 
the French. They differed radically, both in language and 
lineage, in the manner of building their wigwams, as well 
as in many of their manners and customs. 


The Iroquois proper, the best types and leading people 
of this family, were the Five Nations of Central New York, 
called by themselves the Ilo-de-no-sau-nee. To the south 
of the Five Nations, in the valley of the Susquehanna, were 
the Andastes, and to the westward of them, along the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, were the Eries. To the 
northward of Lake Erie lay the Neutral Nation, and near 
them the Tobacco Nation, while the Ilurons, another tribe 
of the Iroquois, dwelt along the eastern shore of the lake 
that still bears their name. There was also a branch of the 
Iroquois family in the Carolinas, the Tuscaroras, who came 
north and united with the Five Nations in 1715, after which 
the confederacy was known as the Six Nations.")" 

f Seo Coldcn's History of the Five Nations. 



On every side these few kindred bands of Troquois were 
surrounded by the much more numerous tribes of the 
greater Algonquin family. 

Aiii"ii_' all the aboriginal inhabitants of the New World 
there were none bo politic and intelligent, none so fierce 
and brave, none with so many germs of heroic virtues min- 
gled with their savage vices, as the true Iroquois, the peo- 

the Five Nations of Central New York. They were 
a terror to all the surrounding tribes, whether of their own 
or of Algonquin speech and lineage. 1" the spring of 

hey made war upon the Mohicans, who dwell on ter- 
ritory now comprising the county of Rensselaer, and drove 
them beyond the Connecticut River; in 1 <'>."><» they overran 
the country of the Bi/rons; in 1651 they destroyed the 
Neutral Nation; in L652 they exterminated the Eries; in 

they ravaged the country of • 1 1 > ■ Pa-comp-tucks and 
Squak-heags in the valley of the Connecticut ; in ItiTJ they 
conquered the Andastes, and reduced them to the most 
abject submission, calling them, in derision, the women of 
their tribe. 

They followed tin* war-path, and their war-cry was heard 

ird to the Mississippi, southward to the great gulf, 

itward to the Massachusetts Bay. The New England 
nations mostly, as well as the river tribes along the Hudson, 
whoee warrior- trembled at the name of Mohawk, all paid 
tli. in tribute. The Montagnais, on the far-off Saguenay, 
whom the French called the paupers of the wilderness, 
would start from their midnight sleep and run terror- 
Btrickcn from tlnir wigwams into the forest when l>ut 
dreaming of the dreadful Troquois. They were truly in tlnir 
day the conquerors of tin? Now World, and were justly 
styled "The Romans of the West." "My pen," wrote the 
Jesuit father, Raguenean, in the year L650, in his" Reve- 
lations des Huron-." ■• My pen lias no ink black enough to 
paint the fury of the Troquois." 

The Iroquois dwell in palisaded villages upon the fertile 
banks of the lake- and streams which watered their country. 
The li I the Iroquois families wire built long and 

narrow. They were not more than twelve or fifteen feet 

in width, but oil led hundred and fifty feet in 

length. Within they buill their lire- at intervals along the 

centre of the earth Boor, the smoke passing out through 

openings in the top, which likewise Bervcd to let in the 

re many fires and many families, 

family baring it- own lire within it- allotted spa 
I ■■m of having many fires and many fami- 

trong through a long and narrow hou mes the 

signification of the Indian name the league of the Five 

by. This Indian name w , // 
: ; ■ of the Ioiil* li"ii- " Tie \ 

f five nations or nil.. - stn tched 

•r..w valley for more than two hundred miles 

through t'.ntr., of their long wigwams 

manv families. Tin- Mohu\ 

this typical long house, while tin 

n door. I i of 

ilnir country dw. It i the 

I tii family lire, whili 

pi brightly burning 
in the Ian! 

The nation of the Troquois to whom the Indians of the 
Connecticut Valley paid unwilling tribute was the Mohawk. 

In the Algonquin speech of the Connecticut River 
Indians the Afohawks were called Mau-qua-wogs or Ma- 
rjmis. that is to say. " Man -eaters."* 

The Mohawk country proper, called by themselves Gu- 
ne-a-ga-c no-go, all lay on and beyond the westerly bank of 
the Hudson, but by ri;Mit of conquest they claimed all the 
territory lying between the Hudson and the sources of the 
easterly branches of the Connecticut. By virtue of this 
claim all the Indians in the valley of the Connecticut paid 
annual tribute to the Mohawlcs. Every year two old Mohawk 
chiefs would leave their castles on the Mohawk River, in 
their elm-bark canoes, and crossing the Hudson, ascend the 
Has-sicke (Hoosac) to its head, and carrying them over 
the mountain range, re-embark in the head-waters of the 
Ag-a-wam | Westficld River) and the Deerfield River, come 
down to the villages of the Wo-ro-noaJes, the Ag-a-wams, the 
No-no-tucks, the Pa-comp-tucks, the Squalc-heags, in the 
valley, and to the Nip-mucks at the head of the Chicopce, 
and gather the wampum in which tribute was paid. As 
will be seen farther on in these pages, when all these river 
tribes joined King Philip in his attempt to exterminate the 
white- in New England the Moliawlcs sided with the Eng- 
lish and did material service against Rllilip.f 


Surrounding the few tribes of the Iroquois on every 
hand dwelt the much more numerous tribes of the Algon- 
quin family, to which belonged all the New England tribes, 
as well as the Mnliicnus. Hurt'cmis, and other New York 
Indians who dwelt east of the Hudson, and were known as 
river Indians. 

Northward of the Troquois were the Nipissings, I.n Petite 

Nation, and La Nation de Vlsle, and other tribes in the 

valley of the Ottawa River. Along the valley of the St. 

Lawrence dwelt the Algonquins proper, the Abvnaquis, the 

'agnais, and other roving bands below the mouth of the 


The Algonquins and Montagnais and the other wild rovers 

of the country of the Saguenay. who subsisted mostly by 
the chase, were often, during the long Canadian winters, 
when game "row scarce, driven by hunger to subsist for 
many weeks together upon the buds and bark, and SOnie- 

ti - upon the young wood, of forest-trees. Hence their 

hereditary enemies, the more favored Mohawks, called them, 

In mockery oftheir condition, Ad-i-ron-daks, — that is to say. 

caters. This name, thus borne in derision, was given 

by I'lof. Emmonds to the principal mountain chain of 

Northern New Y.ik. and has since been applied to its 

whole region, now so famous as a Bumtuer resi 

The Now England tribes of the Algonquin family dwell 
mostly along the sca-coasl and on the banks of larger streams. 
Tn Maine the Et-U-clie-miat dwelt farthest east, at the mouth 
of the St Croix River. The Ahenaquis, with their kin- 

dr. i| tribe the TuratineS, had their hunl itiL'-L-roiinds in the 

* lire i history bj tocrouc Mather. 
f Conn. U I. ii. p. 161, i 

n New Yorkj by V B. Si l\ <■-- 



valley of the Penobscot :m<l as far west as the river SaOO 
and the Piscataqua. In I lie southeast corner of New [lamp 
shire ami over the Massachusetts border dwell the Penob- 
scot or Pawtucleet tribe. The Massachusetts nation had 
their home along the hay of that name and the contiguous 
islands. It was a tradition of this tribe that they formerly 

dwelt farther to the southwest, near the Blue Mountains, 
and hence their name Mass-ad-chu-sit, " near the ureal 

The Watnpanoags or Polcaitokets dwelt along the east- 
erly shore of Narragansett Bay, in Southeastern Rhode 
Island, and in the continuous part of Massachusetts ad- 
joining these, being near neighbors of the Plymouth Pil- 
grims. The Nansets along Cape Cod were a family of the 
Wampanoags, and paid them tribute. Next in line were 
the Narragansetts and their sister-tribe, the Nyantics, 
along the westerly shore of Narragansett Bay, in Western 
Rhode Island. Between the Narragansetts and the river 
Thames, in Southeastern Connecticut, then called the Pe- 
quot River, dwelt the Pequot nation ; and between the 
Pequots and the east bank of the Connecticut River was 
the adopted home of Uncas and his Mohicans, whose an- 
cestral home was in the valley of the Hudson, in Rensse- 
laer County. 

On the west side of the Connecticut the territory of the 
Mohawks was supposed to begin ; and in Western Massa- 
chusetts, and in what is now the State of Vermont, no 
Indian tribes had permanent homes. This large territory 
was a beaver-hunting country of the Iroquois. 


Upon the arrival of the Europeans in the valley of the 
Hudson, or Shat-e-muc, two races of Algonquin lineage 
dwelt on its banks. On the east side were the Mohicans, 
and on the west side the Min-cees. These races were he- 
reditary enemies of each other, and united only in their 
hatred of the Iroquois, to the westward of them. 

Long Island, or Sewan-haehy, was occupied by the va- 
rious clans of the Met-o-wacks. Staten Island, or Mo- 
nock nouq, was held by the Mon-a-tons. Inland to the west 
lived the Rar-i-tans and the Hack-in-sncks. In the region 
of the Highlands were the Nav-i-sinks. To the south and 
west, covering the centre of New Jersey, were the A-qna- 
ma-chukes and the Stan-ke-kans, and in the valley of the 
Delaware River were the Lenni-Lenape, known to the Dutch 
as the Min-qnas. The island of the Man-hat-tans was so 
called from its Indian owners. Above the Nav-i-sinks, on 
the west side of the river, were the Snn-hi-cans, and in 
the region of Portland and Orange Counties were the 

Farther north on the west side of the river, in the 
counties of Ulster and Greene, were the Minqua clans of 
the Mln-ni-sinks, Nan-ti-cokes, Min-cees, and Delawares. 
These elans had migrated from the upper valley of the 
Delaware River. 

On the eastern bank of the river, north of the Man-hat- 
toes, were the tribe of Weeh-quaes-geeJcs. Above them, as 
far as Croton, dwelt the Sint-Sings, whose chief village was 
called Osin-Sing, or " the place of stones." 

The highlands above were occupied by the Wuor-an-acks, 

and north of these, in Dutchess County, lived the tribe of 
Wap pin-gers. 

Ahovo the Wap-pin-gers, and occupying the whole of the 
counties of Columbia and Rensselaer, were the l/<. hi-i 

Such was the condition of things when Henry Hudson 

sailed up the Hudson in I he autumn of 1609, as described 

in the following chapter. 

VI.— Till'. MOHICANS. 

Rensselaer County was the hereditary ancestral home of 
the Mohicans up to the year lliliS. 

The Mohicans planted their corn on the fertile meadows 
which stretched along the Hudson, where tin' city of Troy 
now stands. Indeed, the Indian name for Troy, l'o "»- 
pa-ach, means "the field of standing corn."* Their 
principal village was in the town of Sehodack, in the 
southeastern corner of the county. 

But little is known of them in the valley of the Hudson, 
for as early as the year 1(>2S, two years before the founding 
of the Manor of Rensselaerswick, and only five years 
after the building of Fort Orange at what is now Albany, 
when driven from their ancestral home in the valley of 
the Hudson the Mohicans, with Uncas at their head, fled 
into the valley of the Connecticut, ami planted themselves 
on the eastern bank of that river, near its mouth, on Long 
Island Sound, and between that river ami their friends, the 
Peqnods. In the year 1037 the Pequot nation was exter- 
minated by the whites, and the Mohicans were left to be 
the new neighbors of the powerful Narragansetts, who 
dwelt to the east of the Pequot country, on the borders of 
Rhode Island. 


Some account of what happened to Uncas and his Mohi- 
cans, after fleeing from their ancient home in Rensselaer 
County to the valley of the Connecticut, will doubtless in- 
terest the reader. 

Although the destruction of the Pequots relieved the 
whites of New England from further Indian ravages for a 
period of forty years, and until another generation of men 
came on the stage of active life, yet it tended to intensify 
the hatred which had long existed between the neighboring 
tribes of Mohicans and Narragansetts. 

The Pequots, the reader will remember, dwelt on the 
eastern border of Connecticut, between the Rhode Island 
line and the river Thames, then called the Pequot River. 
To the east of the Pequots were the Narragansetts, and to 
the west of them, between the Thames and the Connecti- 
cut, dwelt the Mohicans. 

At the close of the Pequot war the captives were divided 
by the whites between Un-cas of the Mohicans and Mi-an- 
to-no-mo of the Narragansetts. 

These two tribes were hereditary enemies, although both 
were the allies of the English, and both aided the whites 
in the war against the Pequots. The deserted hunting- 
grounds of the Pequots soon became a bone of contention 
between the rival tribes, and in the year 1643 war broke 
out between them. Previous to the commencement of hos- 

See Brodhead's History of New York, vol. i. page 534. 



tililiea the emissaries of Miantonomo had made Beveral at- 
tempts upon the life of Qncas, and Qncas bad made com- 
plaints to the whites of rach treatment. 

Miantonomo had also made an ineffectual attempt, about 
the year 1642, to unite the New England tribes in :i war 

■.termination against tho whites. Failing in this sche 

:> i « < 1 incensed at Qncas f"r not joining him in it. he deter 
mined t" make war upon the Mohicans. 

In the ii li of July, in the year 1643, Miantonomo, 

without giving Qncas any previous notice of his intentions, 
or making any formal declaration of war, set onl at the 
head of some seven hundred warriors to invade tho Mohican 
country. Qncas, learning of his approach, hastily gathered 
an equal Dumber, and marched out to l»:i r his progress. 

The two hostile bands met upon the old Peguot hunting- 
iinl. and halting in sight of each other, with a level 
plain between them, the two rival chieftains advanced t" the 
front and held ■ parley. 

Tin- wildest romance of tho old wilderness warfare prc- 
- in. mora striking scene that this meeting nf Cncas 
ami Miantonomo. Qncas proposed that they, the two chief- 
tains, should there am! thru decide t lie contest 1 > v single 
comlmi. ami that the people of the one vanquished should 
become the subjects of the victorious sachem. To this 
proposal of Qncas, Miantonomo made haughty answer: 

M ■■ - - have come to fight, and they shall light." 

receiving this defiant answer, Qncas fell prostrate 

■i the ground. It was the signal for his men to rush 

over bis body upon the Narragansetls. The Mohicans 

w.r.- victorious. Miantonomo was overtaken in the flight. 

and made a prisoner by Qncas, Haughty and defiant still, 

he would a-k no quarter; but Qncas for the time being 

1 his life, and delivered bim to the English, at Ilart- 

ford, for safe-keeping. 

The i ' Miantonomo was brought by Uncas before 

the commissioners of the Qnited Colonies, and they ordered he should Buffer death, and thai Qncas Bhould bi his 
execution, r. He was taken to the field of the fight, and. 
in the presence of two Englishmen, a warrior of Qncas sunk 
a hatchet into his I, rain. The spot where he is said to have 
fallen, in the town of Norwich, Conn., is marked by a 
block of granite, simply inscribed with his name, Mian- 
tonomo. Tims died the second prominent Indian con- 
• the whites, — the prototype, after Sas sa eus, 
the 1 " ' Philip and Pontiac, of Tccumsch, Black 

Hawk, and I I 

• ut which the English took in thi> quarrel between 

i M -till rankling in the minds of the 

tettt, doubtless led to their union with the P 

'.v thirty ; r, in Philip's war. The 

kill- I blood, while a 

prisoner-of-war, was without doubl justifiable in the minds 

of ' for 

had his lil ired the dreadful scenes of Philip's war 

won' . fori' they 

while t! to withstand thi 

' the In- 
dian has ' 

V»llrj ,,i " \. ]'.. 


The Schaghticoke Indians were fugitives from New Eng- 
land, who Bed from the avenging whites at the close of 
King Philip's war. in the year 1 < "• T ♦ * . 


The powerful tribe of the Wampanoags, or Po-ha-no- 
fce/», dwelt at the bead of Narragansett Bay and along its 
rn shore, and consequently were the near neighbors of 
the Pilgrim Fathers of Plymouth. Mas-sa-soit, the chief 
sachem of the Pokanokefs, was always the warm friend and 
Ifasl allj of the English. Massasoit had two sons, 
who were the hereditary heirs of his sachemship, named 
lYain sui-ta and Met-a-CO-met. Early in the summer of 
1660, Massasoil died at an advanced age and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Wamsutta. In the month of June. 1660, 
Wamsutta visited the General Court at Plymouth, and 
among other requests was desirous of an English name. 
It was easy for the court to grant this last request, and so 
they "ordered that for the future he should be called by 
the name of Alr.ran<l<r Piikmmkft." Desiring the same 
in behalf of his brother, the court at the same time or- 
dered that Metacomet should from thenceforth be called 

Bui the reign of Alexander over the Pokanokets was 
short. It was reported at Plymouth in the summer of 1662 
that lie was plotting with the X'lrnnjinisclis, and a message 
was sent to him to come to town and explain bis conduct. 
Failing to come, an armed party was sent for him. He 
made satisfactory explanations and set out on his return. 
At the end of two or three days he changed bis mind and 
turned back towards Boston, lie reached Major Winslow's 
house at Marshfield, and there was taken sick of a fever. 
II, was carefully taken home by water, soon died there, 
and his brother Philip became chief sachem of the Poka- 

In the spring of 1675, King Philip's war broke out, 
and for two summers devastated New England. It was a 
war of extermination between the white and red races, and 
for a time the issues seemed doubtful. In the winter of 
1676 76, King Philip, with some of his followers, as has 
been stated in a preceding chapter, came over to the valley 
of the Hudson, and dwelt for some months at or near the 
moutb of the Hoosac. In February he returned to the 
valley of the Connecticut, or rather was driven there by 
the Mohawks, and mustered his elans in " Squak-heag." 

now North field, for the final struggle. 

\- is Well known, the Indians, at the close of Philip's 

war. in It'iT'i. wen mostlj driven from New England. Tn 

the autumn Of 1676 some of the scattered tribes united in 
an emigration to the valley of the Hudson, and settled, 
with the consent of the Voliawks, al the mouth of the 
II in Rensselaei County, and became known to the 

English as the Schagh-ti-coke Indians. These Indians 
dwelt peaceably in the fertile valley of tie Hoosac until 
about the \'ir 1764. They were fugitives from the 
Nan Wampanoags, Pacomptucks, Nbnotucks, 

ami other Eastern tribes. 

About tie- _\.ar 1764 the Schaghticoke* left their adopted 



home mi the Hudson, nt the mouth of the Hoosao, and 
joined a band of their old neighbors of the Connecticut 
Valley, the Wo ro noaks, who had settled, at the end of 
Philip's war, at Missisquoi Bay, :ii tbe lower end of Lake 
Champlain, near tbe Vermont and Canada line, under the 
leadership of the famous chief Gray-Lock. 

An account of the departure of the Schaghficolces Prom 
the Hoosao Valley is given by John Fitch, as follows: 

"About the year 1753-54, and about (he time of the 
commencement of active hostilities in the French-and- 
[ndian war, the Schaghticohes had a pow-wow so pro- 
traeled and singular as to attract the notice and excite the 

wonder of their white neighbors. During four consecutive 
days they engaged in songs, dances, shouts, and other 
ceremonies; and on the morning of the fifth day most 
of their huts were found tenantless. A man residing on 

the outskirts of the settlement had heard the footsteps of 
one Indian after another as they were running past his 
eahin. singly and at the top of their speed, the whole night 
through. Thus the entire tribe, which was now quite 
formidable and of much influence, without the knowledge 
nf the whites, left their homes." * 


The Indians of the valley of the Hudson built their forts 
on high bluffs, near springs of water, aud usually on or not 
far from the bank of some river. The forts were circular 
in form, inclosing about one acre of ground, and constructed 
of palisades set close together in the ground, and some 
twelve or fifteen feet in height. Within they built rows 
of wigwams along both sides of well-defined streets. 


The Indians of the Algonquin family of nations built 
their wigwams small and circular, and for one or two fami- 
lies only, unlike the Iroquois nations, who built theirs long 
and narrow, each for the use of many families. The Al- 
^onjuin-shaped wigwam of the valley tribes was made of poles 
set up around a circle, from ten to twelve feet across. The 
poles met together at the top, thus forming a conical frame- 
work, which was covered with bark mats or skins; in the 
centre was their fireplace, the smoke escaping through a 
hole in the top. In these wigwams men, women, children, 
and dogs crowded promiscuously together in distressing 
violation of all our rules of modern housekeeping. 


The low meadows of the streams in aud around Rens- 
selaer County were famous in Indian annals for their corn- 
fields. Every autumn, after the fall of the leaf, came the 
Indian summer, in which they set fire to the woods and 
fields, and thus burned over the whole country, both up- 
land and meadow, once a year. This burning destroyed all 
the underbrush and mostly all the timber on the uplands, 
save that growing in swales and on wet lands. Their corn- 
fields on the meadows usually contained from fifteen to 

See the Historical Magazine, June, 1870, p. 388, article by John 
r itch. 

twenty acres of ground. One tool for planting was all they 

had. This was a hoe, made of the shoulder blade of a deer 
or moose, or a (lam shell fastened into a wooden handle. 

For manure tie \ covered "Ver a fish in each hill of Com at 

planting time. Their planting-time was about the I Oth of 
May, or as soon as the butternut leaves were as largi as 
squirrels' ears. Some idea may he formed nf the large ex- 
tent of their planting-fields when it 18 Stated that tie- Pa- 
camp-tucks alone planted, iii tin- valley of tie- Deerfield 
River, in the spring of ItiTii, the second year of 1'hilip's 
war. aboul three hundred acres. Perhaps this was an ex- 
aggerated story, and thai hundred acres would have 

been nearer the truth. lint. Philip was killed in the Bum- 
mer following, and the Pa-comp-tucks abandoned their un- 
harvested corn-fields for the new home on the east bank of 
the Hudson, at the mouth of the lloosae, as above related. 
They took what is now the " Tunnel Route" for the West. 
The women did all the corn-planting and raising, but the 
men alone planted and took care of the tobacco. It Was 
too sacred a plant for women to handle or smoke, aud no 
young brave was allowed to use it until he had made him- 
self a name in the chase or on tbe war-path. 


The Indians had fish and game, nuts, roots, berries, 
acorns, corn, squashes, a kind of bean now called seiva- 
bean, and a species of sun-flower (whose tuberous root was 
like the artichoke). Fish were taken with lines or nets 
made of the sinews of the deer or of the fibres of the dog- 
bane. Their fish-hooks were made of the bones of fishes 
and birds. 

They caught the moose, the deer, and the bear in the 
winter season by shooting with bows and arrows, by snar- 
ing, or in pitfalls. In the summer they took a variety of 

They cooked their fish by roasting before tbe fire on the 
point of a long stick, or by boiling in stone or wooden ves- 
sels. They made water boil, not by hanging over the fire, 
but by the immersion in it of heated stones. Their corn 
boiled alone they called hominy ; when mixed with beans. 
it was succotash. They made a cake of meal, pounded fine 
by a stone pestle in a wooden mortar, which they called 
rookhik, corrupted by the English into " no cake." 


Their government was entirely patriarchal. Each Indian 
was in his solitary cabin the head of his family. His wife 
was treated as a slave, and did all the drudgery. The only 
law that bound the Indian was the custom of bis tribe. 
Subject to that only, he was as free as the air he breathed, 
following the bent of his own wild will. Over tribes were 
principal chiefs called sucln rns, and inferior ones called 
sagamores. The succession was always in the female line. 
Their war-chiefs were not necessarily sachems in time of 
peace. They won their distinction only by prowess on the 

The language of the Indian, in the terms of modern 
comparative philology, was neither monosyllabic like tbe 
Chinese, nor inflecting like that of the civilized Caucasian 
stock, but was agglutinating like that of the northwestern 



\- itio tribes, and those ••: rn Europe The; 

li i- by stringing words together in one compound 
ible. The i •' languages were not euphonious 

like the Iroqnoit dialects, bul were harsh and lull of 

trasl di'' /■■■■/ '• names, Tnwa-sen-ta, Hi-a- 
ba, or O-no-a-la-go-na, with the Algonquin nam - 
Squak-hoafj », or Wain pan 


The Indian had bul the crudest possible ideas, it any at 

nil, of an abstract religion. He had no priests, no altars, 

II - medicine-men were hut.' conjurers, yet 

he was superstitious to the last degree, and spiritualised 

rything in nature. In a word, he heard "tery ton 

on sands and shores and desert wildernesses," he saw 

ing shapes and beckoning shadows dire" on every 

band. The mysterious realm about him he <• 1 1 • 1 not attempt 

inravel, bul bowed submissively before it with what 

crude ideas he had of religi ind worship. The flight or 

<-rv nf a bird, the humming of a bee, the crawling of an in- 
the turning of a leaf, the whisper of a breeze, were to 
liim mystic signals of good or evil import, by which he was 
guided in the most importaut relations of life. 

In 'Ir.-.mi- the Indian placed the most implicit confidence. 
They seemed to him t.> bo revelations from the spirit-world, 
guiding him to the places where his game lurked and to the 
haunts of his enemies Hi invoked their aid on all occa- 
sions. They taught him how to cure the sick, and revealed 
to lit in bis guardian spirit, as well .-is all the secrets of his 
Although the Indian has been for three centuries in more 
or less contact with the civilized life of the white man. 
he is still the untamed child of nature. ■ II will not," 
Parkman, •• ham the arts of civilization, and he and 
her. Tie- stern, unchanging 
!' bis mind excite our admiration from their ini- 
mul ibilit) . and we look with deep interest on the fate of 
this irreclaimable son of the wilderness, the child who will 
not be weaned from tbe breast of hi- rugged mother." 

ill \ PTEB V I. 


iiv Dutch ' the valley of the Hudson 

and ! I re thetnaolves among the cotn- 

para- ■ w World, and in coming 

bnr nf the deep incident to oarbj explora- 

tion in order properly to ui 

their history and the boldness of tleir adventure, briefly to 

a,, as well as their 


There imonnting aim 

•hiii that the continent of North Am 

i by the I 1 tury. 

historical i ruing of the Danes to 

America as early as the tenth century consists principally 
in extracts from the compositions of some eighteen writers, 
chiefly Icelandic, which have been published by the Royal 
Societj of Northern Antiquaries, at Copenhagen. 

If the accounts of these writers arc not romance, but are 
veritable history, then about the year 986 one Biorne sailed 
from Iceland for Greenland in search of bis father, who 
had preceded him thither. He was overtaken by fogs, and 
lost his way. When the weather cleared, and he recovered 
his lost reckoning, to his surprise he discovered that, while 
lie was sailing in the wrong direction, on his larboard side 
lay a low woodland shore. Continuing the same course for 
nine days, he reached Greenland in a direction directly op- 
posite to that with which the voyage had been begun. 

It is evident, from the direction Biorne was sailing after 
bavin,' recovered his reckoning, that he saw on his lar- 
board side the " low and wooded land" of the eastern shore 
of North America. If the account of this voyage is trust- 
worthy, Biorne was the discoverer of the New World. 

For fourteen years the discovery of Biorne was talked 
about by tbe Bani.-h navigators, when, in the year 1000, 
Lief Ericson, with a single ship and a crew of thirty men, 
went in -.arch of tbe newly-found land. Lief found it, 
and, landing, gave it the name of Helluland, signifying in 
Icelandic the land of slate. Re-embarking, and sailing 
3i utherly along the coast, he came to a country " well 
ded and level," which be called Markland, in allusion 
to its wood. Sailing in a southwesterly direction out of 
sight of land for two days more, he came to an island, along 
whose northerly shore he passed westwardly and reached 
the mainland, went on shore, and built huts, in which he 
passed the winter. One of his men. a German, while 
wandering in the woods, found an abundance of wild grapes, 

such as wine was made of in bis own country, and from this 

circumstance Lief called the country Vinland. 

Ii is supposed that the name Eklluland was applied by 

Lief to the rocky shore of Labrador, long since famous for 
its beds of dark Laureniian rock, mistaken by him for 
slate. Markland may have been Nova Scotia; and it i> 
highly probable that Vinland was the southern shore of 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. In the year 100.'!. Thor- 

wald. and in the year 1005, Thorlinii. are said to have 

visited Vinland, and such visits are said to have been con- 
tinued until the middle of the fourteenth century. 


Bui whether the Northmen Wi-re or were not the first 

European explorers of the New World, it l> certain that in 

the yi ar 1 1:17. but five years after t lolumbus made his tir-t 
voyage, the Cabot — father and sons — discovered and ex- 
plored the coast "f N'orih America in the region of New 
England, thus laying the foundation of the British claim 
\ merican possi -• 
The Cabots, bj their letters-patent, were to occupy, sub- 
due, nil regions as they might discover 
for their own behoof, but in the name of England, the king 

to have one fifth part of the profits of tin- enterprise. This 

was the tir-t patent for discovery issued by the British 

In May. 1 197, Cabot, with his son Sebastian, set out on 



his voyage. 1 1 is fleet consisted of two, oi perhaps five ships, 
with three hundred men on board. The expedition touched 
at [celand, and from thence sailed boldly into the unknown 
mysterious west in search of gold and empire. The) were 
t lie firs! in the search for the still undiscovered northwi -i 
passage to the " harbor of Cathay," on the eastern shore of 
Asia, all unconscious of the mighty continent which lay 
between them and the object of their desire. The ('abuts 
probably saw nothing but the bays and headlands along the 
shores, but upon their discovery rests England's claim to 
her Ninth American possessions. 

In the year 15tl(t the Portuguese admiral, Jasper Corte- 
real, made a voyage to America, sailed along the coast some 
si\ or seven hundred miles, and returned with a number of 
Indian captives, giving glowing accounts of the country. 


John Verrazzano, a Florentine, sailing in the service of 
France, in the year 1524 made a voyage to America, which 
was followed by results as important to France as Cabot's 
voyage was to England. Verrazzano, during this voyage, 
lay at anchor for fifteen days in what is now the harbor of 
Newport, and entered the Hudson River more than eighty 
years before the visit of the explorer whose name it bears. 
About the same time, in the year 1524 or 1525, Stephen 
Gomez was fitted out at the joint expense of the emperor 
Charles V. and some merchants of Coruna, and sent on 
a voyage in quest of the northwest passage. He first 
touched at Newfoundland, and then passing Cape Cod, 
sailed through Long Island Sound, and also entered the 
Hudson, which he named the Rio de Son Antonio. In 
the year 1535, Jacques Cartier, the eminent mariner of St. 
Malo, in Brittany, on the 10th of August of that year, it 
being the festival of St. Lawrence, discovered the bay and 
river of that name, and laid the foundation of the French 
claim to Canada. 

These discoveries opened a large field for industry and 
tempting sources of profit to European adventurers. As 
early as 1503, only three years behind Cortereal, fishing- 
vessels began to arrive at Newfoundland and along the coast 
from Brittany and Normandy, and by the year 1517, otdy 
twenty years after the voyage of the Cabots, no less than 
fifty ships— French, Spanish, and Portuguese — were engaged 
in these fisheries. 

Henry VIII. paid little attention to American discovery. 
It was not until the year 1548, during the reign of Edward 
VI., that Parliament took the matter in hand, and passed 
laws protecting English fishermen on the American coast. 

But it was not until during the last half of the reign of 
Elizabeth that a permanent settlement of the American 
continent was undertaken by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, an 

But this attempt of Sir Humphrey Gilbert at settlement, 
the first made by Englishmen on American soil, heads also 
the long list of frustrated settlements whose sad details are 
more interesting to the historian than those of many a suc- 
cessful one. His search for gold was unavailing. His 
company was unused to hardships, and many sickened and 
died. One disaster followed another, and, utterly discour- 
aged, Gilbert sailed for England on his last fatal voyage. 

U'tri Gilbert's death his patent was renewed I 
Walter Raleigh, who, in I5S| ami the following year, made 
bis attempt to colonize Virginia, so named in honor of 
England's virgin queen. 

In the year Hiii2, Bartholomew Gosnold, a mariner of 
the west of England, set sail for America, with the riew of 
planting a colony. His enterprise re ulted in a present 
failure, but was fruitful in consequences, for out ol 
the permanent settlement of New England. 

In the year 1603, Richard Bakluyt, the learned cosmog- 
rapher. took an active interest iii American colonization, 
and in the mean time, between the years 1603 and 1606, 
the French, through the Sieur de Moots, came near taking 
possession of New Englaud. These voyagers were followed 
in 10'Ul by Sir Fernando Gorges, and led to the establish 
ment of the London and Plymouth companies, by the 
British crown, for the settlement of America. 

The first, or London Company, had assigned to it South 
Virginia, being the territory extending between the thirty- 
fourth to the forty-second degrees north latitude. The 
second, or Plymouth Company, was authorized to plant in 
North Virginia, between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth 
degrees north latitude. 

We now come to two important events connected with 
the great northern valley in which Rensselaer County is 
situate, both of which occurred in the year 1609. 

The one was the discovery and exploration of Lake 
Champlain by Samuel de Champlain, governor-general of 
New France, in the early summer; and the other was the 
discovery and exploration of the Hudson River by Henry 
Hudson, an English mariner, sailing in the employ of the 
Dutch East India Company, early in the autumn. 


Champlain had founded his infant colony of Quebec 
only the year before.* 

During his hunting excursions with the Indians, while 
sitting around their wild camp-fires, they had told him 
marvelous stories of a great inland sea filled with wonderful 
islands lying far to the southward of the St. Lawrence, in 
the land of the terrible Iroquois. His curiosity was excited. 
and as soon as the melting snows of the next spring would 
permit, he set out upon a voyage for its discovery. After 
a toilsome passage up the rapids of the Richelieu, Cham- 
plain entered the lake, — the far-famed " wilderness-sea of 
the Iroquois." It was studded with islands that were 
clothed in the rich verdure of the early summer, its tran- 
quil waters spreading southward beyond the horizon. From 
the thickly-wooded shores on either side rose ranges of 
mountains, the highest peaks still white with patches of 
snow. Over all was flung the soft blue haze, sometimes 
called mountain smoke, which seemed to temper the sun- 
light, and shade off the landscape into spectral-like forms 
of shadowy beauty. Who does not envy the stern old 
forest-ranger his first view of the lake that was destined to 
bear his name to the latest posterity ? 

Champlain and his allies proceeded cautiously up the 
lake, traveling only by night, and resting on the shore by 

Vidi History of Lake Champlain, by Palmer, p. 20: Parkman's 
Pioneers of France : Champlain's Voyages de In Nouv. France. 



.1 iv. r.r they were in the land <>f the much-dreaded Iraq 
the hereditary enemies of the Algonquin nations. 

On the evening of the 29tb of July they met, near 
what i- now called Crown Point, :i band of Iroqnou in their 

ca a paddling down the lake. On the morrow a battle 

«..- fought upon the territory of Northern New Fork, that 

•.-.I in ;i victory for Cli.uiipl.iiii and bia Indian allies. 
The bold Iroquois, panic-atricken al the strange apparition 
of :i white man clad in glittering armor, and Bending li>rth 
from his weapons fire, -m.'k". thunderings, and leaden hail, 

Bed in uncontrollable terror towards tlicir li es on the 

Mohawk, leaving everything behind them. 

On the 12th of September, in the same year, Eenry 
Hi Ison, in 1 * t — staunch little ship, the " Half-Moon," sailed 
into the mouth •<( (lie river thai bears hi- nam.', which In 1 

1 ili.' River of the Mountains, and, it i- believed, ex- 
plore . is far up a- Nacli-te-nak, the Indian 
name fir the country lying around the "sprouts,"* or 
mouths, of id.' Mohawk. 

rithstanding s.i many failures, a shorter passage t" 
China and "far Cathay" by way of the northern ocean 
contiuued to 1..- a Favorite theory with tin- navigators ami 
explorers of England, II. .Man. 1. and Denmark, ami attempts 
t.i find it continued to In- made. 

In tli.' year 1 < » i » T the London Company made a final 

■ ..ii it.- part to mil..' such discovery. The company 

intrusted the command of its expedition t" Henry Hudson, 

win. «.i- a native of England, ami a friend of John Smith. 

under of Virginia. 

i II Henry Hudson little is known, except that he in his 

: a thorough maritime education, and in later 

years beca a distinguished seaman. 

l»urin_' ih" years 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two 

idon Company in search of the " North- 

I that company discontinuing further 

. lhal direction, Hudson turned hi- attention to- 

• 1 1 land. 

Th" . truce between the Dutch ami Spaniards 

had a's .ut this time I u completed, ami th.' Dutch, 

a ri-iiiL' maritime | une ambitious ..I' conquest in 

Hudson applied to th.- Dutch Easl India Com- 

Ti i n tors ..I' the Zealand department opposed 

Englishman's i but ill" Amsterdam Chamber 

I furnished for this important 

it ..r " VI died " ./-' // I 1/ 

the tin '/ l Half-Mi on" belonged t.. the i • 

eighty tons' burden, and was equipped 
* of twenty sailors, partly Dutch 
ami I I 

I II udson, and a Dutch 

imand. In- 
iplore a i 

tea into 


' bany. toI. I 


Tl Half-Moon" left Amsterdam on the 4th day of 

April. 1609, ami on the sixth left t J i . - Texel. Hudson 
doubled th" Cape of Norway mi the 5th of May. hut found 

tin- sea s.i full of iee that he was obliged to change his eniirse. 
Early in .Inly, after cruising around farther north. Hudson 
arrived tin the hanks of Newfoundland, where he was be- 
ealnnil long enough to eateh mure Cod than his " small 

,-t. .re ..I' -alt could i-nre." 1 1.- next went west into the Penob- 
scot, where he remained a week cutting timber for a new fore- 
mast, lie next shaped his emirse to the southward and en- 
teivil the Chesapeake Bay. He next anchored in Delaware 
Bay. 11" soon left the Delaware, and proceeded along the 
coast to the northward, and on the evening of the 2d day of 
September arrived in sight of the "high hills" of Navesink. 
On the evening of the 3d of September, Hudson arrived in 
the lower bay. where he cast anchor and lingered for a week. 
At length, after being visited by numerous Indian bands in 
their canoes, and burying one of his companions, John 
Coleman, who was killed by an arrow-shot, Hudson, on 
the 12tb of September, entered the mouth of the beautiful 
Stream that was destined to bear his name through all com- 
ing time. 

So interesting was Hudson's voyage up the river, that 
we copy his journal entire. 

" The thirteenth, faire weather, the wind northerly. At Bcucn of 
tlie clocke in tlie morning, a- the floud came, we weighed, and turned 
t-.nre miles int" the riuer. Tin- tide being done wee anchored. Then 

there came fnure canoes aboard : but we suffered none -.1' them t me 

int.. our .-hip. They brought great store of very good oysti 

which «.-e boaght tor trifles. In tlie night I set the variation of the 

ipasso, and fount it t>» be thirteen degrees. In the aftcrnoone, we 

u. ighc 1 an I t ii r 1 iii with lie- il I tw.. leagues and a half.' fun her. 

me I anohore all nighl and had line fathoms of -oft ozio ground, and 
had a high point of lai..l, wbioh Bhowcd out to us bearing north by 
cast tine leagues of ns. 

" The fovrtcenth, in the morning being very fair.- weather the win. I 
Boutheast, wc saylod up the riuer twelue leagues and bad flue fathoms 
and tine fathoms and a quartor lossc, an I came t" a strcighl between 
two point-, an I ha I right, nine and ten fathoms: and it trended 
northoasl by north one le iguc, an 1 we had twelue, thirtt one, an. I four- 
teene fathom-. The riuer i- a mile broad; there is vory high land 
on both Bides. Then wee went vp northwest a league and a halfc 
dcope water; then northeast by north Que miles, then northwest by 
north two leagUGB, and anchored. The land grew very high an. I 

mOUDtail S. The riuer is lull of fish. 

"'flo' fifteenth, in the morning, was misty until the sum i u 
tl,. n it olcorcd. S" we woighed with the win I at South, and ran up 
the riuor twcntlo Ii Ing by high mountains. Woohada 

g 1 depth, a- six, -> n< n. eight, nine, twelue, and thirteen fathom-. 

and great .-tore of salmons in the riuer. This morning our two - hi 
got out of a port and swam away. After we were under 

ie. At !n_'lit ». ■ ..line to other mountainl 

i ti ' from the rile pcop'flj 

an.] wry ..hi men ; where wc were well vscd. <'ur boat wont to fish, 

' iri' "f very good tl s 11 . 

"The *i \lr-r in ■ .tv lea weather. In tlio morning ox r 

to fishing, hut eoiil.l catch l.ut few by reason their 

ere all night. This morning the people eamo 

1 brought X? ear i . come and pompions and 

Ughl tor trille-. Wee rode still all .lay ami 

filled fresh ighted and wcnl two league: higher 

nn'l ha . ' .-.I till day. 

bioing weather and very hot. In the 

the sun was vp wc set -axle and run vp six 

[her, nn-l found shoales in the mi. I. lie of tie- channel anil 

small Hand a»r on both shies. Toward night 

■ ie shoarc thai wee groundi I. so wee layc 1 out 


pur small anchor and beaued off againe. Then wo borrowed on the 
banko in the ohannel and ami n jroun I o d i di M bill Lho floud 
ran wc houe l "it againe and anchored all night. 

*■ The eighteenthod, in the morning was faire weather, and we ro le 

■till. In the afternoon e our ma I ir'e ma c went on land with i Id 

lauage, o gouernoer of the countrey, who carried bim to his bouse 
and made bim g le oheere. 

"The nineteenth was faire and hot weather, Ai the floodo, being 

.. ii i'ii mi theclocke, wee weighed and ran highor vp two leagues 

above the shoals and bad no lease water than Sue. UY anchored 

and rode in eight fathoms. The people of the countrie came Booking 

ai I :ui 1 brought vs grapes nnd pompione which wee bought for 

trifles. And many brought vs bovers' skinnes and otters' Bkiunes, 
which wee bought for beades, kniues, and hatchets. So we rode there 
all nigbl 

"The twentieth in the morning was faire weather. Our master's 
mate with four men more went vp with our boat to Bound the riuer, 
and found two Leagues aboue vs but two fathoms water and the channel! 
very narrow, and aboue that place between seuen or eight fathoms. 
toward night they returned and we rude still all night. 

•• The ono-and twentieth was faire weather, and the wind all a >uth- 
urly. We determine I yet once more to goe farther vp into the riuer, 
to trie what depth and breadth it did bearej but much people resorted 

oj il. so we went not this day. Our oarpenter went on land and 

made a foreyard, and our master and his mate determined to trie 
some of the ohiefo men of the countrie whether tin \ ba I any t reach - 
erie in them. So they took them down i nt ii the cabin and gave them 
as much wine and aqua-vitae that they were all merrie; an! one of 
them bad his wife with him, who sat as modestly as any of our 
oountrie-women woulil do in a strange place. In the end one of 
them was drunke which had been aboord of our ship all the time 
we had been there; and that was strange to them, for they could 
not tell how to take it. The canoes and folke went all on shore, but 
some of them caime again and brought p. tropes of heades — some* 
had -i\, seven, eight, nine, ten — and gaue him. So he slept all night 

"The two-and twentieth was faire weather. In the morning our 
mast) r*s mate ami foure more of the companie went vp with our boat 
(■I -mind the riuer higher vp. The people of the country came not 
aboord till noone; but. when they came and saw the sauages well, 
tin v were glad. So, at three of the cloeke in the afternoone, they 
came aboord and brought tobacco and more be. ides, ami gaue them to 
our master, and an oration, and showed him the countrey all around 
about. Then they sent one of their companie on land, who presently 
returned and brought a great plat hi full of venison, dressed by them- 
selves, and they caused him to eat with them. Then they made him 
reverence and departed, — all saue the old man that lay aboord. This 
night, at ten of the clockc, our boat returned in a shower of raine 
from Bounding of the riuer, and found it to be at an end for shipping 
to goe in. For they had been vp eight or nine leagues, aud fouud 
but seueu-fuot water and unconsant soundings. 

"The three-and- twentieth, faire weather, at twelue of the cloeke, 
tree weighed and went downe two leagues, to a shoal d that had two 
cannells, one on one side and another on the other, and had little 
wind, whereby the tide layed vs upon it. So there wee sate on the 
ground the space of an houre, till (he (loud came. Then we had a 
'in!, gale of wind at the west. So wee got our ship into deepe water, 
and rode all uight very well. 

"The four-and- twentieth was faire weather, and the win le at the 

northwest, wee weighed and went downe the Riuer seuen or eight 

, aud at halfti ebbc wee came on ground on a bank of oze in 

the middle of the Riur, and sate there till the tloud. Then wee went 

on land, and gathered g 1 ^tore of chestnuts. At ten of the clockc 

wee came off into deepe water and anchored. 

"The five-and- twentieth was faire weather, and the wind at south 
a stifle gale. We rode still, and went on land to walke of the w< -t 
side of the Riuer, and found goud ground for to me, and other garden 
herbs, with great store of goodly ookes, and walnut-trees, and chest- 

nui her-, ewe-trees, and tree.- of sweet w I in great abundance, and 

great store of slate for houses, and other good stones. 

" The six e-and- twentieth was faire weather, and the wind at south 
a stifle gale, we rode still. In the morning our carpenter went on 
land with our Master's .Male, an 1 foure more of our companie. to cut 

wood. Th 

is morning two canoes came vp the Riuer from Hie place 
wo first found louing people, and in one of them was the old man 

Mini bod i'<" nb I it the otbor place. He brought another 

Old man wil h him, n bioh ' ght 

them to our Master, and hewed him all the counti 

though it wore at his command 5o h< madi thi two old men dine 

with him, an i the old man 1 wifi foi I b< . ! ! ■ >men 

and t \\o young maiden of the 

with them, who !'■ baved them elves verj modestly. Our U 

one of the old men a K in le, nnd tie i a and •- • Tobacco. And 

at one nt' the clockc they departed down the Riuer, making Big 

that mi bould come down to them ; fore wee were wit bin two lea 

ol I be place w here i bej dwelt, 

" At -'-iieu and twentieth, in the morning, W3 

I di wind a I the north J we weighed and set our fori P, and 

our ship would not. Hut, but ran on the OZie bank at Qfl IVce 

layed out an l i", to heave her off, hut could not. So we sate from 

halfe ebbc to iiall'e time! : then we Bel our fore BOylC and mayiH 
Bay 1 6, and g-t don io i . leagU The old man came aboord, and 

would has e had v.- anchor, and goe on laud to eate with him : but the 
wind being faire, wee would not yeeld to hi- request. So bee h fl 
being very sorrowful for our departure. At five of the clockc in the 
afternoon the wind came to the south south-west. S.. wee made a 
board or two, and anchored in fourtcene fathoms water. Then our 
Boat went on shoare to fish rigid against the ship. Our Ma 
male and boat -name, and three more of the eompunie went on land 
to fish, but could not find a good place. They took foure- or five and- 
twenty -Mullets, Breames, liases, and BarbHs; and returned in an 
houre. Wee rode still all right. 

*• The eight and twentieth, — being faire weather, a- soon as the day 
was light, — we weighed at halfe ebbc, and turned don in two leagues 
belowe water: for the streamc doth runnc the last (nut I ebbe. Then 
wc anchored till high water. At three of the elock in the afternoon 
wee weighed, and tinned downe three leagues, vntil it was da 
then wee anchored, 

" The nine-and twentieth was drie, close weather; the wind at south, 
and south by west ; wee weighed early in the morning, and tinned 
downe three leagues by a lowe water, and anchored at the lower end 
of the loug reach, for it is six leagues long. Then there came certain 
Indians in a canoe to vs, but would not come aboord. After dinner 
there came the canoe with other men, whereof three came aboord us. 
They brought Indian wheat, which we bought for trifles. At three of 
the cloeke iu the afternoon we weighed, as BOOB as the ebbc came, 
and turned dowue to the edge of the mountain es, or the northernmost 
of the Mountaines, and anchored, because the high land hath many 
points, and a narrow channel!, and hath many eddie winds. So wee 
rode quietly all night in seuen fathom- water. 

The thirtieth was faire weather, and the wind at south-east a 
gale between the Mountaynes. We rode still the afternoone. The 
people of the countrey came aboord vs, and brought some .-mall -kinm-s 
with I hem, which wc bought for kniues and trifles. This a very pleas- 
ant place to build a tow ne on. The road is every neere, and very _ 
for all winds, saue on east-north-east wind. The Mountaynes look as 
if some metal or mineral were in them. For the trees that grew on 
them were all blasted, and some of them barren, with few or no trees 
on them. The people brought a stone aboord like to emery i a stone 
used by glasiers to cut glasse) ; it would cut Iron or Steele. Yet being 
bruised small, and water put to it, it made a colour like blacke lead 
glistening; it is also good for painters' colours. At three of the cloeke 
they departed, and we rode still all night. 

"The of October faire weather, the winde variable betweene the 
west and north. In the morning we weighed at seuen of the i 
with the ebbe, aud got downe below the Mountaynes, which was seuen 
leagues. Theu it fell ealme, and the flood was come, and wee anchored 
at twelve id' the cloeke. The people of the Mountaynes came aboord 
vs, wondering at our ship and weapons. We bought some small 
skinnes of them fur trifles. This afternoone on.- canoe kept hanging 
under our Sterne with one man in it, which we could not keepe from 
thence, who gut vp by our rudder to the cabin window, and Stole Out 
my pillow and two shirts and two bandeleeres. Our .Master's Mate 
shot at him, and strooke him on the brest, and killed him. Where- 
upon all the rest fled away, sunie in their canoes and some leapt 
of them into the water. 

" Wc manned uur b iat and got our tiling- againe. Then one of them 
that swam me got hold of our boat, thinking to overthrow it. But our 
cooke took a -word and cut one of bis hands, an I he was drow 
By this tiuu' tin- ebbe was come, an I we weigh" towne two 



il'nt Umc it I in tbure fathot 

• ■•II. 
•■ I \ t l-r. .ik of «Liv ire weighed, the 

win l u ing .ii not - then the Ooud 

ri' eomo strong, •■■ we uieh the tauagi - thai 

snnmine no ag vp the rimr with many other, 

thint red tholr intent, and svfforcd 

of thai inrship. When rull of men, with 

thoSr howi in n compenco 

wool I iixo mnakota, and killed two or thrco ofthoro; 

lb* ii about rkii li me t>- a point of Innd I" Rbool at \ -. 

There I shot a fal. .in a! tin in. and killed tWO "1" thiol : « hot ' iij".ii tlir 

. •. ^ . t tli* jv manned "IT anothor eanoo with 

•r t. ii ln< I.. I hoi at it Also a Til' 

i..-t it through nnil killed oni of them. 'I'll or men with 

their mukrU killed threo 01 four more of thorn. So they went their 
w i\ ; within n while ;it - downe two leagues boyond thai 

ptaec, oloere from all danger of them, on tho 

• :' tin- ri hit. where wo saw a very good picco of ground; 
ami liar. I by it ti> ked of tin' colour uf a white 

i |» r or silvor mayno; and 1 think 
it t-. bo ..[ ih, in by tho trees Ihnt '_t<,\\ upon it. For they In- all 

burnrd. and ill" it i- mi that -ide 

nt the riutr that rhcre wo saw no people to 

,'1 night; hut hail much wind ami mine. 

'• Thr third a - tin- wind at cost-north-east. In 

: wind a ii-l mine, our anchor camo home, and 

we di ind, bul it was otic. Then as we win. about to haiic 

out nn anchor, the wind camo t " tho north-north west, and drove t - 

off againc. Then we shot an anchor, and lei it fall in fburc rathomo 

water, n I tl ther. Wee hail much wind ami mine, with 

I., -till all night. 

"Tbo fourth ws ther, and tho wind at north-nortb-west, 

• ■lit of the Kin,-!-, into wbicb we had mono so 

farm. Within awhile after, woo camo oul also ol woiitn 

uf ti.- that runnt th up t', tin- north-west, borrowing vpon 

, thinking to baoo decpo water; for woe 

,v w itb our boat at our lir.-t going in. ami found 

r that way hut wo were 

* and an hall'e water : and so to 

tbomes mid an halfe. And then three, 

ui-l ten fathomos. And by twolue 

clcere of all the inlet. Then we t,„,k in our 

irit snyle, and our top-saylcs, 

nnd * .' i. coal bj east, off into the 

t the bay it inlet did 

bear, inth four,- leagues from vs. 

uid the wind variable bctwocn the 

ai*h eai t by east. At 

1 and found oar height to I . ml, -. 

viol, without BOOil 

ibor. And on tho 

Hudson named tho stream the " River ■•( the Mountains." 
\i -?■ ■ t viii" ii, who wrested the prov- 

from the Dutch, and i In 
i rk. in 1664, i" firel call this Blrcam in 
Inn. mmortal 'it 

llu i r nr twn afterward, 'ii vered do 

which was also named in his honor, and 
callr-l Hit ti Hi;, lit- ship's crew then mutinied 

■ adrift with eight men in a small boat upon the 
wild Northern ocean, and never 1 

IV. Till DIS( OVKB1 "I I \ki G 
The next nn; nl in thi history of thi 


In the olden time, wli-n the whole north continent was 

ti vast howling wilderness from tlic Frozen Ocean to the 
flower}' Gulf Land, many bright lair lakes lav Bleeping in 
its awful Eolitudes, their waters flashing in the sunshine 
like gleaming mirrors, and lighting up the sombre desola- 
tion like jewels iii tut iron crown; hut the fairest and the 
brightest of them till was Lake George. It was the gem of 

il hi wilderness. Of the thousand hikes which adorn 

the surface of Northern New York, there is none among 
them all so like "a diadem of beauty" as Lake George; 
its deepest waters as pure and bright as the dew-drops that 
linger on its lilies. 

The first while men* who saw Lake George were the 
Jcsuil Father Isaac Jogucs and his two companions, Rene 
Goupil and Guillamc Couture, who were taken over its 
waters as prisoners. — tortured, maimed, and bleeding by 
the Mohawks, — in the month of August, 1642. Father 
.login >. who had been staying a year or two at the mission 

tit ig the llurons t had, in the spring of 1G42, visited 

Quebec, On his return to the Huron country he was cap- 
tured by ti roving baud of Mnhmrhs in the early morning 
of the 2d day of August, on that expansion of the St. Law- 
rence now called Lake St. Peters. After submitting to the 
most cruel tortures, be, with his companions, was taken 
through Lake Champlain to Lake George, and from the 
head of Lake George across the country on the old Indian 
war trail to the valley of the Mohawk. 

The old Indian trail, from the head of Lake George to 
the Mohawk castles, ran directly across the old hunting- 
ground of Kay-ad-ros-se-ra, over the Greenfield hills and 
across (itilwav. along the slope of the mountains to the west 
of and in plain sight of Saratoga Springs. It was a rugged 
trail leading through the tangled forest, in which there were 
man} streams to ford, lakes to cross, swamps to pass over, 
and mountains to climb. 

i remaining a prisoner in the Mohawk country until 
July of the next year, Father .logins, aided by the Dutch 

settlers tit Fori Orange i now Albany), made his escape. 

In the spring of the year 1(1 l(i, Father Jogues again 
passed through Lake George on his way to the Mohawk 
country. But this time he went, as an ambassador from 
the French and Algonquins in Canada, to ratify a treaty 
of peace with the Mohawks. On hisway he reached Lake 

George on tin- i\<- of Corpus Chrisli, the feast of the 

Bl '1 Sacrament, and naming the beautiful lake in honor 

of the day, he called it "The Lake of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment." As Lake St. Sacramenl this hike was known for 
more than ti hundred years, until Sir William Johnson,f 
in 1755, changed its name to Lake George, in honor of 
King George II. Better, says an eminent historian, bad it 
tiled I. ke Jogues, in honor of its gentle discoverer. 
\ in. in the fall of 1646, Father Jogues passed oven 
Lake St Sacrament, and along the old Indian trail which 
led > Kay ad ros e-ra to the Mohawk country. lie 

was "ti his way to his mission, where he was soon mur- 

* Parkman'« Jesuit* in North America, p. 217. etc 
D ii ' N f., vol. i. p. 429: "lam building a fort at thfl 

which the French call J.nke - i nt, bul I have given it 

the i not "nlv in honor t" bis majesty, but 

D his undoubted dominion here."- Sir William Johnson to 
I .rd of Trad. 



■?*C ?W 




Surveyed and Laid Down 

Dv f\" ft. D A/. /-A A'A'. Surveyor 

1767 ^ 

Tlw N»i»tt of !►• S«W*n 

I* Tl»» 

• of ta« Rlw. 




4 wick 


- \ in Mi-gen. 
Abraham Vin HagMI. 
V(i, llcgan. 
\ in T 

CtomolU - 

■ -InAta 
KilUnni Van R 


ll»nrj ' 

u uivn. 
ti IVrgh. 


t .»*r*n. 

1 vcrfn 

"i Vu I 


Van Alatyn. 

Darid Di i 

Philip Wondoll. 

Hntgor Van Mon IVrgh. 
rornolln M. Van Batumi. 
Jan Van lu-nrcn. 
Widow Magln. 

Mathnw VandThej'lon. 

Wllhelmua Smith. Hi ill 

\ hi Di tti' fdfln 
l-ivinii" Winno. 
Wtll'm I 


ItnLon Wendell. 

\ iin ArniMii. 
Adam l' 

Fran- II 
Han« I1i>wit 

\ an Arnom. 














i n 

1 :l 

Han* Mullcr. 
Pavi.l Th>nn. 
at the lk-avor Pam. 

\\ -itiion. 
John Ponda. 
Kd. Hogg. 

I.a<iu erence Uy«<lorp. 
Wllhclmn- Van liiuaen. 

\v i ..■i.-rwax. 

Van iinlrande. 
Mel'l Van Dor Tool. 

1 1 am . 
llonry Sliana. 
Cnmolln Bprong 
Henry Toll. 
Jl lin M.-lAgg. 

Pot^r Bachta. 

Ham Harbin. 


n.i.rv l.ii. her. 
Han* Ijaiitman. 
llaront ll'.k'k' 


jACob 11. "I 
Petrol V.*linrgn. 
Haitian DoaL 
Freni Bnrnl 
Joria Krelgor. 
Henri Young. 

gcholemaalar Waiwn. 
h^rotriforr. I<ong Andria 



dered by the savages, and which was ever after known as 
the Mission of the Martyrs, St. Mary of the Mohawks. 
We now conic to the interesting incidents < tected 

with the curly settlement and occupation of the valley of 

(he Hudson by the Dutch. 



The founding and planting of the Van Rensselaer Ma- 
nor during the first half of the seventeenth century, out of 
which grew our modern county of Rensselaer, was an abor- 
tive attempt to fasten upon the New World one of the 
already-decaying institutions of the Old, — in a word, to trans- 
plant the feudal system of land-tenure and local govern- 
ment, which bad been so long prevalent in the historic 
valley of the Rhine, to the then bowling wilderness of the 
valley of the Hudson. That tbis attempt should finally fail 
was in the nature of things. The feudal system was 
founded upon the one idea of service, and was, of course, 
utterly inconsistent with the principles of a government by 
the people. In the feudal system the lord of the manor 
was the one supreme ruler over all. All beside him were 
bis tenants or vassals, owing him more or less absolute and 
unconditional service according to caste and condition in 
life. Under this feudal system of servitude the tenants on 
the Van Rensselaer Manor lived until the war of the Rev- 
olution brought about radical changes in the tenure of 
landed estates ill America. 

After the Revolution a qualified leasehold tenure existed 
until the anti-rent trouble, growing out of such tenures, 
brought about the State legislation which put an end to 
perpetual leases in the State of New York. Of these anti- 
rent troubles some account is attempted in a succeeding 


It has been seen in Chapter II. that the county of 
Albany, of which the county of Rensselaer formed a part 
for more than a hundred years, was erected by order of the 
Duke of York, the proprietor of the province, as early as 
the year 1683 ; but the city of Albany was founded by the 
Dutch much earlier. Of a truth it may be said that Albany 
is one of the oldest cities of the New World. 

In the year 1614, five years after the exploration of the 
Hudson River, and six years before the Pilgrim Fathers 
landed at Plymouth Rock, the city of Albany was founded. 

After Henry Hudson bad explored the river that still 
bears bis name as far up as what is now Waterford, in the 
month of September, 1009, and taken possession of the 
country in the name of Holland, in whose interest he bad 
sailed, a number of Dutch adventurers soon followed his 
track. These navigators, however, at first made no attempt 
at settlement, but occupied themselves with making further 
discoveries along the coast and up the river, and pursuing 
a small trade with the Indians. The most noted of these 

early Dutch navigators were Adrian Block, ] l.-u-lrj. k Cor- 

stiarnsen, and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey. 

Early in the autumn of 1613 news of their discoveries 

was received in Holland, and the I 'nil., I ( lompany, by which 

they were employed, losl no time in taking tin: necessary 

steps to secure to themselves the exclusive trad,' and settle 

ment of the country thus explored. They nail deputies to 
tin' Hague, who laid before the Si a irs General a map of the 
new country, which was then for the first time called New 
Netherland, with a report of their discoveries. In this 
report, notwithstanding their knowledge of the prior dis- 
covery of Henry Hudson in L 609, only five years before, 
they claimed to lie the first explorers of the country. 

On the 1 1th day of October, 1614, their High Mighti- 
ness, the Slates General of Holland, made a special granl 
in their favor. Tbis grant, conferred upon Gerrit Jacob 
Witsen, former burgomaster of the city of Amsterdam, and 
his twelve associates, ship-owners and merchants of Amster- 
dam, the exclusive right to " visit and navigate all the lands 
situate in America, between New France and Virginia, the 
sea-coasts of which lie between the fortieth and forty fifth 
degrees of latitude, which are now named New Netherlands ; 
and to navigate, or cause to be navigated, the same for four 
voyages within the period of three years, to commence from 
the first day of January, 1615, or sooner." Having thus 
obtained the exclusive right to trade in the new country, 
they assumed the name and title of " The United New 
Netherland Company." Thus having the exclusive right 
to the country, this company took possession of the Hud- 
son River, then called by them " De Riviere van den Vorst 
Mauritius," and built two posts thereon. One was built on 
a little island immediately below the present city of Albany, 
called Castle Island, which island has long since become a 
part of the mainland. The other was erected at the mouth 
of the stream, on what is now the Battery, in the city of 
New York. 

The fort at Albany was begun early in the year 1614. 
It consisted of a trading-house thirty-six feet long and 
twenty-six feet wide. It was defended by two pieces of 
cannon and eleven stone guns mounted on swivels. This 
post was garrisoned by ten or twelve men under the com- 
mand of Jacob Jacoby Elkins, who continued here four 
years in the employ of the company, being well liked by 
the Indians, whose language he soon learned. 

But the right of this company expired by limitation in 
the year 16 IS. In the spring of that year the fort on 
Castle Island was so injured by a freshet on the river that 
the company abandoned it, and built another on the main- 
land, farther down, on a hill, at the mouth of the Norman's 
Kill. The Indian name for the Norman's Kill was Ta-wa- 
sent-ha, " the place of the many dead." It was here on 
this bill, called by the Indians Troas-gan-chee, that the 
Dutch, in the year 1618, concluded their first formal treaty 
of peace and alliance with the Five Nations, by which they 
obtained such lasting ascendency over the fierce Indian 

Besides the Iroquois of the Five Nations, the Mohicans, 
the Miner, x, the Minnisinks, and the Lenni-Lenapees were 
represented at this council of Ta-voa-sent-ha. 

The supremacy of the Five Nations was maintained. 



Five .' ich with ;i hereditary name, rcpre- 

1 their respective tribes. The bell of i held 

t ". > - 1 at one end bj the Troquuit, and nt the other end by 
the Datoh, while in tlie middle i( rested on the shoulders 
of the subjugated Jfo/iti '•■' res,and Lenni-Lcno) 

nation of women. The calumet was smoked, and the 
tomahawk was buried in the earth, over which the Dutch 
declared they would build a church, so that none might dig 
ii up without destroying the building. 

This treaty gained for the Dutch the lasting friendship 
of the Five Nations. 


On the 3d of June, 1620, the States General passed a 
formal patent, under tli.'ir great seal, incorporating the 
\\ -t India Company. Tlii> company was invested with 
enormous powers. In the name of the - General it 

might make contracts and alliances with princes and natives, 
build forte, administer justice, appoint and discharge gov- 
ernors, soldiers, and public officers, and promote trade. 
The government of the company was vested in fit 
chambers of managers, — one at Amsterdam, managing 
four-ninths; one :it Middeburg, in Zealand, two-ninths; 
Dordrecht, on the Maeze, one-ninth ; one in North 
II Hand, one-ninth ; and one in Friesland and Gronii 

ral executive power for all purposes, except incase 
of declaration of war. were intrusted t" a board of nine- 
teen del led the College of the XIX. 

The term of « > i * ■ patent was for twenty-four years from 
July 1. 1621. Within the charter of this powerful com- 
Netherland was included. 

i was now prepared to send permanent 

: ].■ ili.' wilderness of the valley of the Hudson. 

In f in.- families of Walloons, then settled at 

Amsterdam, applied for permission t" emigrate to America, 

an.l establish :i colony ;•■ be governed by magi 

their own election. 'I'll. -•■ Walloons had passed through the 

,,f religio ition in the Southern Belgic prov- 

the old French language. Thej were 

distinguished among other things for their tasteful and per- 

ring in. In them came to Holland, and to 

ili. in the Dutch were much indebted for the repute they 

i nation in many branches of manufactures. 

Finding in Holland a fn r the enjoyment of their 

the Wall. soon introdi '1 the public 

if ili. ir church, which to thi- 
witncM i" ili" ehai toleration and liberality .-I' the 



lam chamber ..f the 
\\ led ili" 

■i.|." of in., hut burden, for ili" 

tlement of 1 1 r.l of this ship 

I I early in M 
forth B 

.,n whil "1' in 161 '.villi four 

■ I wliirli li i.| been projected thi 

befon . u.i- ot once thrown up ami completed. Fort Orange 
was Imili mi ili" low ground near what is now the landing 
of ili" People's I'm" of steamers in All. any. 

About eighteen families of the Walloons, under Adriaen 
.1. iris, in ili" summer of lt">J:i, settled themselves around 
Fort Orange, an.l passed ili" winter there. 

\ is ii,. colonists had built some "Inns of Lark.'' 

ilic In.lians came and renewed with Joris the covenants of 
ili.- treaty of Ta-iea-sent-ha, concluded live years before, at. 

tin mouth of ili" Nor n Kill. This was the foundation 

of ili. present city of Albany. 

In 1624, Cornelius Jacobsen Mey was formally installed 
in lii- office of first director of New Netherland under 
ili,- Dutch West [ndia Company. 


In tin- year 1623, at ili<- time "I' 1 1 1 . - perfected organiza- 

li.ui nl' tin- DuU-li West India Company, prominent among 
tin- members of the Amsterdam chamber was Kiliaen Van 
Rensselaer, a rich pearl-and-diamond merchant of Am- 
sterdam, the founder of the manor of Reusselaerswick, 
which covered the larger part of territory which is now 
comprised within the county of Rensselaer. 

In the year 1630 the managers of the Dutch AY est 
[ndia I lompany, in order to tempt tin- ambition of capitalists, 
offered certain exclusive privileges to the members of the 

The charter provided that any member who should within 
four years plant a colony of fifty adults in any part of New 
Netherland, except the reserved island of Manhattan, 
should be acknowledged as a " Patroon," or feudal chief 
of tic- territory he might thus colonize. 

'1'-. meet Such cases the West India Company adopted its 
famous charier of "Freedoms and Exemptions" for the 
agricultural colonization of its American province. The 
chief features of this charter were as follows: 

The lands selected for each colony might extend sixteen 
mile- in length, if confined to one side of a navigable river; 
if both banks were occupied, eight, miles was the limit, but 
th.v might run into the country as the situation of the 
occupiers will permit. If more emigrants come, these limits 
might I..- proportionately enlarged. 

Each patroon was i" receive the full title to his lands by 
inheritance, with testamentary rights. 

The patroon was to have "the chief command and lowe? 
jurisdictions," and the exclusive privilege of fishing, fowling, 
and ".rinding within his domain. 

In case any patroon 'should in time prosper so much as 

I., found oi r more .-iii.-s." he was t.. have " power and 

authority to establish ofliecrs and magistrates there. - ' II" 
Was to furnish hi- colony with proper instructions, in order 
thai they might be ruled and governed conformably to the 
rule of government made or to I." made bj the assembly 
of th< \l\. 

. all judgments i ndered in the patroon's mano- 
rial curls for upwards of fifty guilders, an appeal might, 
li,- io ih" director ami council in New Netherland. 

During tin- first ten years the tenants under the patr J 

- i.-lv fi..- fiom ■■ custom taxes, excise imp 
• ntiibiition- " 



None of these colonists, "either man or woman, son or 
daughter, man servant or maid servant," could leave the 
oolonv during their term of service without the written 
consent of the patroon, and the company pledged itself to 
i!n everything in its power to apprehend and deliver up all 
fugitives from the patr 's Bervice. 

The patroons might trade all along the coast, from New 
(bundland to Florida, provided the cargoes were first 
brought to Manhattan, whence they might be sent to Hol- 
land on payment of a live per cent, duty to the company. 

The patroons also possessed the freedom of trade all 
llong the coast in every kind of merchandise, "except 
heavers, otters, minks, and all sorts of peltry," which trade 
in furs was reserved by the company. All the colonists, 
Whether independent or under patroons, were positively 
forbidden "to make any woolen-, linen-, or cotton-cloth, 
or weave any other stuffs there, on pain of being banished, 
and as perjurers to be arbitrarily punished." But, on the 
other hand, the company promised to protect and defend all 
the colonists, whether free or in service, "against all out- 
landish and inlandisli wars and powers." The company 
further promised to supply the colonists with "as many 
blacks as they conveniently could," but not "for a longer 
time than they should think proper." 

The patroons and colonists were likewise carefully re- 
quired to make prompt provision for the support of " a 
minister and schoolmaster, that thus the service of God 
ami zeal for religion may not grow cool and be neglected 
among them, and that they do for the first procure a Com- 
forter of the Sick there." Thus do the Dutch of New York 
have the credit of establishing schools many years before the 
English made public provision for them in New England. 

To the rich capitalists of Holland, in whose veins by 
birthright no noble blood ran, this was a tempting bait. 
They could now become lords of manors, with hosts of 
subservient vassals in their train. 

Among the first to avail themselves of the provisions of 
this charter of freedoms and exemptions was Kiliaen Van 
Rensselaer, the founder of the family in America. 

Van Rensselaer's attention was, early in the year 1630, 
called to the region surrounding and adjacent to Fort Or- 
ange, on the North River. At Fort Orange, Sebastian 
Jauscn Krol had been stationed for some four years as 
under-director and commissary of the West India Company. 
At Van Rensselaer's request Krol purchased for him, on 
the 8th day of April, 1030, of the Iudian owners, a tract 
el hind lying on the west side of the river, and extending 
from Beeren Island northward to Smack's Island, and 
"stretching two days' journey into the interior." 

In the mean time Van Rensselaer made vigorous prepara- 
tions to send out tenants. Early in the spring several emi- 
grants, with their farm implements and cattle, were sent out 
from Holland under Wolfert Gerritson as " upper-bouw- 
meester" or overseer of farms. These pioneers of the 
manor embarked at the Texel in the ship " Eendragt," or 
" Unity," under Capt. John Brouwer. In a few weeks they 
arrived at Fort Orange, and began at once the actual set- 
tlement of the manor of Rensselaerswick. 

A few weeks after the arrival of the first colonists, the 
patro.m's special agent, Gillis Hassett, secured for him a 

grant of land from the [ndians, lying mostly to the north 

of Fori Orange, and extending op tin- river to an Indian 

castle, called Mo in' nii'iis castle, situate on Haver [gland, at 
the confluence of the upper "sprout' of the Mohawk. 

These two grants completed the bounds of the manor on 

the WeSl si'le of the liver. 

'I'he land on the ea-t side "I' the river, extending north- 
ward from Castle Island to the Mohawk, was then the 
private property of an Indian chief whose name was Na 
wit-iu-milt. This territory was called by the Indians 
" Siiii es Seek," and described in the grant as " lying on lie- 
east side of the aforesaid river, opposite lie- Fort Ol 
as well above as below, and from Poetanock, the mill- 
creek, northward to Negagonee, being about twelve miles, 
large measure." 

These purchases were on the 8th and 13th days of 
August, 1030, respectively, confirmed by the council at 
Manhattan, and patents formally issued therefor. Thus 
large portions of the counties of Rensselaer and Albany 
were destined to be reduced to feudal sway by the patroons 
of Rensselaerswick. 

Fort Orange itself, however, with the land immediately 
around its walls, which grew into the city of Albany, still 
remained under the exclusive jurisdiction of the West India 
Company, and so Albany never was under the dominion of 
the patroon. 

lint this large purchase by Van Rensselaer excited the 
jealousy of other capitalists, and Van Rensselaer soon di- 
vided his estate around and near Fort Orange into five 
shares. Two of these shares he retained in his own hands, 
together with the title and honors of the original patroon. 
One share was given to John de Laet, the historian, another 
to Samuel Godyn, and the fifth to Samuel Bloommaert.* 

The government of the manor of Rensselaerswick was 
vested in a general court, which exercised executive, legis- 
lative or municipal, and judicial functions. This court was 
composed of two commissioners, styled " Gecommitteerden" 
and two councilors, called " Gerechls-persoo>ie7i," or u Sche- 
penen." These last answered to our modern justices of 
the peace. There was also a colonial secretary, a " Schout- 
fiscaal" or sheriff, and a " Grcechts-Lode" court messenger 
or constable. 

The magistrates held their offices for a year, the court 
appointing their successors. The most important office in 
the colony was the schout-fiscaal, or sheriff. Jacob Albert- 
sen Planck was the first sheriff of Rensselaerswick. Arendt 
Van Curler, who came out originally as assistant commis- 
sary, was soon after his arrival made commissary-general, 
or superintendent of the colony, and acted as colonial sec- 
retary till 1042, when he was succeeded by Anthony de 

The population of the colony of Rensselaerswick in its 
early days consisted of three classes: 1st, freemen, who 
emigrated from Holland at their own expense ; 2d, far- 
mers ; and 3d, farm-servants sent out by the patroon. 

* On the ancient map of the colony " Blooiuiuacrt's Burg" is laid 
down at the niouth of what is now called Patroon's Creek. "De I. act's 
Island" was the original name of Van Rensselaer Island, opposite 
Albany. " De Lact's Bur;;" answers to Ureenbush. "Godyn's 
Islands" are a short distance below, on the east shore. 



The lir>t patrooD judiciously applied bis large resources 
tu il\.' advancement of li is interests, and always was quick 
to .i---i-t his struggling people I implisb 1 » i — purpose 

ral forma wore scl oflFbj him on both sides of the river, 
mi which he caused dwelling-houses, barns, and stables to 
be erected. The patroon,al his own expense, stocked these 

farms with cattle, I i sometimes with bI p, and 

furnished the wagons, plows, and other imple- 

ments. So ilu' early farmer entered upon his land without 
being embarrassed by wan) of capital. 

Hiii ili.' fatal tiling about the settlement of the manor ..I' 
Reuse , rswick was the lease hold tenure ..I' the soil. To 
give ili.' reader some idea of what thai tenure was wc insert 
belc ■ i "in' "I ilu' ancient leases. It was granted 

I.. Ar.' Y:ni Curler, and was f tbc property since 

belonging i" ilu- Schuyler family, :ii Port Schuyler, in West 

liana anil tat laor, Patroon of tho 

th lli\ or, in Now 

' inn 1 urlor, who 

i from us. under 

the follow! restrictions, and stipulations, tho 

and ili.' hereafter ntionod 

apparteaanoea for the term the farm leaso be- 

ginning and terminating on the ti r-i of September, and Mini <»t" tlio 

ndrcd eight and forty. 
■• | lir-iij. f tbi tenth! ■•! all grain 

ed off uwery. 

•• II. ntains abool . . . morgem ..f Harm land, 

..i" whiefa ,; til be ' '"1 yearly i-> cultivate . . . morgens, 

and may. in addition, mm i. land a- 1..- shall be able i" till 

will. witbool subletting ..r farming the same during the 

tho lessee shall 

lAk. | vmling in ili- Bold "ii '1. mmenemenl hereof, such 

oj it. Tig ili.- Patroon ' irding to tho valuation 

il iIi.t side i" take 

■•■ nt a 

•• III >■• -■. iiiiicli pasture :.- he Bhnll 

rent further than only 

" IV. \n I ' II I"- do- 

■ i i- pinekon 

■ -.ii 'l.i- I wery, nn-1 

that hall I.-- for ili. 1 Patroon, 

an. I the other half fo I that tho 

ling i" il..' • 
of tbc and half, « 

ball n"t have 

d and ovor 


I nn-I 
flfii | ii la- 

th«. first half in ' ry, in mor- 

at ti i -hi 

r*nt n-. 

" VII *hall b* hnl-kn I" keep (he hou"*.' an<l bnildingl 

on the bo'i - ■'.<! mainta.- 

bon« "hall 

b* fi- tight, and at the expira- 

ho fball deliver it op in the same •• 

"VIII, Ii is iv. II understood the lessee is holden, over and 
above the aforesaid rant, during the winter season, t" cut in the forest 
forth. ' oak or fir wood, whioh shall bo pointed 

..nt t.. lii in. and bring ' hi tami to the shore : also, overy year, to give 
three days' sorvieo with his wagon mil borsos, to the Patroon or his 
. each voir, (o .-nl. split, and bring to tho water-side, 
two fathoms "f hiokory or other fire-wood : further, to deliver yearly 
to the Director, a- quit-rent, one-half mini (two liusbols)of wheat, five- 
ond-twenty pounds of butter, and two pair of fowls. 

"IX. The lessoo shall not lo 1 -o any strange traders in his bouse 

nor bring nor receive their g Is, on pain of forfeiting all the con- 

■ranli'l to him, an 1 i • I." ejected as a perfidious man. 

■■ \. \n l in case any question should arise between tho loss.'.' and 
other--. Mi.- same shall I..' submitted to the commissaries there, without 
any appeal or further complaint being allowed. 

"XI. The l.s.see submits himself, moreover, as a faithful subject, 
to nit regulations, or.lers, ami conditions made by the Patroon, and 
before him, regarding dwelling together, and to all the statutes 
an I ordinances to be hereafter made. 

" X 1 1. The lessee promising, on the passing of the aforesaid lease, 
to comport himself faithfully in tho said quality, ami to fully follow 
tho same; nor t" defraud the Patroon in the least, nor in the most 
directly nor indirectly, all under mortgage of bis person and go 
moveablo and immoveable, having and to have, submitting the whole 
thereof, anil t lie adjudication thereof, to the constraint of all laws and 

"XIII. Finally, have the guardians and lessors reserved, in caso 
the aforesaid bouworye should be leased by the commissaries th. 

ili- arrival of the lessee there, that tbi- lease shall be null, and 
tho aforesaid Cnrler be iwerye, the commissaries 

there shall in that ease agreo with him thereupon, wherewith Curler 
Bed n ad agreed. 

" In witness whereof, is this by each party subscribe. 1. in Ani-t.r- 
• hiin. tbi- 3tltb September, Itil7. Jchan van Weely, W. van Twiller, 
D It van Curler, in | rue, .is witness, I'. van .1.- V, a, Not. 

Pub., residing in Amsterdam." 

\- bul few <'!' the very early farms in RensselaerswioM 
were situate in the portion east of the river in what is 
now Rensselaer County, the further history of the niaoor 
belongs rather to the history of Albany. Some account, 
however, of anti-rent troubles growing out of the 1. 
hold tenures will he given in a succeeding chapter of this 

1\ -i HEN EOT \l>Y. 

The great flat upon the Mohawk River, lying seventeen 
mil.- w.'si of •■ l'.irt Orange," a- Albany was then called, 
was bought of th.' Indians by Arendi Van Curler, in the 
month of .Inly. LG61. The deed was signed in behalf of 
th.' Moliawlc* by three chiefs, named Kan-tn-ipm. Son a- 
rut-sic, and A ia-da-nc, In 1662 this grant was con Armed, 
and Van Curler and his associates " went West" from Fori 
tnd settled the rich Mohawk flats, near which is 
now tin' modem city of Schenectady. Arcndl Van Curler 
i cousin of ili,. Van Renssetacrs, and played a prom- 
imnt part in the settlement of their manor. lie owned a 
farm on the flats jusl above Fori Orange, and was a brewer 
in Bcvcrwyck, as Albany was then called, in 1661. Bu 
influi 'I- ■ on ti- th' 1 Indian- was unbounded. In honor of 
hi« memory the TroquoU addressed all succeeding governoii 
V.rk by hi- name, which tiny translated " Co*- 



lcar." Ho was also a great favorite of the French. A j«iil 
80, 1667, the Marquis de Tracy, viceroy of New France, 
addressed Van Curler a letter, of which we give an extract : 

•• ir you find it agreeable I" come hither this bi m n you have 

nuisi-.l me I" hope, you will be must welcome, »ml entertained I" I 1m- 

nt >]■>>.- 1 of my ability, ns I have a great est( for you, though 1 have 

never scon you. Believe this truth, and that [ am, air, your affec- 
tionate and assured servant, Trai i ." 

Van Curler accepted this invitation, and prepared for 
liis journey. Governor Nicoll gave him a letter to the 
viceroy, bearing date of May 20, 10(17, and saying: 

"MonB'r Curler hnth been importuned by divers of his friends at 
Quebec to give them a visit, nnd being ambitious to kiss your hands, 
lie hath entreated my pass and liberty to conduct :i young gentleman, 
M. Fontaine, who unfortunately fell into the barbarous bands of his 
enemies, ami by means of Mons'r Curler obtained his liberty." 

July 4th, of the same year, Jeremiah Van Rensselaer 
Wrote to Holland: "Our cousin, Arendt Van Cutler, pro- 
ceeds overland to Canada, having obtained leave from our 
general, and been invited thither by the viceroy, M. de 
Tracy." Tims provided, lie set out. In an evil hour, while 
on this journey, Van Curler attempted to cross Lake Cham- 
plain in a light bark canoe. A storm coming up, he was 
drowned, it is believed, near Split Rock. Thus died the 
founder of Schenectady. Lake Champlain was often called 
afterwards by the French, Lake Corlaer, in his honor. 

It has been said that " Ska-nek-ta-da" was the Indian 
name for Albany. When the Dutch authorities formed 
the settlers at Fort Orange into a separate jurisdiction, it 
ran back from Albany seventeen miles, and included what 
is now the city of Schenectady, on the Mohawk. To this 
jurisdiction the Dutch gave the old Indian name for Albany, 
and called it Ska-nek-ta-da. 

After the English conquest of the New Netherlands, in 
1GC4, the jurisdiction of Schenectady was divided, and the 
part next the Hudson was changed to Albany. But Albany 
ran back from the Hudson only sixteen miles. Thus the 
old jurisdiction of Schenectady was left to that part lying 
on the Mohawk River only, and it has ever since retained 
the name first applied to the whole. The true Indian 
name for what is now Schenectady was " O-no-a-lago-na," 
signifying "pained in the head." 

frfhcHr [/a*/, 




The century and a half of warfare waged between the 
English and the Dutch settlers and their Indian allies of 
the Atlantic slope on the one part, and the French colonists 

and their Indian allies of the St. Lawrence Valley on the 
other part, was a struggle for the mastery of the North 
American continent by people holding din trically oppo- 
sing ideas. 

The story of these long war-, waged in the depth of the 

old wilderness reads more like the wild romance of th( 

age border-wars of ancient and mediaeval times than it dot - 

like the history of wars waged a8 they were between en- 
lightened nations in comparatively modern times. Bui the 

Indian and the forest dragged down, as it were, the humane 
and civilizing tendencies of the white men engaged with 
them to their own wild and savage life. 

Sonic of these atrocities occurred in lionsselaer County, 
the account of which will be found in the histories of the 
respective towns in which they took place. In order, how- 
ever, to properly understand the Subject brief mention 
must, be made of the whole chain of events, and of the 
closing scenes of the great drama of the old wilderness. 

In a preceding chapter (V.) some account is given of 
Indian troubles up to the massacre of Father Isaac Jogues 
iu the Mohawk country in UU7. We now continue the 

II.— THE WAR OF 1066. 

After the weary feet of Father Jogues had ceased to 
tread the old trail that crossed Kay-ad-ros-se-ra no white 
man passed this way again for twenty years. 

In the year ltilili two expeditions were sent by the 
French against the Mohawks. The first was the one under 
Governor Courcelle, which was made in the depths of the 
Canadian winter. Courcelle left Quebec on the 9th of 
January. Over the frozen lakes and livers and through 
the pitiless wintry forests he marched on snow-shoes, 
creeping slowly on, day after day, with his little baud. 
At night they encamped in squads among the trees, dug 
away the deep snow with their snow-shoes, and piling it in 
a bank around them, built a fire in the middle, and lay 
down around it on beds of hemlock-boughs to rest. Alter 
leaving Lake St. Sacrament, now Lake George, they lost 
their way and wandered down to Saratoga Lake, and then 
struck the old Indian trail that led up the Kay-ad-ros- 
se-ra River and up the Mourning Kill past Ballston Lake 
to the Mohawk near Schenectady. But this expedition 
proved a failure, and Courcelle soon returned by the way 
he came.* 

The second hostile expedition from Canada of the year 
1G6G was the one undertaken by the Marquis de Tracy, 
lieutenant-governor of New France, in the autumn of that 
year. In the beginning of October, Tracy set out from 
Fort St. Anne, on the Isle La Motte, at the northern end 
of Lake Champlain, in command of six hundred regular 
troops of the regiment CarignanSalieres,j" and about the 

* Courcelle was accompanied by M. da Gas, his lieutenant, M. 
de Salainper, gentleman volunteer) Father Pierre Raffeix, Jesuit, by 
three hundred men of the regiment Carignan-Salieres, anil two hun- 
dred volunteers, — habitant. — Doe. His. of New fork, vol. i. p. 65. 

f The regiment Carignan-Salieres was the first body of regular 
troops seut to Canada by the French king. It was raised by Prince 
Carignan, in Savoy, in hill, who, being unable to support it. gave it 
to the king. It was oonspiouous in t he service of the French king in 
the battles with Prince Condi in the revolt of the Fronde. In 1664 
it tuok a ilistinguishcil part with the allie.l forces of France in the 



same number of Canadians and Indians. In passing over 
Lake George this army formed the lir-t of those military 
ints which in after-years made the (air Bccno historic. 
In going through the old wilderness of Kny-ad-\ 

infield hills, in the vicinity of Lake I 1 
lion, tln-ir provisions gave out, and they came near starving. 
At length they ca to a grove of chestnut-trees, and find- 
ing inn- in •_: r. . 1 1 abundance, with them they satisfied their 

R iching the valley of the Mohawk, they marched 

through the whole length of it without opposition, dc- 

stroyed all the Indian castles and corn-fields, and took 

poss --i mi of the country in the name of the French 

king. After erecting huge wooden crosses upon the ashes 

■ if the Indian villages, in token of conquest and dominion, 

thej returned unmolested to Canada by the way they came. 

The Mohawk$, chastised and humbled, remained quiet 

. long time afterwards, aod for another period of twenty 

there was peace in the old blood stained wildi n 


i in 1686. after these twenty years of peace were 
ended, tin* Prench-and-Indian war broke out afresh, and 
I .-•• 1 through nine weary years to the peace of 1695. In 
the month of 1689, nine hundred Mohawk war- 

riors r the old trail that twenty-three years I.. fore 

had been trodden by the victorious Tracy with lii- veteran 
soldiers and train of French noblemen. During the twenty 
these wild had been nursing their 

wrath, and now their hour of Bweet revenge had come. 
I inching their l.;irk canoes, they Bwepl down thro 
I . . ■. arge and Champlain, and landing on the island of 
M mtreml, like so many ravening wolves, carried the war to 
the '• nch forts on the St. Lawrence. 

months later, in February, 1690, Lieut. Le Moyne 

i: d down upon snow-shoes, and traversing 

J.nk - i upon the ice, and winding up the Kay-ad- 

i and the Mourning Kill t'i the little hamlet, 

now below Ballstoo call I I' Line, passed over Ball 

1 1 in the dead of the night ol the 9th of February 

ah upon the sleeping inhabitants of Schenectady 

with indiscriminate slaughter. 

return thej were followed by Maj I' 
uyler, at the head of a company of two hundred whites 

is L ike Champlain, and 
ti French prisoners were token and brought back i" 

iv Tin; \v \i: OF I 

luring thi in of war to the 

ions that were undertaken by 
tin I nquesl of 

On the Si 1690, the first American I 

■ at thi old fort in the \ -rk. In 

pan ti in of the 

. i was planned and t 

Amtriao war ailh Ihr- T, 'anada. 

Il »m un4«r Ihf wmii ■ nam". 


out, the command of which was given to Gen. Fitz-John 
Winthrop, of Connecticut. 

On the Mih day of July, 1690, Hen. Winthrop left 
Hartford with the New England troops, and passing through 
a virgin wilderness, whose interminable shades were broken 
only by the little settlements at and near Albany, arrived 
at Stillwater on the 1st of August. 

Stillwater was •■ so named," says the old chronicler, 
■■ because the water passes so slowly as not to be discovered, 
while above- and below it is disturbed, and rageth as in a 
great sea, occasioned by rocks and falls therein." 

(In the day after, he arrived at Stir-agh-tn-fln. near 
where Schuylerville now is. Here at Saratoga he found a 
block-house and some Dutch troops under Maj. Peter 
tyler, mayor of Albany, who had preceded him with 
the New York forces. From this date, the 2d day of 
August, 1690, six years after the old patent was granted, 

and al st two centuries ago, Saratoga takes its place 

among the long list of our country's geographical names. 

Maj. Schuyler had already pushed up to the second 
carrying-place, now Fort Miller Falls, where he had stopped 
to build some bark canoes. The next and third carrying- 
place above was from the Hudson at Fort Edward to what 
is now Fort Ann on Wood Creek. This portage ran 
through a magnificent grove of pines for twelve miles, and 
was known in old forest annals as the ''Great Carrying- 

This expedition proved an utter failure. But before its 
return, ('apt. John Schuyler, brother of the mayor, and 
grandfather of Gen. Philip Schuyler of Revolutionary 
memory, pushed on down Lake Champlain and made his 
famous raid upon the Canadian settlement of La Prairie. 

Iii the next year. 1691, Maj. Peter Schuyler, ai the head 

of two hundred and sixty whites and eighty Molunrks from 
their eauip at Saratoga Lake, following ill the track of his 
brother, made another descent upon the doomed settlement 
i Prairie. 

V.— THE WA1! OF 1709 
In the year 1709 the war known as Queen Anne's war 
broke out between England and France, and the warfare 
of the wilderness again began its savage butchery.* 

In this war we come i" the founding and construction of 

the military works along the great northern valley, which 

1 unto comparatively modern limes, and with whose 

names we have been so long familiar. 

Again in 1709 a joint expedition, like that led by Qen, 
Winthrop in 1690, was planned for the conquest of 
Canada. In 1709, Maj. piebald Ingoldcsby. who had 

come over in command of the Queen's four companies of 
liars, was lieutenant-governor of the province. Peter 
Philip Schuyler was now a colonel in the service, as well 
as one of the governor's council and a commissioner "f 
Indian affairs, while his brother John had been adval 
to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. The command of the 
lition was given by Ingoldcsby, in May. to Gen. Nich- 

,t the 1st of June. Col. Schuyler, in command of 
the vanguard of the English for© -. comprising three Imn- 

in<l Chanipluin, ami Ni w Y'>rk Doc. 


ilinl men, including pioneers and artificers, moved oul of 
Albany upon his northward march. At Stillwater, Col. 
Sohuylei' halted his command, and built a small stockaded 
fort For provisions, which he named Port [ngoldesby, in 
honor of tlic lieutenant-governor. Salting again at Old 
Saratoga, where he had built a block-house in 1690, and 
whieli in the mean time had become a little hamlet in the 
wilderness. Col. Schuyler built another stockaded fort. 
Tins fort was built on the east side of the Hudson, below 
the mouth of the Iiattenkill, on the hill nearly opposite- the 
mouth of Fish Creek, and was known as Fori Saratoga. 

Proceeding up the river, Col. Schuyler built another 
fort at the second carrying-place of Fort Miller Falls. 
From Fort Miller Falls, Col. Schuyler built a military 
road along the east, bank of the Hudson up to the Great 
Carrying-Place. At the beginning of the Great Carrying- 
Place on the Hudson, at what is now Fort Edward, Col. 
Schuyler built another stockaded fort, which he named 
Fort Nicholson, in honor of the commanding general. 
Proceeding across the Great Carrying- Place to the forks of 
Wood Creek, which runs into Lake Champlain, he built 
another stockaded fort, which was first, called Fort Schuy- 
ler, but which two years later was called Fort Anne, in 
honor of the Queeu. 1 need not follow the fortunes of 
this expedition to its failure and return. 

Two years later, in the year 1711, another expedition, 
in command of Gen. Nicholson, left Albany on the 24th of 
August, and proceeding up the northern valley of the 
Hudson, crossed the Great Carrying-Place at Fort Anne. 
While there, Gen. Nicholson learned that her Majesty's fleet 
in the St. Lawrence, which was to co-operate with him in 
the conquest of Quebec, had been shattered by storms, with 
the loss of a thousand men. So he returned to Albany with 
all liis forces, and the third expedition fitted out for the 
conquest of Canada proved, like the other two, a most mor- 
tifying failure. But in 1713 peace was again declared be- 
tween England and France, which lasted until 1744; and 
so for a period of thirty-one years there was peace along the 
Lire, it northern war-path. 

During this period of thirty-one years of quiet in the old 
wilderness the French were not idle on Lake Champlain ; 
neither were the Schuylers idle at their little settlement of 
Old Saratoga. 

In 1731, during this period of profound peace, the French 
built Fort St. Frederick, at Crown Point, on Lake Cham- 
plain. This fort soon became a menace and a terror to the 
people of the valley of the Upper Hudson. There grew up 
under its protecting walls a little French village of near 
fifteen hundred inhabitants, and the valley of Lake Cham- 
plain became as much a province of New France as was 
the valley of the St. Lawrence. 

VI.— THE WAR OF 1744. 

The war of 1744 found Saratoga, with its little tumble- 
down stockaded fort on the hill near by, the extreme 
northern outpost of the English settlements. There was 
but a single step, as it were, between it and the frowning 
walls of the French fort St. Frederick at Crown Point, 
from which a deadly blow might be expected at any mo- 
ment. In November, 1745. the blow came. At midnight, 

on the 15th of November, the sleeping inhabitants of Old 
Saratoga were awakened by the terrible war-whoop. The 
place was attacked by a force of three hundred French and 
Indians under the command of M. Marin. The fori and 
houses of the village were all burned to the ground. Of the 
inhabitants, thirty were killed and scalped and sixty made 

The celebrated French missionary, Father Picquet, the 
founder of the mission and settlement La Presentation, at 
the mouth of the Oswegatchie, now Ogdensburgh, on the 
St. Lawrence, in 1749, accompanied this expedition. From 

bis tireless zeal he was called by the French "the Apostle 
to the Iroq itoix," and by the English " the Jesuit of the 

During this short war no less than twenty-seven maraud- 
ing-parties swept down from Fort St. Frederick at Crown 
Point upon the settlers of what are now Saratoga and Rens- 
selaer Counties. It was the midnight war-whoop, the up- 
lifted tomahawk, the scalping-kuife, the burning dwelling, 
the ruined home, that made the whole country a scene of 
desolation and blood. 

In the autumn following this disaster, Fort Clinton, of 
Saratoga, was dismantled and burnt by the English, and 
Albany once more became the extreme northern outpost of 
the English, with nothing but her palisaded walls between 
her and the uplifted tomahawks of the ever-frowning north. 
In May, 1S48, peace was again proclaimed, which lasted 
for the brief period of seven years, until the beginning of 
the last French-and-Indian war of 1755, which euded in 
the conquest of Canada. 

During this short peace of seven years the settler's axe 
was again heard as he widened his little clearing upon many 
a hillside, and the smoke went curling gracefully upward 
from his lonely cabin in many a valley along the Upper 

It was in the summer of 1749, during the short peace, 
that Peter Kalm,* the Swedish botanist, traveled through 
this great northern war-path in the interests of science. 
He gives in his account of the journey a graphic descrip- 
tion of the ruins of the old forts at Saratoga, at Fort 
Nicholson and Fort Ann, which were then still remaining 
in the centres of small deserted clearings in the great 
wilderness through which he passed. He made many dis- 
coveries of rare and beautiful plants before unknown to 
Europeans, and in our swamps and lowlands a modest 
flower — the Kalmia-glaucu, swamp-laurel — blooms in per- 
petual remembrance of his visit. But there were no 
mineral springs in the Saratoga visited by Peter Kalm. 

VII.— THE WAR OF 1755. 

And now we come to the stirring events of the last 
French-and-Indian war. 

This short war lasted only four years, from 1755 to 1759, 
but during its continuance great armies marched through 
the old northern war-path, dyeing its streams with blood, 
and filling its wild meadows with thousands of nameless 
new-made graves, and at its close the sceptre of the French 
kings over the valleys of Lake Champlain and the St. 
Lawrence dropped from their hands forever. 

I !dt Kalm's Travels in Pinkcrton, vol. xiii. 



Space "ill nol permit me to give much more thnn the 
names of the vast armies vast armies for those times and 
tor northern wild* whi ae movements then made thai (air 
■ ground of our country's history. 

'I'll, tir-t expedition was thai under Sir William John- 
son, who in the rammer of 1 T ."> ."> took his position at the 
■ of Eik. St. Sacrament, changed its name to Lake 
G rge in honor of the English king, and in token of his 
empire over it. and successfully defended it in the three 
bloody battles of the 8th of September with the French 
:iinl linliuti-. in command of the veteran French general, 
the Baron I'i. .-kau. 

It was \\]>il i his way t" Lake George, in the month 

of August, 1 7. "•.">. thai Gen. Lyman halted his troops and 
huilt a fort in Old Saratoga, at the mouth of Fish Creek, 
now Schuylerville, on the Hudson, and named it Fort 
Hardy, in honor of Sir Charles Hardy, the governor of 
\ ■ fork. A It. r the battle of the Sth of September, 
1755, Sir William Johnson built Fori William Henry, ;it 
the head of Lake George, naming it in honor of the Puke 
of Cumberland. 

Of Gen. Winslow'a fruitless expedition of 1756, during 
which he built Fort Winslow, at Stillwater, in the place of 
Fort [ngoldesby, built by Col. Schuyler in 1709; of the 
campaign of 1757, in which Gen. Montcalm invested and 
troyed Fort William Henry, al Lake George, whose sur- 
render was followed by the dreadful massacre of a part of 
it- garrison by the Indians ; of the magnificent army led 
by Gen. Abercrombie, in 1758, against Fort Carilon, at 

I ii the jaws of slaughter and defeat, and of 
the tinal trintn|ili of the English forces, under Gen. Am- 

-. on Lake Champlain, and under Gen. Wolfe, al 
Quebec, in 1759, 1 shall make but this passing mention. 

Tin' peace of 1763, bctwt en England and France, brought 
joy to the war-worn inhabitants of the great Northern val- 
ley. The hardy settlers, now that all fear of the northern 
invader was join-. I. it the banks of the rivers and the pro- 
. ii of the forts, and began to push their way into the 
the old wilderness, and among them came many 
of ,; into the unoccupied \ Rensselaer 


VIII ORIGIN OF \ wh'i.i. DOOD1 i in \MI-.i:i< \ 

In 1755, England determined to possess herself of Can- 

1 itinuous incursions of the French and Indians 

into the English colonies were bo annoying, vexatious, and 

life and property that the time had nunc 

when England must rself of Canada or the colo- 

,[■ to 1'r.i 

[n It imbie, with about ten 

to fifteen tboo I isl Sew York. 

i ■ ii. amped on thi casl bank of the 

II . iw Albany, al a place called Hel Van 

•!■ men! of Phil 
town, in • . now i Ireenbush, 

impmenl w;i- upon the 
land- 1 by VolkcTt 

P l> -r.< B i ;. tmin Ak I W \ an B 

'. soldiers did 
their cooking i lot mm,;, i ma, 

vestiges of tlieir encampment, and discernible as late as 
the war of 181 2, on the grounds of John I. Van Rens- 
selacr, Esq. 

II. iv th,. English tinny was joined by the sixteen colo- 
nial regiments. Early in June the four Connecticut regi- 
ments arrived, under command of Col. Thomas Fitch, the 
bod of Governor Thomas Fitch, of that colony. All the 
colonial troops were placed under Col. Fitch as senior 

It was of the Connecticut four regiments that Yankee 
Poodle was composed. Their dress, marching, accoutre- 
ments, and general appearance greatly amused the officers 
of the English army, as well as the citizens of Albany. 
An Albany newspaper wrote of the new-comers that "Some 
wore long coats, some wore short coats, and others were 
with no coats at all. Their dresses were as varied in colors 
as the rainbow. Some of the men had their hair cropped 
like Cromwell's Roundheads; others were in wigs or wore 
curls in the style of the Cavaliers!" Dr. Sliaekburg, at- 
tached to the English army, in derision of these motley- 
arrayed Connecticut regiments, composed the first four 
verses of the now world-wide famous song, and called it 
" Yankee Doodle." The music was not original with 
Sliaekburg. but was an adaptation from a song composed 
upon a noted lady in the reign of Charles I., in England, 
preserved in nursery rhyme: 

" Lucy Locket lost her pocket, 
Kitty Fisher found ii ; 

Nothing in it. nothing in it. 
Hut the binding round it." 

It is supposed to have been written to satirize Cromwell, 
and tirst appeared in his time, beginning: 

" Yankee Doodle came to town 
Upon a Kentish pony ; 
It.- -luck a feather in his hat, 
And called him Moccaroni !" 

So many additions and variations to the song have been 
made that it is difficult to trace Shackhurg's composition. 
The following verses, with others, have been in use for a 
century : 

" Father and I went down to camp, 
irith t laptain Gooding, 
And there we see the men and boys, 
hick ns hast; pudding. 

■■ Chorua. — Yankoe Doodle, keep it op, 
Yankee Doodle, dandy : 
.Mind the niu-ic and t lie step, 
And wiih the i:irls bo handy. 

"" \ii'l Hi- n n thousand men, 

As n David ; 

And wlial they «a*l«-.| every day, 

I irish n could be saved. 

Yankee I lie, eto. 

'• And Captain David had a gun, 

II it clapt his hand on 't, 
And stack a orooked stabbing 

i pon the little end on 't. 

Yank. <- Doodle, etc. 

" And there I see a pumpkin-shell 
As big as mother's basin, 

BIJ lim<- they touched it 'iflT, 
Th. ■ i like the nation. 

-. —Yankee Doo Hi 



" I soe a little Itimvl, too, 

The heads wore made of Leather ; 

They kdook'd u] 't with little oluba. 

Ami called the folks together. 

Ohorua. — Yankee Doodle, etc 

" Flaming rihbona in the Cap'n's hat, 
They looked so tarring fine ah, 
I wanted pooklly t<> get, 

To give i y Jemimah. 

I'ltnrtm. — Yankee Doodlo, eto. 

" But I can't tell yon half I soe, 
They kept up snob :t smother, 
So I took m v hat off, made a bow, 
And soampered home to mother. 
Ohorua. — Yankee Doodle, etc." 

Shackburg's song answered the purpose of casting ridi- 
cule upon the Connecticut troops, to the great merriment 
of the English army, as well as the New York and New 
Jersey provincials. The joke took ; the Connecticut troops 
called it " Nation fine," and in a few days Yankee Doodle 
was the popular air in the provincial camp. 

Justice is slow but sure ; the mills of the gods grind 
slow, but they grind very fine. Little did the English 
doctor know what he was doing, or that he was passing 
his name down in history to the latest generations ; he 
wrote better than he thought! Nor did the English officers 
suppose that the simple song, composed for the purpose of 
levity, ridicule, and derision, was destined for all time, aud 
that it would become known and sung in every civilized 

Yankee Doodle was adopted as the hymn of freedom at 
Saratoga. Upon the surrender of Burgoyne, 17th October, 
1777, after the British troops had stacked their arms, they 
passed through the lines of the American army. As our 
victorious host did not feel like insulting a fallen foe, it was 
suggested that a lively tune be played for their consolation, 
and, by common consent, the melodious Yankee Doodle was 
■ given by the whole American lines, while the rank and file 
of the British were passing between them. 



An idea prevails that the memorable conflict which took 
place on Aug. 16, 1777, between the British and Germans 
on the one side, and the American forces on the other, was 
fought at Beunington, in the State of Vermont, for the 
reason that the conflict is generally known in history as 
" the battle of Bennington." Not only is this idea erro- 
neous, but it is directly contrary to the fact. The battle of 
Bennington was not only not fought in Bennington, but it 
, was not even fought within the boundaries of the State of 
Vermont. All the fighting was done in Hoosick, a town in 
Rensselaer County, in the State of New York. For this 
reason, an account of this important affair finds, most prop- 
erly, a place in this volume. In the historical statements 
which follow is embraced a presentation of the events which 

* By Benjamin H. Hall. 

preceded and were connected with the battle "I' Benning- 
ton, and which gave i" the Kiii].- summer of 1777 a | kj 
tion of renown in the period recognized as the wai of the 

For many years the people of the United States have 
been engaged in studying the history of that eventful 
period daring which thirteen of the richest of the depend 
encies of Great Britain, having failed to secure from that 
kingdom by peaceful measures such an acknowledgment of 

their position as (hey deei I was their right, resolved to 

shake off the trammels that fettered both their thought and 
their action, and found a government based upon the will 
of the people as the highest law. An examination of the 
history of nations reveals the fact that a thoughtful and 
intelligent people who are oppressed will, when they have 
once escaped from their grievances, endeavor to avoid the 
particular evils which before have given them annoyance. 
Such has been the ease with the American people ; and 
although, owing to the fact that this country has become an 
asylum for the distressed and persecuted of all nations, a 
license of conduct has been introduced which is the abuse 
of true liberty, yet the evils from which our fathers 
suffered, as subjects of Great Britain, have never been re- 
peated by our own government towards any of its free-born 


In reviewing the different acts and scenes in the drama of 
the American Revolution, the position of Vermont demands 
our attention. During the whole of that dark period this 
position was anomalous. At the outset, Vermont was 
known only as the " New Hampshire Grants," aud its terri- 
tory, theretofore claimed as a part of several provinces, was 
inhabited by a set of meu who could not brook even the 
semblance of power in those in whom they did not recog- 
nize power as rightly existing. It was not until 1777 that 
the name Vermont was adopted as designating the " New 
Hampshire Grants," and that Vermont came forth as au 
independent State, with a government of its own. Yet 
from the beginning of the year 1775, down to the 16th of 
August, 1777, the people of that territory were as true to 
the cause of the uuited colonies as they would have been 
had they been recognized as one of those colouies and 
honored with representation in the American Congress. 


Very early in the history of Revolutionary events did the 
patriotism of Vermont become apparent, and, as if to sig- 
nalize this feeling on two most marked occasions, did the 
valor of its heroes inspire the public mind with confidence 
to repel the attacks of the enemies of American freedom 
and herald the approach of scenes of the highest impor- 
tance. One of these occasions was that which has passed 
into history as the " Westminster Massacre," and its main 
incidents are these. Previous to the year 1775 the courts 
had, in many parts of the country, become the instru- 
ments of oppression, and to such au extent had this 
spirit been carried that many persons were imprisoned 
contrary to the laws of the provinces and the statutes of the 
crown. The New Hampshire Giants, then in great part 
under the jurisdiction of the colouial government of New 



York, were do exception to the role. A county court bad 
been appointed t" be held ;it Westminster, a pleasant vil- 

within the New Bam] Bhiro Grants," on the Conneo- 
t'u'iii River, on the 14th of March, 177.Y The "mob," as 
the Whigs were called, to the number of about a hundn d, 
entered the court-house late in the afternoon of the 13th of 
M rch, ITT.'i. "with :i determination to Btay there until 
the next morning, that they might present their grievances 
t.. the judges :ii an early hour, and endeavor to dissuade 
them from holding court." One of the judges soon after 
made his appearance, and stated to the Whigs thai tEe 

• would on the next day assemble and hear what those 
who were aggrieved mi-^lii wish to offer. Thereupon a 
memorandum was made of the subjects in regard t" which 
redress was to be sought, and the Whigs dispersed, I 
ing, however, .1 guard in the court-house i" give notice in 

: 1 1 ■ :it t :n-k should 1"- made in the night. Taking ad- 
vantogc of this decrease of numbers, the sheriff, with ;i 
burg ' armed Tories, at about eleven o'clock at 

night, demanded entrance t" the court-house in His Moj- 

- name. Entrance was, however, refused. Thereupon 
the doors were forced; the Whigs, who were only armed 
with sticks, were tired upon and soon vanquished. Si 
of them escaped by a Bide passage; seven were made pris- 
inii r- ami ten were wounded, twoof them mortally. Wil- 
liam French, one of the latter, died the same night The 
other, Daniel Boughton, survived only nine days. Both 
were buried in the old graveyard at Westminster. Not 
only was William French the proto-inartyr of American 
independence, but the conflict in which be and others bore 

-.. important a part, being blaz .1 in the gazettes of New 

Jfoi 1 1 1 • 1 Salem, served :i< a beacon to guide the 

of the patriots of the land t" the fields of Lexington 
and Concord, which were soon to be ensanguined by no 
purer or more patriotic blood than that which had flowed 
from the vein- of those who died on the plains of W 

lnin-t. r. 


did Vermont become conspicuous as actor in 

another conflict,— a conflict famous as the prophet and pre- 

■r "f magnificent victory. This second occasion was 

the battle of Bennington, which, by it- successful issue, 

nerved tl f Americans anew fur thi con- 

fi rated Burgoyne in bis forebodings as to the result of his 

, and led by a path and as direct 

non ball t" the conflict at S 

i-i\e battles "I the 

world. Meanwhile, within her borders had 1 n fought 

quinary battle at Bubbardton, in which the 
ider Wamer met, with the greatest ob- 
■tin ir.vje. the flower of the British army. 

The plan of tin British in America for the 

1771 tded rominenl feature the .tI- 

van I ;. the way of the laki a 

mi i which, being 

as i- i it would : pulation "t the 

, ■ 1 1 ry through which the araij i . should I 

way down the Hud-. n as far, if j 

while at the same time the army of Sir Henry Clinton, 
then blockaded in New York, should break through the 
lines, advance up the Hudson, and join, at Albany or at any 
Other point deemed practicable, the force from Canada under 
Burgoyne. By this means it was hoped that, while a free 
communication would thus be opened between New York 
and Canada, all communication would be cut off between the 
northern and southern colonies, and that, each of theiu being 
left to its own means of defi nsc without the possibility of 
co-operation, and attacked by superior numbers, would be 
reduced to submission. In order to make this desired junc- 
tion in. in easy, and for the purpose of distracting the atten- 
tion of the Americans, Lieut. -Col. St. Leger, with about 
two hundred British, a regiment of New York loyalists 
raised and commanded by Sir John Johnson, and a largo of Indians, was to ascend the St. Lawrence to Lake 
Ontario, and from that quarter was to penetrate towards 
Albany by the way of the Mohawk lliver. 

The campaign thus planned had been determined upon 
after long-considered and mature deliberation, and the ulti- 
inaie failure of the campaign so carefully designed was more 
significant of the power of the Americans and the weakness 
of the British than any event that had preceded it. The 
battle-summer of 1777 has ever since been regarded as the 
season during which the destiny of the United States as a 
jurisdiction independent of Great Britain was definitely 
settled, a- the season when the power of England in this 
country received the shock from which recovery was impos- 


But fully to understand the import of the events of this 
battle-summer of 1777. an examination of the antecedent 
circumstances which had aided in bringing together a cer- 
tain portion of the army of Great Britain in America must 

not 1 mined. For the last century the word " Hessian'' 

lias been used in this country , — first, to signify a mean-spir- 
ited man who for money hires himself to do the dirty work 
of another, and, generally, as an epithet of opprobrium. 
The word, with these meanings, was never recognized until 
after the defeat of Burgoyne. at Saratoga; and the peculiar 

infamy which since then has attached to it is derived from 
the supposed voluntary employment of the Hessian soldicij 
by Great Britain against the Americans. That there was 
no such voluntary employment is historically true, and the 
reproach which has so long been connected with the won! 
II ssinn in this country is as undeserved as it is unfounded. 
The Hessian soldiery had no more option in their employ- 
ment to light against Americans than had the negroes of 
the South, who were brought in slave-ships to this country, 
in working as .-laves for their masti rs in the cotton-fields of 
South Carolina A- men, the Hessians were honest, indu* 
trious, and peculiarly domestic in their tastes and lives, aod 
many, if not all of them, would gladly have given half the] 
w. re worth, or years of labor, could they have been permitted 
to remain in their fatherland and follow their humble avo 
cation- in obscurity or serve their country in their own 
arm i 

T I md belong the disgrace and infamy of enticing 
the rulers of thi sc men, by large subsidies, to compel their 


Bubjects in fighl the wars of Great Britain ; ili;ii ibis state 
incut is correct an examination of the Tails will make ap- 
parent. On the 10th 'lay of February, 177(1, Lord Wcy- 
mouth laid before the House of Lords, — first, a treaty with 
ili' hereditary prince of Hesse Darmstadt, dated .Ian. 5, 
1770; second, a treaty between His Majesty George [II., of 
England, ami the I hike of Brunswick, dated Jan. 'J, 1770; 
and third, a treaty with the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel, 
dated Jan. 15, 177(i, for the hire of troops lor the Amer- 
ican service to the number of seventeen thousand three 
hundred men. The same treaties were laid before tin- House 
of ( 'ominous on the 29th of February of the same year. 
Lord North moved to refer them to the committee ol' sup- 
lily. The motion instantly led to a most, vehement debate. 
The chief arguments used by ministers to excuse or justify 
this hiring of foreign mercenaries were, — that there was no 
possibility of raising, in time, a sufficient number of men at 
home; that, even if native forces could have been raised, it 
was not to be expected that raw and undisciplined troops could 
answer the purpose so well as tried, experienced veterans; 
that it would be a terrible loss to withdraw so many hands 
from the manufactures and husbandry of the country ; that 
the expense with native troops would not end with the war, 
but would leave the nation saddled with the lasting encum- 
brance of half-pay for nearly thirty battalions; that foreign 
troops would cost much less for their maintenance than 
English troops; and that there was no novelty in such 
hiring, as the king had at all times been under the neces- 
sity of employing foreigners in the wars of the realm. 


To these statements the Opposition replied that England 
was degrading herself by applying to the petty princes of 
Germany for succor against her own subjects, and reprobated 
in the strongest terms the practice of letting out to hire 
men who had nothing to do with the quarrel in question. 
Lord [rnhara, in opposing the measures, quoted Don Qui- 
xote with some humor and effect, and ended with a compli- 
ment to the American people. " I shall say little," observed 
his Lordship, " as to the feelings of these princes who can 
sell their subjects for such purposes. We have read of the 
humorist Saneho's wish, — that, if he were a prince, all his 
subjects should be blackamoors, as he could, by the sale of 
them, easily turn them into ready money ; but that wish, 
however it may appear ridiculous and unbecoming a sover- 
eign, is much more innocent than a prince's availing him- 
self of his vassals for the purpose of sacrificing them in 
such a destructive war, where he has the additional crime 
of making them destroy much better and nobler beings 
than themselves." 

It was also urged by the Opposition that these German 
soldiers, as soon as they should find themselves in a land 
of liberty, would join the banner of independence and fight 
against England, and that they would be specially inclined 
to such a course from the fact that already more than oue 
hundred and fifty thousand of their countrymen had emi- 
grated to the New World and were making common cause 
with the Anglo-Americans. It was maintained that these 
German veterans, " who considered the camp their home 
and country," would be less inclined to desert than raw 

English l.vies. Lord North, who reverenced too highly 
German tactics ami discipline, declared thai a numerous 
body of the very best soldier) in Europe, inspired onl) with 
military maxims ami ideas, ion well disciplined in be disor- 
derly anil cruel, and too martial to I"- kepi back by any false 
limits, could not fail of bringing matters in a speedy eon- 
elusion. Others, more Banguine even than be, were "1 
opinion thai these Hrunswickers ami Hessians would have 

little more to do than to show themselves on the American 

Continent, when instantly the rebellion would cease and 
quiet be restored to the land, as Virgil tells us the tempest 
ceased to beat and the storms subsided when Neptune, 
rising from the waves, bade the winds retire to their re- 
Cesses. In closing the debate, Aid. Bull, who subsequently 
became conspicuous as the friend of Lord (lenpje Guidon 
in the " No Popery" riots, spoke as follows : " The war 
you are now waging is an unjust one; it is founded in op- 
pression, and its end will be distress and disgrace. Let not 
the historian be obliged to say that the Russian and the 
German slave were hired to subdue the sons of Englishmen 
and of freedom, and that, in the reign of a prince of the 
house of Brunswick, every infamous attempt was made to 
extinguish that spirit which brought his ancestors to the 
throne, and, in spite of treachery and rebellion, seated them 
firmly upon it." In this debate not much stress was laid 
upon that " laudable national feeling" which, in former 
times and since, led Englishmen to " prize British valor 
above that of other nations," and to exalt the deeds of 
British infantry in all ages. The treaties were, by a large 
majority, referred to the committee of supply, who, on the 
4th of March following, reported favorably upon them. 


Discussion then arose afresh, and in the House of Lords 
the whole strength of the Opposition was arrayed against 
the treaties and against the principle of hiring mercenaries 
to fight the battles of the realm. The Duke of Richmond 
moved an address to countermand the march of the foreign 
troops and to suspend hostilities altogether. In a speech 
in which he criticised with the utmost severity every para- 
graph of the treaties, he stated that ever since the year 
1702 the German princes had been rising in their demands, 
until now the present bargain far outstripped all other bar- 
gains, and would cost the nation not less than a million and 
a half of pounds sterling a year for the services of these 
seventeen thousand three hundred mercenaries. As to the 
influence, whether for good or for evil, that pervaded the 
councils of the realm in respect to these treaties, he declared 
that it proceeded from the determined character of the 
king himself. 


But of all the Opposition, — among whom were Chatham 
and Burke, earnest advocates of the most conciliatory nil in- 
ures, — one noble lord, the Earl of Coventry, alone took the 
right philosophical view of the whole question in maintain- 
ing that " an immediate recognition of the independence of 
the united provinces was preferable to war." In advocating 
this theorem, his sagacious language was as follows : '• Look 
on the map of the globe, view Great Britain and North 



America, compare their extent, consider the soil, riches, 
climate, and increasing population of the latter. Nothing 
bul themosl obstinate blindness and partiality can engender 
a Berions opinion thai Buch a country will long continue un- 
der subjection to this. The question i- cot, therefore, how 

wo shall be able to realise a vain delusive scheu f do- 

mioion, but how we shall make it the interest of the Ameri- 
cana to continue faithful allies and warm friends. Surely 
that can never bo effected bj Beets and armies. Instead of 
meditating o inquest and exhausting < >n r own strength in an 
ineffectual Btrugglc, we should, wisely abandoning wild 
Bohemea of coercion, avail ourselves of this only substantial 
benefit we can ever expect, the profits of an extensive com- 
merce, and the >t r- >n ^ support of a firm and friendly alliance 
and compact for mutual defense and assistance." 


Rut in vain were philosophy, eloquence, national pride, 
ippeal tn kingly honor, mercy, "i- peace. The report of 

tl tnmitt n the treaties was approved a- were all 

measures wh — object was to i too the Americans l>y what 

Burke called " that vast and invincible majority ;" and < Ireat 
Britain was compelled by necasity to accept the very terms 
which tli" German princes bad themselves prescribed in 
drafting these treaties, 1 1 > « • only change proposed being em- 
1. died in an addre-.- to His Majesty made by Col. Barre, 
desiring him t>. use bis interest that the German troops in 
Rriti-li pay. then and thereafter, might be clothed with the 
manufactures of Great Britain. By the conditions of the 
treaties n n pounds ten shillings levy money was 

; for every man. and the princes who hired out the limbs, 
i. and lives of their subjects, in a fouler manner than 
men t.irin out their slaves, and with none of the humanity 
that characterises the dealings of those who keep beasts of 
draught or of burden for hire, took especial care, while 
driving a very hard bargain with (ireat Britain, to reap the 
let pan of the profits thereof iii their own subsidies. 
1 1 1 . -. of Brunswick, who supplied 4084 men, was 

D annual suh-idy of £15,619,80 long BS thetroops 

and double that Bum. or i':!l. oils, for 

each of the two year- following their dismissal. To the 

Lin. il I who furnished 1 J.<" 'i ' men. 

10,281 per annum during the service of the 

to be continued until the 

F the discontinuani f 

su. ! which ii"' i ved until after 

hi* troops should all be relumed to his dominion-. To the 
hereditary prinot ol II- Darmstadt, who furnished 
in. ii wi rabsidy of £6000, and l»-i lea 

all (hi-, the Kin:: of Kngl.m I I the dominion 

A little later the 
1'rioce of Waldcck, wh furnish 670 men. made 

the bargains made 

in I'.ki nit FRIEND ••> \Mi ill' I 

'hi* employment uf foreign li 

lino 'ii'iit during il ntin- 

uance of the w»r. I i an influence on both -i i 

ih. Atlantic In * letti 1 on the 

affairs of America, published in April, 1777, Edmund 
Burke, referring to those who were in the habit of peti- 
tioning the kim_' to prosecute the war against America with 

vigor, made use of this language: "There are many cir- 
cumstances in the zeal shown for civil war which seem to 
discover but little of real magnanimity. The addressers 
offer their own persons, and they are satisfied with hiring 
Germans. They promise their private fortunes, and they 
mortgage their country. They have all the merit of vol- 
unteers, without ri.-k of person or charge of contribution; 
and when the unfeeling arm of a foreign soldiery pours out 
their kindred blood like water, they exult and triumph as 
if they themselves had performed some notable exploit." 
In the Bame letter he also observed as follows: " It is not 
instantly that I can be brought to rejoice when I hear of 
the slaughter and captivity of long list- of those names 
which have been familiar to nry ears from my infancy, 
and to rejoice that they have fallen under the sword of 
strangers whose barbarous appellations I scarcely know 
how to pronounce. The glory acquired at the White 
Plains by Colonel Rahl has no charms for uie, and I fairly 
acknowledge that I have not yet learned to delight in find- 
ing Knyphausen in the heart of the British doniinious." 


On the 30th of May. 1777. Lord Chatham entered the 
House of Lords wrapped in flannel and bearing a crutch in 
each baud. Sitting in his place, with his head covered, he 
delivered a powerful speech in support of his motion for an 
address to His Majesty, requesting him to put an end to 
hostilities against America. In the course of bis remarks 
he said: 'What has been the system pursued by the ad- 
ministration, and what have been the means takeu for car- 
rying it into execution ? Your system litis been a govern- 
ing ut erected on the ruins of the constitution and founded 
in conquest, and you have swept all Germany of its refuse as 
its means. There is not a petty, insignificant prince whom 
you have not solicited for aid. You are become the sui 
at every German court, and you have your ministers en- 
rolled in the German chancery as the contracting parties 
in behalf of this once great and glorious country. The 

laurels of Britain are faded, her arms are disgraced, her 
negotiation- are spurned at, and her councils fallen into 
contempt. My lords, yon have vainly tried to conquer 
America by the aid of German mercenaries, by the anus 

of twenty thousand undisciplined German 1 rs, gleaned 

and collected from every obscure corner of that country. 
You have subsidized their master.-. You have lavished the 

public treasures on them. And what have you effected? 

Nothing, my lords, but forcing the colonics to declare 
thein-lve.- independent Slates." 


Among the charge- brought against George III in the 
Declaration of Indcpcndei was the following: "lie is 

this time transporting large armies of foreign met 
naries to complete the work of death, desolation, and tyr- 
anny already begun with circumstances of cruelty and |>er- 
fidy scarcely paralleled in the si barbarous ages, and 

totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation." 




Nor was the employment of Hessian troops regarded 
with favor by those from whom approbation mi^lii have 
been expected. Frederick the Great, who, although pos 
sessing but little community of political sentiment with, 
was still friendly to, the American people, signalized Ins 
dislike of liritish policy in hiring Hessian troops to serve 
across the Atlantic by levying the same toll per head upon 
the recruits which passed through his dominions as was 
charged upon " bought-and-sold cattle." To Englishmen 
belong the terrible infamy and disgrace of hiring mem- 
bers of an alien race to slaughter men as noble as them- 
selves, speaking the same language, and related to them by 
ties of consanguinity, friendship, and commerce. But to 
the Landgraves of llesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, and 
to the Duke of Brunswick attach a deeper infamy and a 
disgrace more damnable for the manner in which they ob- 
tained possession of the persons of their miserable subjects. 
Not daring to inform them that they were to be employed 
in a foreign service, their brutal masters seized them as 
they knelt in worship in their churches on the day espe- 
cially sacred to God, or caught them as they strove to leave 
the sacred edifices, and, binding them in coffles, without 
permitting them to bid adieu to wife or children, tore them 
from home and friends and sent them to a foreign land 
which to many of them was to be their grave. Such were 
the foreigners to whom we, in our shortsightedness, have 
attached all the brutality and fiendishness which obtained 
in the character of England's king, and which grew rank 
and foul in the lives and acts of the German princes. 
Late though it be to do justice to these unfortunate men, 
let us endeavor to divest the name of Hessian of the in- 
dignities with which we have surrounded it, and retain our 
memory of hatred only for those embodiments of human 
demonism who forced their subjects to lift unwilling hands 
against men whom these subjects would have gladly pro- 

In the powerful drama of Schiller, called " Love" and 
Intrigue,"— or " Love and Cabal," as some translate the title, 
— occurs a dialogue in the second scene of the second act 
which emphasizes with terrible point the conduct of the 
German princes in supplying soldiers for the king of Great 
Britain. The valet of the prince, in the extract from the 
play containing the dialogue referred to, is introduced as 
about presenting a casket of jewels from the prince to his 
mistress, Lady Milford. The extract is as follows : 

Valet.— His Serene Highness begs your ladyship's acceptance of 
these jewels as a nuptial present. They have just arrived from Venice. 

Lady M. (opens the casket and starts back in astonishment).— What 
diil these jewels cost the duke? 

Valet.— Nothing! 

Lady M.— Nothing ! Are you beside yourself? {retreating a step or 
'""). Old man ! you fix on me a look as though you would pierce me 
through. Did you say these precious jewels cost nothing ? 

Valet.— Yesterday seven thousand children of the land left their 
homes to go to America: they pay for all. 

Lady M. («ei« the casket suddenly down and pace, up and down the 

•' "-'''''' " >■"<">•; to "'<: valet).— What distresses you, old man? 

lou are weeping! 

Vai.kt (wiping /„■„ eyM alld „.,,„,,,,„,, Bio/enrty).— Tes, for these 
jewels; my two sons are among the number. 

1. 1 in M. But they ii, 1,1 I,,, i bj compul 

V alet (laughing bitterly). Oh dear no! Ihey were all volnntoct ! 
There were certainly aom< fow forward lads, who poshed to tin - 

of i In' m uk- iin, I inquired ,,i il olonel at what price the prim 

hi* Bobjeote per yoke, upon whioh our grocioue rulei ordi red tbi 
minis in In, marched i" the parade mid tin- malcontentt i" I"- shot. 

Wo heard tbi' report of the muskets n,,l Fft w brains and bl I 

ing about us, while the whole band snooted " Hurrah foi Amcrii 

Lady M. — And I heard nothing of all this — saw nothing! 

\ M i r. —No, most graoioue holy ! because yon rode off to tl 
hunt with His Highness just at the moment thoTlrum was healing for 
the march. 'Tie a pity your ladyship missed the pleasure of the tight. 
Here, crying children might be seen following their wretched fathei 
— there a mother distracted with grief was rnshiog forward to throw 
her tender infant among the bristling bayonets— here, a bride and 
bridegroom wore separated with the sabre's stroke— and there gray- 
beards were seen to stand in despair and to fling their very crutches 
after their suns into the \. -w World— and in the midst of all this, the 
drums were beating loudly, that the prayers and lamentations might 
not reach the Almighty ear. 

LADY M. (rising in violent emotion). — Away with these jewels! 
Their rays pierce my bosom like the flames of hell. Moderate your 
grief, old man. Your children shall be restored to you. You shall 
again clasp them to your bosom. 

Valet (with warmth). — Yes, heaven knows ! We shall meet again ' 
As they passed tho city gates they turned round and cried aloud . 
" God bless our wives and children ! — long life to our gracious sover- 
eign ! At the day of judgment we shall all meet again." 

Coleridge's views. 

In one of his essays in " The Friend," Coleridge refers 
to a conversation he once had with the landlord of a small 
public-house in Germany, who was one of the men who 
had been sold by his prince for service in America, and 
who gave him the particulars of the seizure of the troops. 
" His account of the manner in which they were forced 
away," observes Coleridge, " accorded in so many particu- 
lars with Schiller's impassioned description of the same or 
a similar scene, in his tragedy of ' Cabal and Love,' as to 
leave a perfect conviction on my mind that the dramatic 
pathos of that description was not greater than its historic 


With help such as this did King George and the British 
ministry decree that the British arms should triumph in 
America. The embarkation of the first division of Bruns- 
wick troops was completed at Stade on Sunday, March 17, 
1776. These were the troops destined for Canada, and in 
the subsequent year a portion of them was to suffer defeat 
at Bennington, and later on all that remained were to sur- 
render to Gates at Saratoga. They were UDder the com- 
mand of Maj.-Gen. Friedrich Adolph Biedesel, a man 
whose bravery and honor were equaled only by the de- 
voted attention which he lavished on his wife and children, 
and which he manifested in every thoughtful mode towards 
his soldiers, who loved him as a father. The Brunswickers 
were in number about four thousand, and consisted of the 
following regiments: First, a regiment of (dismounted) 
dragoons, under Lieut.-Col. Friedrich Baurn ; second, 
Prince Frederic's regiment of infantry, commanded by 
Lieut.-Col. Christian Julius Priitorius ; third, Rhetz's 
regiment of infantry, under the command of Lieut.-Col. 
Johann Gustav Von Ehrenkrock ; fourth, Riedesel's former 
regiment of infantry, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Ernst 
Ludewig Wilhclm Von Speth ; fifth, a regiment of iu- 



fanirv under the command of Col. Johann Friedrich 
lit; sixth, a grenadier regimen) commanded by Lieut. - 
C Hcinrich Christoph Breymann; seventh, a rifli -I 

meal under the command of Maj. Ferdinand Albrechl 
\ n Barner. On the 1th of April they sailed in thirty 

Spithead for America, under > voy of two 

men-of-war, and were followed the next day by Gen. Bur- 

e -i ii« I Col. Phillips, In the latter par) of May the 

troops arrived at Quebec, and Burgoync and Phillips 

:.•.! the same place at about the same ii During 

the summer and fall tin- Brunswickcrs .-aw bul little ser- 
.in.l about tin- 1-t of November wen) into winter- 
quarters in and around Three Rivers, their territory ex- 
tending a.- far down as Cbambly, on the western side of 
Lake St. Pierre, and between th - l rrencc ami the 


Meantime, ami about the 26th of October, Gen. Bur- 
• •'1 for England, where he arrived on the Pith of 
1' it. During lii- absence in America, and on the 
tirsi 3 oiber, In- had been appointed lieutenant-gen- 
eral, tin- appointment having 1 n made preparatory t" bis 

a-- in-.' tin- command of tin- northern expedition already 

alluded to. In Parliament, several years before, he had 

ivcred Id- opinion of and disposition towards the 

Americans in a speed the motion for the repeal of the 

ad imposing a duty on t<-a. On thai occasion he bad de- 

■I thai Anniica had been spoiled by too lunch indul- 
gence; thai the idea of the independence of that country 

no) t" I"- tolerated, and thai he was ready to resist 
then and contend at any future time against such inde- 
I ■ i i The future bad do w come; and as the senti- 

its of biin who bad appealed to that future had not 
changed, an opportunity was now afforded him t" carry 

into execution tli sentiments, t" win victory for the 

British empire and fur himself the fame of a conqueror- 

in mi..) \t.'- plans. 

Burg • lined in England until the 27th of March, 

1777 n which day he lefl I. Ion«for Canada, arriving in 

ol X I i\ following. Sir liny Carleton 

iiiiin - it under bis command the troops destined 

ion, and committed t" his management the 

mcnl [n a papei drawn up by Bur- 

li parture from England, and 

■ 28, 1777, entitled, "Thoughts for Conducting 

A ir from tb" S Can ida," he bad I out 

the • amp ii_-ii wlm h hi 

nnd . 1 have been based only upon an 

iniin intnnce with the topography of the country 

and a determination to adhere to the one object which he 
in % low. This "b; inin ii"ii with 

G i I 9ii Henry Clinton 

tar ■ -b<- communi- 

cation to '■ main upon the Hudson II i v • r 

Howe or < i ith his wind,- i 

I i the formation 

1 iwn 
poii ■ bt fmm i I of the n 

important operations of the campaign, because, as be rea- 
i. •• ii i- upon thai which most of the rest will depend." 
The conveyance of them was to be by boats thai eould be 
used with oar.-, which could also be utilized for land-car- 
riage at carrying-places. The other important points were 
the securing of the navigation of Lake Champlain; the taking 

possessi I Crown Point ; tlie reduction of Ticonderoga, 

— "early in the summer," if possible, — and the removal 
then- of arm-- from Crown Point; the immediate possession 

of Lake George as the most i imodious route to Albany. 

or, if this should not be possible, then a passage to Albany 
by South I'ay and Skeiioshomngh or Whitehall. Should 
an immediate junction with Clinton become impracticable, 
his proposition then was to employ the Canada army (sup- 
posing it, of course, to be in possession of Ticonderoga) to 
gain the Connecticut River. Another plan, which was also 
deemed of the utmost importance, was at the outset to send 
an expedition, to be commanded by St. Leger, by the way 
of Lake Ontario and Oswego to the Mohawk River, and 
thence down the Mohawk to its junction with the Hudson 
River. Although this latter expedition was attempted in 
accordance with the plans of Burgoyne and although its 
failure gave a great blow to the anticipated success of Iiur- 
ae and enlivened with bounding hope the desponding 
spirits of the Americans, yet it is not proposed in this nar- 
rative to detail the events of this separate campaign on 
the Mohawk. This account will be confined mainly to a 
record of acts during the battle-summer of 1777. done 
north of the mouth of the Mohawk River, and on either 
hank of the Hudson River and Lake Champlain, and in 
the adjacent territory. 

(hi the 12th of May. 1777, Burgoyne proceeded to 
Montreal, and on the 1 Ith of the same month be was at 
Quebec, and on the 10th of the same month he was again 
at Montreal. Unavoidable disappointments, the difhcultii - 
occasioned by bad weather which rendered the toads almost 
impassable at the carrying places, and consequently the 
j. of the bateaux, artillery, ami baggage exceedingly 

slow, together with contrary winds, greatly detai 1 him 

in his first movements, and it was not until between the 
17ih and 20th of. Tune that the British army assembled at 
Cumberland Point upon Lake Champlain. On the latter 
of these two days, the general's headquarters being at Sandy 
Bluff, he took occasion to express to bis troops his confi' 
dence in their ability, and declared thai " they could not 

ted more to his satisfaction." He then 
forth his general order-, drawn in perspicuous terms and 
filled with soldierly and sensible directions. The parol,- on 

thi* day was " St. Peti r's," and th luntersign " Flon 

ami il is a noticeable fact that from that day forward until 
the I6tb of October, the lasl day in which he had an aimy 
to command, he always selected the name of some saint lor 
the parol.-, ami the name of a city, village, or town for (he 
countersign. The parole on the 16th day of October was 


On the 21st of June he held a conference with tie 
quoit. Algonquin, [benaquit and Ottawa Indians, in all 



about lour hundred. In *-!« m hk-h t language he Btatcd the 
object of his mission to them, and in receiving them as 

* brothers in the war" he positively forbade I>1 Ished 

when they were not opposed in arms; charged them that 
(wed men, women, children, and prisoners must be held 
snivel from the knili' or hatchet, even in t he time of actual 
oonflicl ; promised them compensation for prisoners, but 
punishment for scalps, unless the scalps should be those of 
the dead when killed by their fire and in fair opposition. 
In reply, an old chief of the Iroquois promised, in the name 
of all the, nations present, obedience to his wishes, and de- 
elared in the tropical style of poetical savagery common to 
the Indians of this continent, that their hatchets had been 
sharpened on their affections. From June 21st to June 
26th, Burgoyne's camp was at the mouth of the river Bou- 
quet, where he threw up intrenchments. While, there he 
teok occasion to compliment sonic of his corps on haviog 
learned "the art of making flour cakes without ovens, 
which," he adds, " are equally wholesome and relishing 
with the best bread." On the evening of the 25th his 
army left their camp at the mouth of the river Bouquet, 
under command of Maj.-Gen. Riedesel, and on the day fol- 
lowing were quartered at Crown Point, on both sides of 
Putnam Creek, where general orders appropriate to the 
change in position were issued. The few Americans in 
garrison there abandoned the fort and retreated to Ticon- 
deroga. The British quietly took possession, and after 
establishing magazines and a hospital, and having succeeded 
in bringing up the rear of the army and obtaining intelli- 
gence of the movements of the Americans, moved forward 
Oli the 1st of July. 

burgoyne's proclamation. 

But before leaving Putnam Creek, Gen. Burgoyne issued 
his famous and high-sounding proclamation. In his zeal 
for sustaining the cause of his royal master, he made use 
of this extraordinary language : 

" To the eyes anil ears of the temperate part of the public, and to 
the breasts of suffering thousands in the provinces, be the melancholy 
appeal whether the pie-cut unnatural rebellion has not been made a 
foundation for the completest system of tyranny that ever Go j in his 
displeasure suffore I for a time to bo exercised over a frowardand stub- 
born generation. Arbitrary imprisonment, confiscation of property, 
persecution, and torture unprecedented in the inquisitions of the Ro- 
mish Church, are among the palpable enormities which verify the 
affirmative. These are inflicted by assemblies and committees who 
dare to profess themselves friends to liberty, upon the most quiet sub- 

'". without distinction of age or sex, for the sole crime, often for 

the sole suspicion, of having adhered in principle to the government 

under which they were horn, an 1 to which, by every tie, divine and 

human, they owe allegiance. To consummate these shotiking pro- 

. the profanation of religion is added to the most profligate 

prostitution of cou >n reason; the consciences of men are set at 

naught, and multitudes arc cuuri die 1 not only to bear arm-, but alsu 
I to swear subjection to an usurpation they abhor." 

After exhorting all through whose territory he should 
pass to remain loyal, and offering to them employment 
should they join him, and solid coin " for every species of 
provision at an equitable rate," he concluded as follows : 

" [have but to give stretch to the Indian forcjs under my direction — 
"id tlicv amount to thousands— to overtake the hardened enemies of 
tircat Britain and America — I consider them the same — wherever 
thej may lurk. 

"If. notwithstanding tho< Icavoi and inoerc inclination to 

• Rod them, the frenzj ol lould , I trust 1 

aoquitted, in the eyei of Qod nnd man, in denounoin \ I ating 

the vengoan ■<• of th tf against the willful outc i < 

"Tho me , [got if justici and wrath await tl 11 tho field ; and 

devastation, famine, and ©very oonoomitnnf horror that n reluctant 
but indispon able i itioi try duly must a i i will 

bar I he way tO their lit urn ." 

On June 30th, in anticipation of departiug, Burgoyne 

addressed his soldiers in the general order- of that day, as 

" The army embark) to-i ow to approach the enemy, v, . :( 

contend for I he king and i li istitution of Qreal Britain, to vindi- 
cate the law. and to relieve the oppressed, a cause in which His 
Majesty's troops and those of the princes, his allies, will feel equal 

"the services required of this particular expedition arc critical 

and conspicuous. During Our progi is ■ > ir in which 

no difficulty nor labor nor life are to be regarded. This abuy mist 


The effect produced by the proclamation was, iu some 
quarters, directly contrary to that intended by its author. 
In many minds its .statements gave rise to sentiments of 
indignation and contempt. Governor Livingston, of New 
Jersey, made it an object of general derision by para- 
phrasing it in Hudibrastic verse. John Holt, of New 
York, an old and respectable printer, published it in his 
newspaper at Poughkccpsie with this motto, " Pride goeth 
before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fill." In 
his " State of the Expedition," published several years later, 
Gen. Burgoyne fails to record this ill-judged document. 
"It is remarkable," observes Dr. Timothy Dwight, " that 
the lour uiost haughty proclamations issued by military 
commanders in modern times have prefaced their ruin, — 
this of Gen. Burgoyne, that of the Duke of Brunswick 
when he was entering Fiance, that of Bonaparte in Egypt, 
and that of Gen. Le Clerc at his arrival in St. Domingo." 

On the 1st of July the whole of Burgoyne's army 
moved forward and took positions near Ticonderoga. Brig.- 
Gen. Frazer's corps occupied a strong post at Three-Mile 
Creek, on the west or New York shore of Lake Champlain ; 
the German reserve under Riedesel took a position on the 
east or Vermont shore, opposite Putnam Creek, while the 
main army encamped in two lines, — the right wing at a 
place called Four-Mile Point, on the west shore, and the 
left wing nearly opposite, on the east shore. The frigates 
the '-Royal George" and " Inflexible," with the gunboats, 
were anchored just without the reach of the batteries of the 
Americans, and covered the lake from the west to the east 
shore. Meantime, St. Clair, to whom the command of 
Ticonderoga, on the New York shore, and Mount Inde- 
pendence, in the town of Orwell, on the Vermont shore, 
had been intrusted by Schuyler on the 5th of June, 17T7, 
had reached his post on the 12th of that month. Upon 
the table land summit of Mount Independence was a star- 
fort, strongly picketed, in the centre of which was a con- 
venient square of barracks. The fort was well supplied 
with artillery, and its approaches guarded with batteries. 
The foot of the hill towards Lake Champlain was protect) d 
by a breastwork which bad been strengthened by an abatis, 
and by a strong battery standing on the shore of the lake 



Dear tbe mouth of East Creek. A Boating bridge con- 
nected the works of Mount [odependenco with those of 
T ii the other side of the lake, and served as 

nn obstruction to the passage of vessels up the lake. The 
batter? at the foot of Mount Independence covered :in<l 
protected the east end of the bridge. The bridge itself 
w.i- supported on twenty-two ranken purs, formed of very 
limber, the spaces between the piers being Bllcd with 
h tboul fifty feel long and twelve feel wide, 
strongly fastened together «i<li iron chains and rivets. \ 
m, made of large pieces of timber, well secured together 
by riveted bolts » n tho north Bidoofthe I" 

ami I'V the side ol this was a double it"ti chain, the links 
one inch ami a half of an inch Bquarc. The 
- end of the bridge was covered by the " Grenadier's 
redoubt built of earth and stone, which 
itructcd by the French and subsequently 
. .1 by the English. 
On fork ride, al the time of Burgoync's ap- 

small detachment of Americans occupied i ho old 
h lini - "ii the height to the north of Fort Ticonderoga. 
d repair and had Beveral intrench- 
meots behind them, chiefly calculated to guard the north- 

• flank, and were also sustained by n block-hou 
I rther t" the left of the Americans was an outposl al the 
mills, now the village of Ticonderoga. There were also 
a b upon an eminence above the mills, and a 

block-house and hospital al the entrance of Lake George. 
I ; n the right of the American lines, and between them 
and the old t"> >rt . there were two new block-houses, and the 
- Ball - •■ to the water's edge was manned. 

HOI M DOPE AM- -i '• LB l ." U UOl MAIN. 

Ii of the outlet of Lake George, near the 
rises Mounl Hope, an abrupt and rocky eleva- 
tion, and especially rugged and precipitous on the nortl 

On I ill ride of the mouth of the outlet of Lake 

d from Fort Ticonderoga whichissitu- 

. north of the outlet . and opposite Mounl Independence, 

i- il ol Mounl Di-li.iniv. ilicii known as 

.in. which rises abruptly from the water 

the height of about seven 1 Ired and fifty feet. 

Through tl" vigilati n learned 

that St Clair had neglected i" fortify those two important 
and command i n-. and. instead of making a direct 

assault upon tl of Ticonderoga, he determi 1 t" 

Marion i dons. 

Tilt POD 

Tli' \ nt. of 

whi [ndepend the centra. The entire 

lin< i up ii and one hundred 

But now, when rack, i 

1 .i in-, o nsisted of 

i»" thon I iitimiitil 

• hundred militia. Of the latter not onc- the lack "I men, the food, 

tmmunition w< re insuffici I 

that Bui : an 

i by this 

belief, had turned their exertions in other directions, and 
had lefl the posts on Lake Champlain almost undefended. 
The army of Burgoyne, on the contrary, amounted on the 
l-i of July to six thousand seven hundred and fort}' men, 
Of whom three thousand seven hundred and twenty-four 
were British and three thousand and sixteen German 
troops. In addition to this there were five hundred and 
eleven turn in the artillery service, besides Canadians, 
Tories, and Indians. 


(In the morning of the 2d the British observed a smoke 
in the directi f Lake George, and soon after the In- 
dians reported that the Americans had set fire to the farther 
block-house and had abandoned the saw-mills, and that a 
considerable body was advancing from the lines towards a 
hridire upon the road whieh led from the saw-mills towards 
the right of the British camp. A detachment of the ad- 
vanced corps, under Brig.-Qen. Frazer, with other troops 
and some light artillery, under Maj.-Gen. Phillips, were 
immediately sent out, with orders to proceed to Mount 
Bope, not only to reconnoitre, but to seize any post the 
Americans might abandon. The Indians, under Capt. 
r. with his company of marksmen, were directed to 
make a circuit to the lefl of Brig.-Gen. Frazer's line of 
march, and strive to keep the Americans from reaching 
their lines, but this undertaking failed by reason of the 
impetuosity of the Indians, who made the attack too soon 
and in front, thus giving the Americans an opportunity to 
return, they having lost, bowever, one officer and a few 
men killed and one officer wounded. 


St Clair was an officer of acknowledged bravery, yet he 
was far from being an expert and skillful military leader. 
His self-reliance and his confidence in the courage of his 
men led him often to be less vigilant than necessity de- 
maoded. Even with the knowledge of the great disparity 
in Dumbi I a his tone and that of the British, and 

in spite of the events of the 2d of duly which had already 
occurred in his immediate vicinity, he was enabled to write 
the following cheerful yel urgent letter to Col. John Wil- 
liams, of Salem, then White Creek, Washington Co., to 
Col. M * ■ Robinson, of Bennington, and to Col. Seth 

Warner : 

•• Ticondkhoo v. July 2, 1777. 
i ii letter "i i liis 

kin \<m happy i" hear thnl tho people turn out bo well, 

though it i t more than I ox| ted from them. The onomy have 

lying l""kni_' ni ii- i'"i- :i day <-r two, and wo have had n little 

■ doat. Bui I beliove thoy will in earnest try what 

in -I". perhaps ihi- night. I rather think it i- their intention, 

though I in - i ul I . thai ;i- il will, nl all e\ • ni- 

l*ii-l» "ii \ • - 1 1 r people «iih the utmoil expedition and lei il nttli 

main where they Ordci Col. Lymnns an I Col. Billany t" follow 

with all expedition. Everything depend! upon a spirited push, ami 

i that tho men here are u determi i m .\<"' '' ; '" 

biy wish them. Wetookaprii ir and have had Hessian do 

*r>ro-r« t" da^y, bul 1 have uol yel lime le examine them. It you u n.l 
Col. Warner can bring on ?ix hundred mi n. or oven less, I would wish 

Ii road I" B ■ 

ii ai"l he can judge mueh bettoi 

than D the old r<.a«l will then turn t" (lie 

lefl ami full in upon the new road. Tie a ill distract the 


i : 

enemy, and induce them to believe thai yoar numbers are treble who! 

they really are; and if j attaekod ithc 1 bj iven 

number, make direetlj i"i Mount [ndepondenee, and you will Dn I 1 

party oul (" Bupporl you, and fall upon the my'e Ranks or front, 

us they may happen t" present themselves. II' I had onlj 

people hore I would laugh :ii nil the enemy oould do. Bui 'l ' 

forgel I" have a proper guard for the oattle, nnd then wo run bring 
in us we want in spite i»i' them. We will want all the men Hi it we 
i-an get for all this. I am, gentlemen, your very humble servon', 

•• \. St. Ci mi;. 
■•I'm . W'11,11 wis. Col. Robinson, ami Col. W \n\ i n." 

This letter, doubtless, had the effect of hastening Forward 
the promised aid. Cols. Warner and Robinson reached 
Ticonderoga in time to take part in its evacuation, and the 
former did gallant service in the battle of Subbardton on 
the 7th of July. It is also believed that Col. Williams 
reached the fort, but whether with or without a command 
is not positively known. 


On the night of the 2d, Maj.-Gen. Phillips took posses- 
sion of Mount Hope, and by this movement the Americans 
were entirely cut off from all communication with Lake 
George. On the following day Mount Hope was occupied 
in force by Frazer's corps. Maj.-Gen. Phillips now held 
the ground west of Mount Hope, and Frazer's camp at 
Three-Mile Creek was occupied by a body of men drawn 
from the opposite side of the lake. RiedeseFs column was 
pushed forward as far as East Creek, on the Vermont side, 
from which it could easily stretch behind Mount Inde- 

" During all these movements the American troops kept 
up a warm lire against Mount Hope and against Riedesel's 
column, but without effect. On the 4th the British were 
employed in bringing up their artillery, tents, baggage, and 
provisions, while the Americans, at intervals, continued the 
cannonade. The same evening the radeau or raft ' Thun- 
derer' arrived from Crown Point with the battering-train. 

" The British line now encircled the American works on 
the north, east, and west. The possession of Mount Defi- 
ance would complete the investment, and effectually control 
the water communication in the direction of Skenesborough. 
Burgoyne's attention had, from the first, been attracted 
towards this eminence, and be had directed Lieut. Twiss, 
his chief engineer, to ascertain whether its summit was 
accessible. On the 4th, Lieut. Twiss repotted that Mount 
Defiance held the eutire command of Ticonderoga and 
Mount Independence, at the distance of about fourteen 
hundred yards from the former and fifteen hundred yards 
from the latter, and that a practicable road could be made 
to the summit in twenty-lour hours. On receiving this 
report Burgoyne ordered the road opened and a battery 
constructed for light twenty-fbur-pouuders, medium twelves, 
and eight-inch howitzers. This arduous task was pushed 
with such activity that during the succeeding night the 
road was completed and eight pieces of cannon were dragged 
to the top of the hill. 

" Ou the morning of the 5th the summit of Mount De- 
fiance glowed with scarlet uniforms, and the guns of its 
batteries stood threateningly over the American forts. ' It 
is with astonishment,' says Dr. Thatcher, in his' Military 
Journal,' ' that we find the enemy have taken possession of 

an eminence called Sugar-Loaf Hill or Mount Defiance 
which, from its height and proximity, completely overlook* 
and commands all our works. Tin- situation of ..or garrison 
is viewed as critical and alarming; a few days will di 
our fate We have reason in apprehend tin- most fatal 
effects from their battery on Sugar- Loaf Hill.' Gen. St. 
Clair immediately called a council of war, by whom i' 
decided to evacuate the works before Riedesel should block 

up the narrow passage .south of East Creek, which, wiih 

the lake to Skenesl >ugh, presented the only possible way 

of escape." 

\v every movement of the Americans could be seen 
throughout the day (roni Mount Defiance, no visible prepa- 
rations for leaving the fort were made until after dark ou 
the evening of the 5th, and the purpose of the council 
e sealed from the troops until the' evening order was jiven. 

About midnight directions were issued to place the sick and 
wounded and the women, the baggage, and such ammunition 

and stores as might be expedient, on board two hundred 
bateaux, to be dispatched at three o'clock in the morning 
under a convoy of five armed galleys and a guard of six 
hundred men, under the command of Col. Long of the 
N.w Hampshire troops, up the lake to Skenesborough, while 
the main body was to proceed by laud to the same destina- 
tion by way of Castleton. The cannons that could not be 
moved were to be spiked; previous to striking the tents 
every light was to be extinguished ; each soldier was to pro- 
vide himself with several days' provisions; and, to allay any 
suspicions on the part of the enemy of such a movement, a 
continued cannonade was to be kept up from one of the 
batteries in the direction of Mount Hope until the moment 
of departure. These directions as to the mode of leaving 
were strictly obeyed, except in one instance. 


'• The boats reached Skenesborough about three o'clock 
on the afternoon of the same day, where the fugitives landed 
to enjoy, as they fancied, a temporary repose; but in less 
than two hours they were startled by the reports of the 
cannon of the British gunboats, which were firing at the 
galleys lying at the wharf. By uncommon effort and in- 
dustry, Burgoyne bad broken through the chain, boom, and 
bridge at Ticonderoga, and had followed in pursuit with the 
1 Royal George' and ' Inflexible,' and a detachment of the 
gunboats under Capt. Carter. The pursuit had been pressed 
with such vigor that, at the very moment when the Amer- 
icans were landing at Skenesborough, three regiments dis- 
embarked at the head of South Bay, with the intention of 
occupying the road to Fort Edward. Had Burgoyne delayed 
the attack upon the galleys until these regimeuts had reached 
the Fort Edward road, the whole party at Skenesborough 
would have been taken prisoners. Alarmed, however, by 
the approach of the gunboats, the latter blew up three of 
the galleys, set fire to the fort, mill, and storehouse, and 
retired in great confusion towards Fort Ann. Occasionally 
the overburdened party would falter on their retreat, when 
the startling cry of ' March on ! the Indians are at our heels.' 
would revive their drooping energies and give new strength 
to their weakened limbs. At five o'clock in the morning 
I they reached Fort Ann, where they were joined by many 



of the invalids who had been Creek in 

\ Dumber of the sick, with ibe a i, provisions, 

and tnosl of il • were 1< ft behind al Skene Bborougb. 

"On tin- Till a Miiiill reinforcement, sent from Fort Ed- 

I by Schuyler, annul at Fort Ann. About the sumo 

liin. incut of British troops npproached within 

■ of the fort. This detachment was attacked from the 

fort, and repulsed with surgeon, a wounded 

in. and twelve privates were taken prisoners by the 

Ami The next daj Fort Ann was burned, and the 

garrison retreated (■• Fi rl Edward, which was then occupied 

by 'i' n. S< huylcr." 

The fati >l 1 1 ; • - remainder of those who left Ticonderoga 

■ ur attention. Although every precaution 

Idi 11 was ihe departure arid bo 

>ln-tt the notice that much confusion ensued. The garrison 

the bridge t" Blount [ndependi nee 

at al ck in the morning, the enemy Ml the 

w i i ' • on their prey. " The moon 

rightly, yet her pale light was insufficient to 

bet raj the toiling Americana in their preparations and flight, 

and they felt certain that, before daylight should discover 

tin ir withdrawal, they wonld be t< 10 far ndvanced to invite 

pursuit." Bui <;■ 11 De Fermoy, a French officer, who 

Mi nut Independence, regardless of ex] 

■ fire to the house be had occupied, us his troops 

Uft to join in the retreat with those who had passed over 

from Tin light of the conflagration revealed 

- of (In British, and 
throughout ilnir ext< ihIi '1 camp sounded the notes of prep- 
aration Ibr hot and determined pursuit. 


on Sunday morning, July <i. 1777. the unfortunate 
Ami Dimcnccd their overland flight. St. Clair, 
with the main army, directed his course through the Ver- 
ell, Sudbury, and Hubbardton, and cu- 
ing hi Castleton, aboul twenty six miles from 
The rear-guard, under (he command of Col. 
of the 1 1 tli Massachusetts Regiment, 
lift Mount Independence al aboul four o'clock in the morn- 
ing taking the tame route as had !>• ■ n taken by St Clair, 
and ilar order, after a si fatigu- 

ing it Hubbardton, aboul twenty-two miles 

from Ticonderoga, and encamped in the woods. Tin 

i. in the main army, picked up by 
tlir w.iv. were lift in the command of Cols. Warner and 
Francis, and I here remained during the night, not only Ibr 
joined bj n left be- 

hind nn tin- inarch. Tl impmcnl was in the 

the Pillsford line, upon 
tin n i. wind by John Si link, nol far from the 
place where the tnda. 

Of t lu- 
ll of 
ga, unfut thai fortn 


the fly ing 
\ 'i ball thi 

Tanccd corpe, and without artillery, which, with thi al 

ivuis. it was impossible to get up. Ticonderoga was 
placed in charge of the regiment of Prince Frederick, un- 
der Lieut-Col. Pratorius, and the 62d British Regiment 
were ordered to Mount Independence, both regiments being 
under the command of Brig.-Gen. Hamilton, who was di- 
rected tu place guards for the preservation of all buildings 
from fire, and to secure all ilie powder and other stores. 

Without intermission Brig.-Gen. Frazcr continued t he 
pursuit of the flying Americans till one o'clock in the after- 
noon, having marched in a very hot day since four o'clock 
in the morning. From some stragglers from the American 
whom he picked up he learned that their rear-guard 
was composed of chosen men and commanded by Col, 
Francis, " one of their best officers." From some Tory 
also learned thai the Americans wire not far in 
advance. While his nun were refreshing themselves, Maj.- 
Gen. Ricdesel came up with his Brunswickers, and, arrange- 
ments for continuing the pursuit having been concerted, 
Brig.-Gen. Frazer moved forward again, leaving Ricdesel 
and bis corps behind, and during the night of Sunday, the 
6th, lay upon liis arms in an advantageous situation, three 
mills in advance of Ricdesel, and three miles nearer the 
n ;n guard of the Americans. 


An account of the battle of Hubbardton, which battle 
took place nn the morning of the 7th of July, is given by 
Gen. Burgoyne in these words: 

■■ Ai three o'clock in tbo morning Brig.-Gen. Frazcr renewed liis 
march, and about five hi.- ndvanced scouts discovered the enemy's 
sentries, who fired ihiirpicces and joined Ilie main 1m.Iv ,<>( the rear- 
guard). The brigadier, observing a commanding ground to the left 
of bis light infantry, immcdinlely ordered il lo be possi ssi d by llial 

: and, n considerable body uf il ;my attempting the same, 

they met. The enemy were driven back to their original post. The 
advanced guard, under M a j. (1rant, was by this lime i ngaged, and tbo 
grenadiers were advanced in suslnin them, and t" |nevint the right 
flank 1 1 "in being turned. Tin- hrigndii r remained on the left, uln-ro 
the en en iv long ■ I ill nded themselves by the aid of logs ami trees ; and 
after being repulsed and prevented gilting to Ihe Oaslbton road by 

iln- grenadiers, they rallied and nncucii ihe acii mil, upon a 

m nd repulse, attempted their retreat by? Pittsford Mountain. The 

scrambled up a part of lhat aseuil, appearing almost in- 
nnd gained the summit before ihein, which threw them 

ii.t nfusion. They were -till greatly superior in numbers, and 

consequently in extent ; mid I ho brigadier, in momenlary ex peel 
oi ihe Brunswickers, had laterally drawn from his Ml to support his 
right. At this critical moment I J en, II iedesel, who had pressed on, upon 
bearing iln- firing, orrived with tin' foremost of his columns, viz., the 
.lily grenadicis and light infantry. Hi* 
mincdiatcly pointed lo him Ihe course t" lake. II-' exti 
(lni Ihe eh n 

with ureal gallantry under Maj. linrney. They [the Americans] fled 
ing dead upon the field Col. l-'ranci? and many other 
th upward* "1 t"'- hundri d men. Above six hundre 1 
wounded, most "I whom perished in thi [el "ff, 

and litems, and two hundred and 

t.o men were made prisoners. Above two hundred 'lands of ornn 

the enemy bel the engagement nmoul 

I he British detachment undei 1 ] rater 

i not having been able 
hi bnndn •! nod liny lighting i 


'. which in mosl particulars may In- nlied 
mi the following facts maj be added: That por> 



t i i > 1 1 of the road l>v which the retreating Americans and 
pursuing British passed, commencing in the southwest por- 
t it H i of the town of Orwell, was " made very tortuous to 
avoid the high ridges and deep valleys which intersect in 
all directions, while at the same time it gradually ascends 
for several miles." The scenery along its borders was very 
nioturesque. Wooded slopes at whose feet nestled embow- 
Bed valleys, miniature lakes glittering and sparkling in all 
jSrections, and in seme places rising one above another on 
tlic mountain sides, rough and lofty precipices here crowned. 
with the woods of the forest, and there bristling with the 
lire seal lull boles of tall pines, black and branchless, — such 
were the scenes wliieli met the eyes of the dread pursued 
as he winged his flight from the avenger of blood. Finally, 
emerging from the rough and narrow valley, the flying 
Americans aseended to the higher table-lands of what is 
now known as Fast Hubbard ton, and upon the highest part 
of this tract, surrounded on the south and east by loftier 
hills, among which one now called Mount Zion lifts its 
head, the rear-guard, under Cols. Warner and Francis, en- 
camped in the woods on the night of the (itli, as lias been 
before stated, while St. Clair, with the main body of the 
army, had pushed forward four miles farther to Castleton. 

Among the officers in Col. Francis' regiment was Capt. 
Moses Greenleaf, the father of Simon Greenleaf, the emi- 
nent jurist. In his private journal, in the library of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, are recorded accounts of 
many of the transactions in which he bore a part in the 
army. From him we learn that on the evening of the 6th 
of July he supped with Col. Francis, who was encamped in 
the woods. On the next morning, Monday, July 7th, having 
breakfasted with Col. Francis at seven o'clock, the colonel 
came to him and desired him to parade the regiment, which 
he did. Half an hour later Francis again came to him in 
haste, and informed him that an express had arrived from 
Gen. St. Clair, with orders for the rear guard to march with 
the greatest expedition or the British would be upon them. 
The express also brought intelligence that the British had 
taken Skenesborough (now Whitehall ), with all the baggage 
of the Americans. Francis then ordered Greenleaf to march 
the regiment immediately, which order he obeyed, march- 
ing a part of the regiment at twenty minutes past seven 
o'clock, at which time the British were within gun-shot. 
Francis then taking the immediate command, the regiment 
faced to the right, when the firing began, which lasted until 
i quarter before nine in the morning. 

A fuller account of the battle of Hubbardton and of the 
troops engaged is as follows : On the morning of the 7th, 
when the British advanced guard discovered the Ameri- 
cans, they were busily employed in cooking their provisions 
md breakfasting near a dwelling which stood close to the 
Baptist meeting house. The rear-guard of the American 
irniy, after having been fully brought together, consisted 
if the three regiments of Warner, Francis, and Hale, and 
mch stragglers from the main army, then at Castleton, as 
lad been picked up on the way. The Americans, all told, 
?ere about thirteen hundred strong, and the British, under 
•Wr, about eight hundred and fifty. Major Robert 
Jrant, of the 24th Regiment of foot, who had the iui- 
ncdiate command of the advanced guard of the British, 

attacked the At an pickets, and drove them into the 

main body, Soon after this Frazer, fearing thai the Amer- 
icans might escape if he delayed, ordered the Earl of Bal 
can-as, in command of the light infantry, to take possession 
of an eminence at the left of thai body, and, ae the Amer- 
icans attempted the > exploit, the contending forces 

met, and the Americans were driven back to their original 
position. By this time the advanced guard of the British 

under Grant had become engaged, and the Earl of llar- 

rington, captain of the grenadiers, brought forward his men 
to sustain the advanced guard, and to prevent their right 
flank from being turned. In this engagement occurred the 
death of Major (Jrant. "who in all probability," according 
to an English writer. " fell a victim to the great disadvan- 
tages we experience peculiar to this unfortunate contest, — 

those of the riflemen." ( >n coming up with the Ai ieans he 

mounted the stump of a tree to reconnoitre, but had hardly 
given the men orders to fire when he was struck by a rifle- 
ball, fell from the stump, and died without littering a Word. 

Meantime, Brig.-Gen. Frazer maintained his position on 
the left with the light infantry of the Earl of Balcarras, as 
well as the 24th Regiment, formerly Grant's. The compa- 
nies of the 29th and 34th Regiments of light infantry suf- 
fered very much from the fire of the Americans. Had 
Warner and Francis been well sustained by the militia re- 
giment under Col. Hale, they might have secured a victory 
or caused the British to withdraw from their pursuit. But 
Hale, who, with a large portion of his men. was in feeble 
health, and quite unfit for active service, as a matter of pre- 
caution, and for the sake of saving his soldiers, who were 
not in their present condition capable of defending them- 
selves, and were much less capable of aiding others, fled with 
his troops towards Castleton, hoping there to join the main 
army under St. Clair. By his departure Warner and 
Francis were left with only seven hundred men to oppose 
the enemy. On the way Hale and his men fell in with a 
party of British soldiers, to whom they surrendered without 
offering any resistance, although the number of each of 
the two parties was about equal. 

When the attack of the Americans on the left by Frazer, 
supported by the light infantry and the 24th Regiment, 
began, the Americans were well stationed upon the brow 
of a hill ; but so sudden and unexpected was the onset that 
no breastworks could be thrown up, and the Americans 
were forced to sustain the attack from behind the tew logs 
and trees which Nature had provided. For some time the 
battle raged furiously. Meantime, Gen. Riedesel had 
reached the field in advance of his Brunswickers. and while 
the action was passing before him he was filling the air 
with imprecations against his troops for their failure to ar- 
rive at the place of conflict in time to give the desired aid. 
Harrington's grenadiers were then formed so as to com- 
mand and occupy the road to Castleton, and thus prevent 
the Americans from retreating in that direction, which they 
were endeavoring to do. The fire of the Americans was 
galling, and their sharpshooters rarely failed in their cool 
and determined aim. Twice did the Americans attempt to 
break through the British lines in this direction, and in the 
second attempt were almost successful. They then endea- 
vored to retreat over a very steep mountain to Pittsford. 


HISTORY OF Rensselaer county, new YORK. 

But, according to tho account as given by Gen. Burgoyne 
and Capt Thomas Anburey, Harrington's grenadiers scram- 
bled >i | • by an ascent which Beemed almost inaccessible, and 
ted the summit of the mountain before them, which 
itly confused them. " And that you may have some 
im» steep ili.' isccnl must have boon," says Anburey, 
" ili.- men were obligi ■! to sling their firelocks and climb up 
tin- .-ill.-, sometimes resting their feel upon the branch of a 
in. I sometimes on a piece of the rock. Had any been 
bo unfortunate as i" have missed his hold, he must inevita- 
bly have been dashed t.. | 

M in time, the Americans had lost many of their men, 
among whom was the brave ''..I. Francis, who fought nobly 
to tho last II.- lir-t received a ball through Ins right arm. 
but continued at the head of bis men lill Ik- received the 
fatal wound through hi.- body, when be dropped on his face. 
"Thus fill in tin- prime of life," Bays Greenlcaf, "'.tie of 
ili.- most promising officers in the Revolution." 'I'll.- con- 
flict was ii..' decided even though the grenadiers had reached 
ili.- Bummit ..I" tin. mountain. The Americans, though re- 
pulsed, were -tiii determined to maintain themselves t<> the 
last At this juncture the voici - •>! the Brunswiukers were 
beard in tin- distance, a.- they advanced Binging psalms, min- 
gled with tin- incessant discharge of their musketry. This 
t'..r.-.- was composed of Maj. Barney's rifle (Jager) regiment 
and eighty men, a portion of whom belonged to Col. Brey- 
mann's grenadier regiment, and a portion to a light in fan- 
regiment Ricdesel's presence on the field for some 

time before his men appeared enabled him at tn dc- 

whal t.i pursue. The chasseurs of Maj. Bar- 
my were immediately brought into action in support of 
I ser's left flank. At that moment the whole line made 
a bayonet charge upon the Americans with terrible effect 
Th.- latter, supposing that the Germans in full force were 
ti_- upon i i i • in . an.) fled with great precipitation, 
over th.- Pittsfurd mountains towards Rutland, and 
others down the valley towards Castlcton. Th.- losses of 
ih.- A in- I I . Burgoyne, have been already 

What the 1 n eai h side actually were is un- 

■ .in. and mn-t always remain a matter of dispute. It 

i.-. however, to say that tin- Americans lost at least 

three hundred and twenty-four in killed, wounded, and 

ng, _• whom was Col. Francis, killed, ami twelve 

officers m. 1. 1. ■ | 'Ih.- British loss amounted i • 

hundred tj three men, am. .up whom were M 

.t am) about twenty inferior officers, Two hundred 
also taken by the British. Th.- bravery 
of thi \ ins in ibis cngagi nient was almost unparalleled, 

down i«. ibis time, in th I the war. Speakiug of 

their . onduct, th.- I ivo thi- public ! 

1 in army very 

tainly behaved with 
I I f Harringtoi ited : 

■• Ti 

lmt mi the British troops rushing on them 
with their I. ij 

■ i 

.nit of Bu 
mm nd it stu- 

" Tho advantages i.f III.- irn.iiii I were wholly on tin- side of tho 

A nil;-, ml. lo.l to which ii..- w 1- were so thick that little or no 

onlcr Idboobsorvcd in advancing upon tbo enemy, il being totally 

impossible to form in a regular line. Personal courage and intrepidity 
therefore, t" supply the place of military skill and discipline. 
The ontive bravery of our countrymen could not he more resolutely 
displayed than in this action, nor more effectually exorted. It was a 
t r in 1 of th.- activity, strength, and valor of every man that fought. 
Ai the commencement of the action the enemy were everywhere 
thrown into the great-si confusion ; but, being rallied by that brave 
ofli.-.-r. ('..1. Francis whose .l.-ath. though an enemy, will ever 1>.- re- 

i -1 by those who .-an feel lor the loss of a gallant ami brave man, 
th.- fight was resumed with ih.- greatest degree of fierceness and ob- 
stinacy, lloth parties engaged in separate detachments unconnected 
with each other, and the numbers "t" the enemy empowered them to 
front, Hank, and rear. Some of these detachments, notwithstanding 
an inferiority, most resolutely defended themselves, ami the fate of 
the 'lay was undecided until the arrival of the Germnns, who, though 
late, came in for a share of the glory, in dispersing the enemy in alt 
quartet -." 

It is related by Anburey, as among the incidents of the 
battle, thai Lord Balearras, who commanded the light in- 
fantry, l; had nearly thirty balls shot through his jacket and 
trousers, and yet only received a small graze on the hip." 
II.- alsn states that a Lieut. llaggit, of the same corps, re- 
ceived a ball in each of his eyes, and that a Lieut. Douglas, 
of th.- 29tb Regiment, as be was carried off the field 
wounded, received a ball directly through the heart. 

Among the Americans engaged in the conflict was a 
sharpshooter who lived at Brandon, named Elijah Stark* 
wither. When the retreat was ordered, his captain saw 
him In-hind a stump, around which had grown thick busl 
popping away at the British. The captain said to him, 
" Starkwither, hasten or you will be killed." Starkwither 
deliberately replied, " Never mind it, captain ; T fetch one 
every time." This, by the bye, his rifle was sure to .In. 
The British, suspecting something uncommon was concealed 
in that clump of bushes, let their balls in it with greal 
freedom, hut Starkwither made bis retreat in safety. 

So precipitate was the retreat of the Americana thai 
many of them threw away their muskets to rid thetiis. 
of the encumbrance. When Gen. St. Clair, who was tit 
Castlcton, heard the tiring at Huhhaidi hi. he attempted to 
send a force to i In relief of Warner, hut the militia al 
In til v refused to go. The regulars and others were too far 
mi their way to Fori Edward i" 1"- recalled. Therein 
St. Clair, win. knew that Burgoyne was tit Skenesborough, 
hastened forward to join Gen. Schuyler at Fort Edward, 
which place he reached with his troops, worn down by fa- 
tigue and hunger, on the 12th of July. Warner's eon 
during the engagement was such as to command the ad- 

miratic f those "!"• admire valor and patriotism. Neat 

the el of th fliel. after lie- death of Col. Fran 

Chipman states that " Warner saw* Francis 1 rcgimcnl 
treating and the battle lost. This was too much even fur 
tho nerve of Warner. II. ■ dropped down upon a log bj 

Which he st Land poured out a Ion. hi ..f ex, .rati. Mis 

upon the flying troops. But he instantly rose, and in a 
illectcd manner ordered hi- regiment to Manchester. 
Th.- battle of Hubbardton, considering the sborl tiuM 
in which th.- conflicting parties were engaged, was exo 
ingly sanguinary ami disastrous to both. To the Ain.n- 
i was th.' necessity of discipline and organiza- 
tion. It taught them that men j rly chid and poorly fed 


could nut enduru the weary march of a Bummer's day, Dor 
withstand the changing temperature appertaining to a night 
UDODg the mountains. On the 3d of the preceding month, 
Col. Francis in one of his letters had referred to scenes 
whirli ho was then witnessing, of " soldiers unclothed bj 
day and no blankets to Bhield them from this cold claj soil 
at night," officers lately inoculated in camp for the small- 
pox, and of arms of which " not more than half are til for 
Sprvice." How many of such officers, soldiers, and arms 
were among ihose which made up the force opposed to the 
(lower of the British and German service can never he 

The services of Warner at Iluhhardlon have never been 
properly appreciated. But for them St. Clair might never 
have escaped to Schuyler with a single soldier. Rut for 
them Bennington and the neighboring country would have 
been overrun by Ricdesel's battalions and devastated by 
Burgoyne's army. 


It would be interesting at this point to review the situa- 
tion of the contending parties, and to consider the effect 
which was produced on the Americans by the evacuation 
of Ticonderoga, by the discipline and soldierly training of 
the British and German soldiers, by the proclamation of 
Burgoyne, and by the rapid movements with which he had 
followed the Americans in their retreat. But the limits 
assigned to this chapter will admit only of a slight notice of 
these matters. Great blame fell upon St. Clair, and greater 
still upon Gen. Schuyler, and it was not until the fact be- 
came apparent that Congress had neglected to garrison and 
provision Mount Independence and Fort Ticonderoga that 
the public clamor against these brave and magnanimous 
officers subsided. Ticonderoga had been evacuated by the 
unanimous vote of a full council of war ; yet there were 
some who boasted that they could tell when that fortress 
was sold and for how much, while others asserted that 
Schuyler and St. Clair had both been bribed by Burgoyne, 
who, it was said, had fired silver biil/ets into the fort, which 
were gathered by older of St. Clair and divided between 
him and Schuyler. One hundred and twenty-eight cannon 
were lost ou that occasion, yet that number, like Falstaff's 
men, who grew from two to eleven, was exaggerated to 
three hundred. There were no artillerymen either slain or 
aptured at that time, but the report was current that not 
mo of them had escaped. Although, after the evacuation 
if Ticonderoga, a small British force was stationed for a 
inic at Castleton, without intrenchments, yet " Fama, 
nalum, qua non aliud velocius u/lum," declared that three 
housaud and then six thousand men were fortifying there, 
nd that, ton, with cannon. So strong was the idea that 
5urgoyne was on his way up the Connecticut River to at- 
ack lloyalton and Newbury that many persons Bought 
efuge in New Hampshire, and the people of Thetford, 
hnost in a body, migrated across the river to Lyme. 


As the fear was great, so also was the destitution. On 
nly 30th, Stark wrote from Charlestown to the council of 
lew Hampshire : "I am informed that the enemy have 

left Castleton with an intent to inarch to Bennington. We 
are detained bj the want of bullet-moulds, as there ie but 
one pair in town, and the few halls sent by the council go 

but a little way. There is hut very little rum in the Si 
here; if some could be forwarded ii would oblige ns very 

much, for there is none ol'lhat article in lho8e parts whir.: 

we are going, — that is, in Vermont." To this appeal the 
council responded : " Rum is not to be bought in this State." 
Owing to the advance of Burgoyne, many settlements had 
already been broken up. and the inhabitants, in distress 
and confusion, were seeking safety wherever they could find 
it. The wounded and terrified fugitives from Hubbardton 

battle, Seeing as if for their lives, created a panic wherever 
they passed, and in consequence "almost every Whig 
house west of the mountains and north of Manchester was 
deserted.'' Manchester and Arlington were now regarded 
as the frontier towns, and at one time it was feared that 
the former place would be abandoned to the enemy. As 
Riedesel pursued St. Clair towards Castleton. after the 
evacuation of Ticonderoga, the inhabitants had fled with 
their flocks and herds, and the roads for several days were 
filled with affrighted crowds proceeding southward. Mas- 
sachusetts afforded a safe retreat, and in a letter from 
Stockbridge, dated the 13th of August, the writer stated 
that, in addition to the other troubles of the citizens, they 
were greatly burdened with people who had fled from the 
New Hampshire Giants and the Hudson and Mohawk 



Yet, notwithstanding all these disheartening circum- 
stances, the people of Vermont were still, in the main, 
vigorous to assert their rights and determined to show 
themselves worthy of the name of Green Mountain Boys. 
Added to sentiments like these was a feeling among a por- 
tion of the community of State pride, which had arisen 
since the adoption of the constitution of the State of Ver- 
mont. On the 2d of July, 1777, the Constitutional Con- 
vention had reassembled at Windsor. In the warrant for 
this meeting it was stated that delegates were to be 
chosen for the Continental Congress, but, owing to the 
doubt that existed as to the manner in which that body- 
would treat an application then before them for the recog- 
nition of Vermont, it was not deemed advisable to send 
representatives to Philadelphia. The attention of the 
convention was accordingly turned to the preparation of a 
constitution for the new State, and the draft of one was 
laid before them for consideration. Having had but little 
practice in the arts of statesmanship and law-making, and 
the business in which they were engaged being such as 
required the most serious deliberation, the session lasted 
several days. Meantime, the Americans had evacuated Ti- 
conderoga. When the news readied Windsor on the 8th of 
July, the convention was still in session. The frontiers of 
the State were open to the inroads of the enemy ; the family 
of the president of the convention and the households of 
many of the members were exposed to the ravages of the 
foe. " In this awful crisis the convention was for leaving 
Windsor, but a severe thunderstorm came on and gave 
them time to reflect, while other members, less alarmed at 
the news, called the attention of the convention to the 



t Iction "l" tbe constitution, which was then being read, 
_r;ijili by ] arograph, (br tbe lasl time." While tin- 
r. ir of tbe thunder and tbe crash of the lightning, succeed- 
ing to the dyit j of the musketry of Ticondei 
were reverberating and breaking around them, they were 
ratifying an act of vital importance i" mnny. Like Sinai 
Id, when, amid thunders and lightnings, and a thick 
cloud n|*.ii the mount, and the voi< f 1 1 1 . • trumpet ex- 
ling loud, the law was given to the i now,amid 
tbe warring of N iiur.- and the terrors of imagination, was 
the law announced which was to indicate the majesty and 
who had designed it. 

il onstitution had I n adopted, a resolution 

1 t it should be printed and circulated among 
the people, in order that they mighl I 
with it- contents, and, in accordance with its requisitions, 
- in the following December to compose 
assembly, who were to meet at Bennington 
during January of the nexl yi ir Bui the constitution 
was ni ver submitted to 1 1 1 - - people for their approbation. 
It i ~ Bta ted by Ira Allen tliat the credentials of those who com- 
I the convention "authorized them to form a constitu- 
tion, hut were Bilcnl a* to its ratification," and that, owing 
to the fluctuations of public opinion, it was thought haz- 

ardous to Bubmil n directly t" the decision of the ] pic. 

Owing !•• the course which Congress had pursued by their 
ution of June 30, 1777. in condemning the separate 
of Vermont, many of the citizens of thai inde- 
pendent jurisdiction fell " that their independence must be 
I with the Bamc firmness and spirit with which it 

had I n declared." Their ii-_dit-. as ihey, undersl 1 

them, they had sworn t" maintain, ami t ln-ir conduct 

thenceforward made it evident thai the oath they had 

- no vain formula to be wcaki ned by quibbles or 

rendered void by nl Others, however, 

ially those living along the valley of the Connecticut 

B i an impression, by means of the unfa- 

ble action ol Congi -- which rendered them indifferent 

on ll nslitution. So widespread was this indif- 

fercn il thai lime that it is doubtful, had a vote I" en then 

r a majority of the people would have ratified 

ibis instrument " It was, however, silently submitted to, 

im.i only I i ni organised under oven a de- 

nstitulion med preferable to toe unsettled 

whii li had bo luse Bucli 

the foundation ("■ >r 

;nty of Vermont and her ad- 

i .ii into the Union." After the adoption of the 

lion by > ; ntion, thai body adjourned, having 

• until the Lcgisla- 
r should ■ 

UN-T III lli.i.l NI 

I Iih brave men 
I i . Schuy- 

ler, On the 14th of Julj hi with the 

a. .lit 

niilili within a 1 - -1 on the 17ili of 

militia "i M 
Warner and pal themselves ! 

under his command" in the vicinity of Bennington. His 
instructions to Warner on July 1.5th, in view of tlie nearer 
approach of Burgoyne, were in these words: "Secure all 
the cattle and carriages you can : much depends upon pre- 
venting them [ihc British] from fretting supplies of that 
kind. Advance as near to the enemy as you can; 

secure a]l Tories and send them to the interior part of the 
lltry. Be vigilant A surprise is inexcusable. Thank 
the troops in my name for behaving so well as you say 
they .lid at Bubbardton." Tlie day after the battle the 
council of safety of Vermont appealed to New Hampshire 
for protection, and a few days later Ira Allen repeated the 
appeal in the most pressing terms. The action of t luir 
assembly was most energetic. The militia of the Stati 
formed into two brigades, and the command of the firs) 
was given tn William Whipple, and of the second to John 
Stark. A quarter of the militia of twelve regiments was 
ordered to be immediately drafted, formed into three bat- 
talions, and. under the command of the latter general, to 
march into Vermont " to oppose the ravages and coming 
forward of the enemy." Mure specifically, he was directed 
to " repair to Charlestown, on Connecticut River, there t" 
consult with a committee of the New Hamphire Grants 
n specting his future operations and the supply of his men 
with provisions; to take the command of the militia and 
march into the Grants; to acl in conjunction with the ti 
of that new State, or any other of the States, or of the 
1'iii' i Si'ii -. i.r M.parately. as it should appear expedient 
to him, for the protection of the people and the annoj 
of the enemy." Fur the purpose of establishing a fair co- 
operation, Gov. Weare, of New Hampshire, informed Ver- 
monl that she was expected to feed the New Hampshire 
troops, and advised that some persons should be sent from 
Vermont to Charlestown on July 24th to take counsel 
with Gen. Stark as to the movements of the cm my . While 
\ ■ i in. ni was ilms engaged in obtaining the help <^' others 
in the defense of her borders, she was not unmindful of 
what was expected of her in the same direction. Her 
measures againsl Tori.'- were of the most stringent nature, 
and her commissioners of sequestration, who common 
their labors in July, 1777. were the first officers who. in tilt 
Revolution, devoted the property of the enemies of Amen 
can independence to confiscation and sale. 


. after Gen. Burgoyne had issued his grandiloquent 
lamalion, h the 10th of July issued another, ad- 
dressed particularly to the inhabitants of Castlcton, Bab 
bardton, Rutland, Tinniouth, Pawlet, Wells. Grrnvillc, and 
of the neighboring districts, also to the people living in il"' 
districts bordering on White Creek, Camhden, Cambrid 

i ih. ni to send from each town a deputation 
of t'n men to meet Col. Skene five days thence al Castle- 
ton, in order to isecure from him further encouragemi nt,il 
they had acknowledged allegiance to Greal Britain, or, iftnej 

had not, to hear the c litions " upon which the penoM 

and properties of the disobedient" might yet be spared. In 
answer to this, Gen. Schuyler, on the 13th of duly, id- 

ountcr proclamation to the si p. ople, in whicn 

after referring to the scenes which had not long before been 


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witnessed in New Jersey, when the deluded inhabitants, 
wIki had oonfided in British promises, had been treated 
with the mosl wanton barbarity, he announced to them that 
those who should "join with or in any manner or way 
assist or give comfort or hold correspondence with or take 
protection from the enemy" would be considered and doalt 
with as traitors to the United States. 

Many not only refused to notice the warning of Schuyler, 
but voluntarily remained " within the power of the enemy," 
and were obliged " to wear a signal in their bats, and put 
signals before their doors, and also upon their cattle's horns, 
that they were friends to the king, and bad stayed on their 
farms agreeable to Gen. Burgoyne's proclamation." These 
were known as '' protectioners," and in subsequent years 
suffered many indignities from their neighbors by reason of 
their Toryism on this occasion. 


Although terribly grieved on account of the failure at 
Ticonderoga, Gen. Schuyler was indefatigable in his en- 
deavors to restore confidence to the country which was being 
foraged and ravaged by Burgoyne's forces, and to learn from 
prisoners and deserters the condition of Burgoyne's army. 
As an instance of the care exercised by this brave soldier, 
even when surrounded by trials of the severest nature, the 
following letter will serve as a specimen. It was written to 
Col. John Williams, of White Creek, in answer to a letter 
of Williams sent by a lieutenant who had in charge a suspi- 
cious person named Baker, who had been captured by 
Williams, and is in these words: 

" Fort Edward, July 14, 1777. 

"Slit, — Ynur note of this d:iy has been delivered me by Lieut. Young. 
I have examined Mr. Baker and found him tripping ill so many things 
that I am clearly convinced he is an agent of the enemy, and sent not 
only to give intelligence, but to intimidate the inhabitants and induce 
them to join the enemy. I have closely confined him, and shall send 
him down the country. lie informs me that one John Foster is also 
gone to the enemy, and, as Ik- supposes he will be back in a day or 
two, I beg he may be made prisoner and sent to me under a good 
guard. You must furnish your militia witli provisions in the best 
manner you can, and the allowance will be made for it. I have scouts 
out in every quarter and a large body at Fort Ann, and, until they 
come away. I am not apprehensive that an attack will be made on 
White Greek. It would be the height of imprudence to disperse my 
army into different quarters, unless there is the most evident necessity. 
"I am, sir, your most humble servant, 

" Ph. Schuyler. 

'•Colo. Williams." 

burgoyne's ADVANCE. 

Slowly and cautiously did Burgoyne proceed to advance. 
On the 7th of July his headquarters were at Skenesbor- 
ougb, at the residence of Gen. Philip Skene, where they 
remained until the 25th of that month, when they were 
moved forward to Fort Ann. Ou the -tilth they were 
advanced to the camp at Fitch Pine Plains, near Fort Ed- 
ward, and on the following day were fixed at Fort Edward, 
where, or in the neighborhood of which, they remained 
until the 14th of August, when his general orders were 
issued from the " camp at Duer's house." 

Early in the month of August, or perhaps earlier, Gen. 

Riedesel had favored the idea of an expedition for the 

purpose of obtaining horses, in order that be might mount 

his dragoons, and also supply the troops in general with 


baggage horses. Having discussed the idea with Gen. 

Burgoyne, the latter tl ghl it mighl be extended i" a 

much greater use, and the plan of the proposed expedition 
was, therefore, considered, amended, and enlarged bj Bui 
goyne and Riedesel. It was generally understood thai it 

was Riedesel's wish that Col. Friedericb Baum, in < i 

mand of the regiment of German dragoons, should have 

the charge of tl sp sdition, and to him tbi> position was 

accordingly committed. 




In the concerted instructions prepared for Baum for 
what was known as " a secret expedition to the Connecti- 
cut River," the name Bennington was not mentioned, yet 
there is no doubt that Bennington was the first objective- 
point of the expedition. It was known to Burgoyne that 
the Americans had formed there "a considerable depot of 
cattle, cows, horses, and wheel-carriages, most of which 
were drawn across the Connecticut River from the prov- 
inces of New England; and, as it was understood to be 
guarded by a party of militia only, an attempt to surprise 
it seemed by no means unjustifiable." Some time after the 
battle, and after bis return to England, Burgoyne was 
blamed because he had sent out Baum with instructions 
which did not apply to Bennington, and that the destina- 
tion of the expedition had then been changed. To this 
charge Burgoyne replied as follows : 

" But it still may be said the expedition was not orig- 
inally designed against Bennington. I really do not see 
to what it would tend against me, if that supposition were 
in a great degree admitted. That some part of the force 
was designed to act there will not be disputed by any who 
read Col. Baum's instructions and consult the map. The 
blame or merit of the design altogether must rest upon the 
motives of expediency ; and it is of little consequence 
whether the first and principal direction was against Ben- 
nington or Arlington, or any other district, as my intelli- 
gence might have varied respecting the deposits of corn 
and cattle of the enemy. At the same time, I must observe 
it is begging the question to argue that Bennington was 
not the real, original object, because Bennington was not 
mentioned in the draft of instructions. A man must in- 
deed be void of military and political address to put upon 
a paper a critical design, where surprise was in question, 
and everything depended upon secrecy. Though it were 
true that I meant only Bennington, and thought of noth- 
ing less than the progress of the expedition in the extent 
of the order, I certainly would not now affirm it, because 
I could not prove it, and because it would seem that I 
searched for remote and obscure justification, not relying 
upon that which was manifest; but surely there is nothing 
new or improbable in the idea that a general should dis- 

Bj Benjamin II. Hall. 



intentions al tli tsol of an expedition, 

• v.ti from the officer whom he appoint ate them, 

provided n communication with thai officer was certain and 
not ri in. - 


Tin' instrncti :• Banm commenced by stating thai 

tl bjeel of the expedition was "to in the affections of 

the eountrj . t" disc sort the councils of the enemy ; to 

t the B complete Peters' corps : 

and t.i obtain large Bupplies of cattle, horst -. and earring 
He was ordei d tV.nn Batten Kill to Arlin 

ami take post there till the detachment of the provincials 
under GapC Sherwood should join him. Then he was to 
M inchester and secure the pass of tin- mountains on 
tin- road from Manchester t" Rockingham, on the Con- 
ticul River, and Bend the Indians "I' the party ami the 
light troops towards Otter Creek. On their return, in case 
he should hear lhal there was no enemy in force cm the Con- 
- he was to go by thi road over tin- moun- 
tains ngham, and there, at the mosl distant part 
the expedition, take post. If prudent, the Indians ami 
light troops were I up tin- Connecticut, and on 
their return the force was to descend the river to Brattle- 
ngh, ami then I bv the quickest march " bv 
the 1 to Albany." Thej wire to bring in all 
horses tit to mount tin 1 dragoons or to serve as hat-horses, 

is, ami other convenient ear- 
Iraught-oxen, all rattle lit for slaughter, except 
milch-cows, which were to be left for the use of the inhab- 
itants R ir articles taken were to be given to such 
- had remained in their habitations ami otherwise 
. with the terms of Burgoyne's manifesto, but not 
to r. I 

I' ilso given as to the disposition 

of ti were to lie led to believe that the 

the adva i of the army on the road to 

Boatot I thai the main army from Albany was to be 

join- I at S 1 by a corps of troops from Ki 

1. A wholesome dread of Col. Warner doubtless led 
to ii f thi- passage in the instructions: ' li 

is hi tin- corps nndcr Mr. Warner, now 

. will retreat before you ; hut 
shoo . m, In- able to collect in 

msly, it is left 
ion to attack them or not ; always bearing 
in mind lhal _\ valuable to let any consider- 

: on this occasion." 

DEPABT1 ai »"!l 111 NMN.Ii.N. 

1 at five o'clock 

on the mornin <■< I2tfa t'..i Baum sel on) from 

I hi- two 

hundred ' H hmenl of 

indred and Capt. IV . 
marksmen, with tw numbering in 

all a' I i by 

1 I lion by the Bpecial 

he might give advii 

II ii ing marched 
a mile, B.ium l 

his force advantageously on the Batten Kill till lie should 
receive fresh instructions. Continuing his inarch, he 
reached the Batten Kill at about four o'clock in the after- 
noon, and encamped there. At about eleven o'clock the 
same night he was reinforced by a company of fifty chas- 
seur-, -.m forward by lien. Burgoync. By four o'clock 
the next morning the whole body were again in motion, 
and after a march of sixteen miles reached Cambridge at 
four o'clock in the evening, having had a few skirmishes 
with the Americans, ami having taken some cattle. . 
wagons, ami horses, ami having also received the disagrec- 
intclligencc that the Americans were about one thou- 
sand eight hundred strong at Bennington. On the morning 
of the 14th the little army were on the march long before 
sunrise. As they approached the northern branch of the 
Boosick River a party of Americans were discovered in 
front of the farm of " Sankoick," who. on the approach of 
the British, took to the underwood, whence they fircil on 
the British until they were dislodged. On their reti 
they abandoned a mill which they bad previously fortified, 
and broke down the "bridge of Sankoick." 


A considerable quantity of provisions was left in the 
mill, and after the bridge bad been repaired Baum sta- 
tioned a proper force to guard them both, and that night 
'• bivouacked at the farm of Walmscott, about four miles 
from Sancoick. and three from Bennington." This farm lay 
upon both banks of the Walloomsac, and was occupii . 
this time by six or eight log huts, scattered here and there 
over its narrow expanse of cultivated ground. 

Heavy rains fell on the morning of the lath, accom- 
panied with a " perfect hurricane of wind, which rendi 
the shelter of the farm-buildings very grateful to the forces 
of Baum. Soon, however, shooting was beard at the ad- 
vanced sentry-posts, whereupon Baum sent forward the 
provincials, supported by Frazcr's marksmen, to assist the 
pickets. It was then discovered that tile Indians \< 
threatened by a body of American militia. On the 
]■ roach of the British the Indian allies uttered a yell. 
which seemed to hive an effect upon the Americans, who 
soon after retired. The Americans advanced a number of 
times during the day. but the weather was so stormy and 
the rain fell so incessantly thai no effective service cooH 
be perfon 1 by either party of an offensive nature. 

I'iiiing the remainder of the day. Baum \\.i- i ngaged in 
strengthening the position he had taken. To the lefl 
the "farm of Walmscott" was a height, which he hastei 

npy. " He posted here the d with a portion 

of the marksmen on their right, in rear of a little zigl 
it Work, composed of logs and loose earth. Such ol tbfl 
lied house - as came within the compass of his position 
lie filled with Canadians, supporting them with dctachma 
of cl ind grenadiers, likewise intrenched behind 

breastworks; and he kept the whole, with the exception of 
.' a hundred men. on the north side of the stream, 
holding the woods upon his thinks, in his front and rear by 
the Indian- ' Such was the situation of affairs when toe 
night of the 15th of August closed around Baum and hi- 
faiihful dragoons. 



Meantime) Gen. Stark, at Charlestown, was engaged in 
collecting his men, and as fast as they arrived he senl them 
forward tojoiu the forces of Vermont, under Col. Warner, 
wlni had taken post al Manchester, twenty miles north of 
Bennington, line Stark joined him on the 9th of August, 
and tl met with Gen. Lincoln, who had been senl from Still- 
water bv Gen. Schuyler, commander of the northern deparl 
ment, to conduct the militia to the west side of Hudson's 
River. Stark informed him of his orders, and of the danger 
which the inhabitants of the grants apprehended from the 
iiiniiN and from their disaffected neighbors; that he had 
consulted with the committee, and that it, was the deter- 
mination of the people, in case he should join the Conti- 
nental army and leave them exposed, that they would retire 
to the east of Counecticul lliver, in which case New Hamp- 
shire would be a frontier. He therefore determined to re- 
main on the flank of the enemy, and to watch their motions. 
For this purpose he, on the 9th of August, collected his 
force at Bennington, and left Warner with his regiment at 
Manchester. A report of this determination was trans- 
mitted to Congress, and the orders on which it was founded 
were by them disapproved ; but the propriety of it was 
evinced by subsequent facts.' 1 

The story of the battle and of some of the incidents im- 
mediately preceding it are graphically narrated by Stark in 
his letter to the committee of safety of New Hampshire in 

these words : 

"Bennington, Aug. is, 1877. 

■ ill \ 1 1 kmen, — I congratulate you on the late success of your troops 
tindoi my command, by express. I purposed to give you a brief 
account of my proceedings since I wrote to you last. I left Manches- 
ter DO Sunday the 8th inst., and arrived here the 9th. The L3th I was 
informed that a party of Indians were at Cambridge, which is twelve 
mile- distant from this place, on their march thither. I detached Col. 
Gregg, with two hundred men under his com man i_l, to stop their march. 
In the ei ening 1 had information by express that there was a large body 
of the enemy on their way with their field-pieces, in order to march 
through the country commanded by Governor Skene. The 14th I 
marched with my brigade and a few of this State's militia to oppose 
them, and to <-.,\r\- Gregg's retreat, who found himself unable to with- 
stand their superior number. About four miles from this town I 

11 rdingly met him on his return, and the enemy in close pursuit of 

him, within half a mile of his rear. But when they discovered me, 
they presently halted on a very advantageous piece of ground. I 
drew up my little army on an eminence in open view of their en- 
campments, but could not bring them to an engagement. I marched 
book about a mile, and there encamped. I sent out a few men to 
skirmish with them, killed thirty of them, with two Indian chiefs. 
Tlic 15th it rained all day. I sent out parties to harass them. The 
16th 1 was joined by this State's militia and those of Berkshire County. 
1 divided my army into three divisions, and sent Col. Nichols with 
two hundred and fifty men on the rear of their left wing. Col. Her- 
riok in the rear of their right with three hundred men, ordered . . . 
when joined to attack ... the same. 

" In the mean time I sent three hundred men to oppose the enemy's 
''■"in tn draw their attention thai way. Soon after I detached the Cols. 
Hubbert and Stickney on their right wing, with two hundred men 
to attack that part, all which plans had their desired effect. Col. 

Nichols sent me word that he st 1 in need of a reinforcement, which 

I readily granted, consisting of one hundred men. at which time he 
commenced the attack, precisely at three o'clock in the afternoon, 
whioh was followed by all the rest, I pushed forward the remainder 
with all speed. Our people behaved with the greatest spirit and 
bravery imaginable. Had they been Alexanders or Charles of Swe- 
den they could not have behaved better. The action lasted two hours, 
at the expiration of which time we forced their breastworks at the 
muMlea of their guns, took two pieces of brass cannon, with a number 

of prisoners, but before I could gel them into proper form again I 
reeei i e I inl ell igence that i In 1 1 h a a lai n I wo 

miles of us. on tin ir march, whioh occasioned u lo m new oui attack. 

But, lucky lor u , Col. W"i ir'i regimen I cami up, which put a top 

to their oarcer. Wc rallied, and in a few minutes the action 

beg hi \ ery warm and desperate, which la led till night. We u cd 

their own eai i against them, which proved ol great erviei ; u 

At. sunset wo obliged them to retreat a econd tune. my pursued 
them till dark, when I was obliged to hall foi fcai of killing my own 
men. Wo recovered two pieces more of their cannon, together with 
all their baggage, a number of horses, carriages, etc., killed upwards 
of two bund red of i lie enemy in i he field of battle. The number of 

t he wounded i ■■ nol 3 el know n, as thej are scatl 1 about in d i 

places. I have one lieutenant- co JoncI, sin ■ d< b I, one major, Bev< a 
captains, fourteen lieutenants, four ensigi irnets, one judge 

advocate, one baron, two Canadian officer , ergeanl , one aid-de- 

camp, and seven hundred prisoners. I almost forgol one Hcssino 
chaplain. T inclose you a copy of Gen. Burgoyne's instructions to 
Col. Itaiini, who commanded the detachment thai engaged us. Our 

WOUnded are forty-two. Ten privates and four officers belonging to 

nay brigade are dead. The dead and wounded in the olln-r cup- I 
do not know, as they ba\ e not brought in their returns as yet. I 
gentlemen, with the greatest regard and respect, your most obedient, 

humble sen ant, 

'• John Stark. 

" I almost forgot, three Hessian surgeons. 

"N. B. — I have sent you by post, Josiah Crosby, one hundred and 
seventy-four dollars and two -thirds of Hampshire currency, which I 
had to give Continental for to my men, as there is scarce any other 
will pass here. 

" Gentlemen, I think we have returned tin- enemy a proper compli- 
ment in the above action for the Hubbart Town engagement." 


As a pendant to this letter, the following extract is taken 
from the narrative of the battle, written by Glieh, one of 
the officers under Lieut.-Col. Baum. It is true in all its 
general features, and is a compliment to the bravery and 
military skill and dash of Gen. Stark and his army : 

"The morning of the 16th rose beautifully serene. The storm of 
the preceding day having expended itself, not a cloud was left to 
darken the faee of the heavens; whilst the very leaves hung motion- 
less, and the long grass waved not, under the influence of a perfect 
calm. Every object aioiind. too, appeared I" peculiar advantage, for 
the fields looked green and refreshed, the river was swollen and tu- 
multuous, and the branches were all loaded with dewdrops, which 
glittered in the sun's early rays like so many diamonds. Nor would 
it be easy to imagine any scene more rife with peaceful and even pas- 
toral beauty. Looking down from the summit of the rising ground, 
I beheld immediately beneath me a wide sweep of stately forest inter- 
rupted at remote intervals b}' green meadows or yellow cornfields, 
whilst here and there a cottage, a shed, or some other primitive edi- 
fice reared its modest head as if for the purpose of reminding the 
spectator that man had begun his inroads upon Nature, without as 
yet taking away from her simplicity and grandeur. I hardly recollect 
a scene which struck me at the moment more forcibly, or which has 
left a deeper or more lasting impression on my memory. 

" I have said that the morning of the 10th rose beautifully serene ; 
and it is not to the operations of the elements alone thai my expres- 
sion applies. All was perfectly quiet at the outposts, not an enemy 
having been seen, nor an alarming sound heard, for several hours 
previous to sunrise. So peaceable, indeed, was the aspect which 
matters bore that our leaders felt warmly disposed to resume the 
offensive, without waiting the arrival of the additional corps for 
which they had applied, and orders were already issued for the nun 
to eat their breakfasts, preparatory to more active operations. But 
the arms were scarcely piled, and the haversacks unslung, when 
symptoms of a state of affairs different from that which hud I 
anticipated began to show themselves, and our people were recalled 
to their ranks in all haste almost aa soon as they had quitted them. 
From more than one quarter scouts came in to report thai columns or 
armed men were approaching; though whether with fl friendly or 
hostile intention, neither their appearance nor actions enabled our 
informants to ascertain. 



•• It ]■ . .1 Lb ft I daring the last daj V march oar little corps 

wiL« joined bj many of the eountrj people, most of whom demanded 

an! end!j ("tin- royal cause. How Col. 

; Ictelj dupod as i" place reliant o on these men, 

I know not; bo I baring listoaed with com place no v to thoir pro 

rli.»t in Bennington a large majority of tbo populace wore 
our in. nl-. ho woa pom oho w or otbor persuaded to believe thnt the 
armed bands of whose approach he was warned were loyalists on 
thoir «;i> to make ■ tender of their Bcrriees to the leader of the 
king 1 Pilled with this id< tched positive ordi 

the U do molestation should bo offered to tbo advancing 

oolumns, bul thai tha piokcts retiring before tbcm should join the 
main bod j, mads to receive either friend 

nr foe. Unfortanatolj for us, these orders were but too faithfully 
■ I. About half i >ast nine o'clock, I. who was not in the secret, 
behold! to mv uttor amasoment, our advanced parties withdraw with- 
out Bring a shot from the thickets whieh might have been maintained 
f..r ! it any superiority of numbers, and the same thickets 

quickly occupied by nun whose whole demeanor, as well as their 
and style of equipment, plainly and incontostnbly pointed them 
out a5 Americans. 

mol protend i" describe the state of excitation and alarm 
into which our little band was now thrown. With the solitary excep- 
tion of our leader, there was not ;i man amongst us who ap| '< 

otherwise than satisfied thai those to whom he had listened were 
traitors, and thai unless some prompt and vigorous measures were 
ptod their treachery would be crowned with it,- full reward. 
r. in particular, seemed strongly imbued with the convic- 
tion thnt we wore willfully deceived. He pointed out, in plain lan- 
■ .the extreme improbability ol the story w hieb these desortei had 
told, and warmly urged our chief to withdraw his confidence from 
them; but all his arguments proved fruitless. Col. Baum remained 
telity. tie saw no reason to doubt that the 
mncb apprehension were the same 
of whose arrival he had been forewarned ; and he was prevented from 
placing himself entirely in their power only by the positive refusal of 
hi- followers to obey orders given to that effect, and the rash impctu- 
■ my. 
•■ w. about half on hour under arms, watching 

the pi ur or five hundred men, who, after 

Iging the pickets, bad halted just at the edge of the open coun- 
try, when a sudden tramping of reel in tin- fore»1 on our right, fol- 
lowed ty tin report ol several muskets, attracted our attention. A 
; «.v« insl totly sent in the direction of the sound, but before the 
part] ■ man) yards from tbo lines o loud 

shout, followed by a rapid tfa I ling Ore of musketry, wai I 

oi t ■ of friendly. Instantly tbo 

: in, carry in lonfusion in their 

□ded on all sides : col- 
umn* wen i"l those whom wohad 
hitli- nly waited 'ill the arrival of their 

rappi • Thi was no falsol I 

in tl. -■■ made by men who ipoke rather IVom (loir 

Ibati thi ir v in r heard 

|j and loudly to if j then, firii 
y with delib< nurderoui aim, rushed ftarionsly ton 

\ aw, then, at length oui oiled. 

fl mk by thrice his num 
i forward with thi h our late j 

whilst the \ ■ in w bom he had 

i to whom hi i m turning them 

Dflt him. Those fellows no sooner h< than 

thry dr|iWralrl\ | thoir inu-V Ira- 


I. with thr . 
"If Col. lUnm had duped it' 

■ 1 him s< If 
manfully to rtnHj th" rnl and I Our little 

iiimn, w,i« instantly ordered 
ps lining thr breastworks replied (■> the I 
*ns with exit -i.i«p 

and ! Iky that tlo- *--;iilnnt« rr- 

all probability, within 
the * pro- 

*. and wr wrre warmly 

gaged on every side, and from all quarters. It became evident thnt 
each of our detached posts was about to be assailed in the same in- 
Btant. Not one of our dispositions had been eoucealed from the 
enemy, who, on the contrary, seemed to In- aware of the exact nuua- 
ber of men stationed at each point, and they were one and all threat 
OUCd by a force perfectly adequate to bear down opposition, and yet 
by no means disproportionately large, or such as to render the main 
body inefficient. All, moreover, was done with the sagacity and cool- 
ness of veterans who perfectly understood the nature of the resistance 
to be expected and the difficulties to be overcome, and who, having 
well considered and matured their plans, were resolved to carry them 
into execution at all hazards, and at every expense of life. 

" It was at this moment, when the heads of columns began to show 
themselves in the rear of our right and left, that the Indians, who 
had hitherto acted with spirit and something like order, lost all con- 
fidence and fled. Alarmed at the prospect of having their retreat cut 
off", they stole away, after their own fashion, in single flics, in spite of 
the strenuous remonstrance of Bnum and of their own officers, leaving 
US more than ever exposed by the abandonment of that angle of the 
intrenchment which they had been appointed to maintain. But even 
this spectacle, distressing as it doubtless was, failed in affecting our 
people with a feeling at nil akin to despair. This vacancy, which the 
retreat of the savages occasioned, was promptly filled up by one of 
our two field-pieces, whilst the other poured destruction among the 
enemy in front as often as they showed themselves in the open 
country or threatened to advance. 

" In this state things continued upwards of three-quarters of an 
hour. Though repeatedly assailed in front, flanks, and rear, wfl 
maintained ourselves with so much obstinacy as to inspire a hope 
that the enemy might even yet be kept at bay till the arrival of lirey- 
mann's corps, now momentarily expected, when an accident occurred 
which at once put an end to this expectation, and exposed us, almost 
defenseless, to our fate. The solitary tumbril which contained the 
whole of our spare ammunition became ignited, and blew up with a 
violence which shook the very ground under our feet and caused a 
momentary cessation in firing, both on our side and that of the 
enemy, lint the cessation was only for a moment. The American 
officers, guessing the extent of our calamity, cheered their men on to 
fresh exertions. They rushed up the ascent with redoubled ardor, in 
Spite of the heavy volley which wc poured in to check them: and, 
ling our guns silent, they sprang over the parapet and dashed 
within our works. For a few seconds the scene whieh ensued defies 
all power of language to describe. The bayonet, the butt of lh< i 
the sabre, the pike were in full play, and men fell, a- they rarely fall 
in modern war. under the direct blows of their enemies. But such a 
struggle could not, in the naturo of things, be of long continual 
Outnumbered, broken, and somewhat disheartened by late events, our 
people wavered and fell back, or fought singly and uneonneeteilly, 
till they were either cut down at their posts, obstinately defending 
tbemsolves, or compelled to surrender. Of Ricdcsel's dismout 
dragoon- lew -nr\ i ved to t. II how nobly they had beha\ ed. fob Haunt, 
.-hot through the body by a rifle-ball, fell mortally wounded; and, nil 

order and discipline being lost, flight or submission was a! 

thought of. For my own part, whether the feeling arose from 
p oration or accident 1 cannot tell, but I resolved not to be taken. A* 
ycl I hod escaped almost unhurt, a slight flesh wound in the IcH 
arm having alone fallen to my share, and, gathering around me abool 
thirty of n es, we made a rush where the enemy's rank 

Mid burst through. This done, each man made It 
to -lii ir for himself, without pausing to consider the fate of hi- neigh- 
bor, and. losing one-third of our number from the enemy's fire, t ho 
remainder took refuge, in groups of two <>r three, within the 

i hi; SECOND B mi i K. 

\V. have allowed the principal actor on the American 
side, and a careful observer of and a participator in the 
battle on tin- side of the British and Germans, each to 
present in lii- own way an account of tin- engagement 
Both, however, havccon6ncd their accounts mainly to thi 
conflict which happened in tin* early paid of the afternoon, 
and have piven a very indefinite view of the second battle, 
which took place from a third of a mile to a mile cast <>t 



the presenl village of North Hoosick, on the road to Wal 
loomsac and Bennington. A review of the details of this 
second battle shows that Col. Breymann received orders 
IVinn Gen. Burgoyne on the morning of August 15th, at 
eight o'clock, to start at once with his company of yagers, 
a battalion of chasseurs and grenadiers, and two cannon to 
reinforce the corps of Baum. Each soldier carried with 
liini forty cartridges. Breymann left an hour after re- 
ceiving orders, but, owing to the difficulty he experienced 
in crossing the Batten Kill, — the men being compelled to 
wade through the water, the great number of hills he was 
obliged to cross, " the bottomless roads," a severe and con- 
tinuous rain storm, the difficulty of moving the cannon, and 
losing the way through the ignorance of the guide, he was 
able to proceed that day only to a point about seven miles 
westerly from Cambridge, where he encamped for the night. 
Early on the morning of the lGth he again set out, his 
horses unfed, and over roads almost impassable, and pro- 
ceeded very slowly on his way ; but, obtaining fresh horses, 
he advanced some distance beyond Cambridge, and then 
halted for half an hour to collect his columns. On again 
going forward, and at about eight o'clock in the afternoon, 
Col. Skene, who had been with Baum, sent two men to 
Breymann, with a request for him to detach an officer and 
twenty men, and send them forward to occupy the " mill at 
St. Coyk," as the Americans were showing signs of ad- 
vancing on it. Instead of the force asked for, Breymann 
sent forward Capt. Gleisenberg with the advance-guard, 
consisting of sixty grenadiers and chausseurs and twenty 
yagers. Breymann himself, with the rest of his men, 
reached the mill at half-past four, and found there the ad- 
vance-guard in undisturbed possession and still unattacked 
by the enemy. 

Col. Skene, who was at the mill when Breymann arrived, 
informed him that Baum was only two miles distant, but if 
he knew of the fact that Baum was already defeated did 
not communicate it to Breymann. Had Breymann known 
the real state of the case, he would not have risked the 
engagement that followed. Breymann deeming it best to 
hasten forward to meet Bauni's corps, and Skene being of 
the same opinion, both marched over the bridge in order to 
reach Damn's camp as soon as possible. They had gone 
scarcely six hundred paces from the bridge, when through 
the woods " a considerable number of armed men, some of 
whom wore blouses and some jackets," were seen hastening 
towards an eminence on Breymann's left flank. Breymann 
immediately called Skene's attention to the circumstance, 
and received from him the reply that these men were royal- 
ists. But when Skene rode up towards them and called to 
them the matter was soon explained, for, instead of return- 
ing an answer, they fired on Breymann's soldiers. There- 
upon, Breymann ordered Bamer's battalion to move towards 
the height, while the yagers and grenadiers advanced on 
the right. Then it was that the second battle began, which 
lasted until nearly eight o'clock in the evening. The can- 
non, posted on a road, were trained on a log house occupied 
by some Americans, whence they were forced to retire, and 
as they came out they were repulsed on all sides, although 
reinforcements arrived to support them. After Breymann's 
ammunition was all expended, and his artillery had ceased 

firing, he, in anticipation of the renewal of the attack, at- 
tempted to take away the cannon. By this movement QlOSl 

of his men were severely wounded. The horses were either 
dead or in a condition which prevented them from moving 

from the spot. Not daring to take any further risk-, and 

being unable to return the enemj 's fire, he retreated on the 
approach of darkness, destroyed the bridge at l; St. Coyk," 
brought thither as many of the wounded as possible thai 
they might not be captured, and, after a lapse of half an 
hour, in company with Col. Skene, pursued bis march to 
I 'nmbridge, which place lie reached a little before midnight. 
It is probable that the Second battle was begun and fought 
in part by a body of New Yorkers under the command of 
Col. John Williams, of White Creek, now Salem. Arriving 
during the progress of the first battle, he, although belong- 
ing to the New York line, offered his services, and received 
the following order : 

"State of Vermont — In Council of Safety, Aug. 10, 1777. 
'■To Col. John Williams. 

" Sir, — You will proceed with your part; towards the lines, and if 
the enemy should retreat, you will repair to the mad leading from St. 
Cork to Hoosack, and, if you make any discovery, report to tbie coun- 
cil; at the same time, you are to pay proper attention to the read 
leading from Hoosack to Pownal. By order of council. 

"Paul Spooner, D, Secretari/" 

In obedience to these orders, there is but little doubt 
that Williams and his men were among the number who 
posted themselves at the log house about a third of a mile 
east of North Hoosick, and drove back Breymann and his 
troops at the second battle. 

stark's compliments. 

Mementoes of the battle were subsequently transmitted 
by Stark to the States of New Hampshire and Massachu- 
setts Bay. His letter accompanying the gifts sent to the 
former State was in these words : 

"Gen. Stark presents his most respectful compliments to the Hon- 
orable Council and House of Representatives for the State of New 
Hampshire, and begs their acceptance of a Hessian dragoon sword, 
drum, gun, cartridge-box, bayonet, and grenadier cap, the trophies of 
the memorable battle fought by their militia, in conjunction wilh the 
militia of the States of Vermont and Massachusetts Bay, on the ICth 
of August, 1777, at Walloomscock, and desires they may be deposited 
in the Stale, in memory of that glorious victory, given them by the 
Divine Being who overpowers and rules all things. 

"Compliments from Gen. John Stark, accompanying a present of 
sundry warlike implements, trophies of the memorable battle at Wal- 
loomscock, Aug. 10, 1777." 

The letter sent to the Massachusetts Bay State was more 
definite in its description of the articles which accompanied 
it, and stated with great plainness the sentiments of Stark 
respecting Great Britain: 

"Bennington, Sept. 15, 1777. 
" Gen. Stark begs leave to present to the Slate of Massachusetts 
Bay, and prays their acceptance of the same, one Hessian gun and 
bayonet, one broad sword, one brass-barreled drum, and one grena- 
dier's cap, taken from the enemy in tho memorable battle fought 
at Walloomscock on the 16th of August last, and requests thai the 
same may be kept in commemoration of that glorious victory ob- 
tained over the enemy on that day by the united troops of i hat State, 
those of New Hampshire and Vermont, which victory ought to be 
kepi in memory and handed dowu to futurity as a lasting and laudable 
example for the sons and daughters of the victors, in order never to 



suffer then '" I 

Brilii ' "'■ 

•• I an 

|\ Si MIK. 

COM U I N • 

It will be noticed thai in both of th< Stark 

nates the conflict as "the memorable battle fought at 
Walloomscock on the 16th of August, 1777.'' The name 
thus employed by him is the name given t" the district on 
which the main battle occurred, now known as " Walloom- 
. ." which district is about b'ix miles from Bennington, 
about a mile :m<l :i half from the Vermont line, i- situated 
wholly within the State of New York, in the county of 
i: r. and stretches over that part of the town of 

II - s which lies about two miles northeast from the 
villag FN II sick, and extends also nearly to the 

therly limits of the town of White Creek, in Washing- 
ton County, Glieh, in his narrative, refers to the some 
mtryas "the farm of Walmscott." The -kir- 

nii-li which took pla n the 15th at ■' the farm and bridge 

of Sankoick," as narrated by Glieh, and which i.- also the 
Sancoick," when Col. Bnum wrote a dispatch to Bur- 
-,,.. ..ii August 1 lih. in which he said, " Beg your excel- 
lency to pardon the hurry of this letter; it is written 1 on the 
head of a barrel" — was fought at Van Schaick's mill, now 
N'.irtli Hoosick, and its name was oftcner spelled St Coych, 
oix, Mr Saintcoix, or as given by Baum and Glieh, than 
DV itj As late as the year 1812 the out- 

lines of the temporary works erected on the occasion of the 
battle were .-till to be seen, and can yet be traced by those 
who have studied the topography of that region as conn 
with the disposition of the ti in the conflict. 

( )n the plan ofthe battle "at Walmscock, near Bennington," 
mpauying Burgoyne S of the Expedition," a copy 
of which plan accompanies this article, the stream adjacent 

to which the battle was fought is errom sly named the 

II ... i; [| a imc n is the - ime as the district 

through which it namely, " Wall ack," or 

" Walloomscoick,' rror is noted as being an in- 

iii in. uracy on an English plan of a battle of 

the Revolution. Ordinarily, the plans of the battli 
drawn b) thi ir t ducal orrccl to tlnir 

mil. Is, and ai the Btudi Ht of 

American history. Dwight, in com nting upon the result 

■I. employs this 

.. r ibod. 

It »u > 
and »n ni 

■nt '" tho 

mnj . Ii ««• » 

brilliant ■ ' » n 'l 

•ben they 

Um - 

impoetanoi of bistort u & btodt. 
If history i* the « I nd it" man i- t" 

ni by the 

and incidents which have occurred in the lives of other men, 
and in the rise and fall of nations, then surely dues it be- 
come every American to study well those events which, oc- 
curring day by day and year by year, have in the progress 
of time raised his country to a place among the nati ins of 
the world and ".iven it a iveord which, whether for good 01 
l',,r evil, is worthy to be known by all. History teaching 
b) its examples is the creator of philosophy, and tin 
philosophy is the supreme guide to the strongest, the 
purest, the highest life. 



ABOUT the middle of the last century there arose a 
Litter controversy between the provinces of New York and 
New Hampshire respecting the title to certain townships 
of land now comprising the town of l>eunington and vicin- 
ity, in the State of Vermont, but then called and known 
a< the •• 1 lamp-hire Grants." The tract of land eni 
ing these disputed townships lay in the southwestern corner 
of what is now the State of Vermont, and adjoining what 
are now Washington and Rensselaer Counties. At tbl 
beginning of the controversy, about the year 171'.'. the 
territory now comprised in the counties of Rensselaer and 
Washington formed a part of Albany County. In 177- 
Washington County was set off under the name of Char- 
lotte County, and Ilensselaer still continued a part of AJ 
bany County until the year 1791. The county of Charli 
when set oft' included, as claimed by New York, a part <il 
the-,- disputed townships, and the magistrates of Charlotte 
County assumed jurisdiction over them. These dispu 
continued, with more or less violence, until the year 1791, 
in which year Vermont was admitted by Congress into the 
Union, and during which year also the controversy W«8 
finally settled between New York and Vermont, New York 
yielding up the lands, and Vermont paying her therefor, in 
Settlement, the sum of thirty thousand dollars in full of all 

The controversy grew out of the disagreement existing 
in colonial and provincial times, between New York and 
New England, as lo the boundary line ofthe respcel 
provinces. The territory described in the Great I'atentof 

England, granted by King .lames in 1620, was 
follows : 

" All thai circuit, continent, precincts, anil limits in America, !>i»J 

in breadth from I thoriy lutiluile t I H" 

equinoctial lino to forty eiglil degrees nl the sail northci 

n length by nil I if' aid, throughout the mainland 

Ip.ii, with nil th as, rivers, islands, cricks, inlets. ! 

within the dcgrci -. precincts, mid limits of the said lata- 

; lo." 

The term from a." in this grant, wasoonstrued 

by 1 1, N « Englanders to mean from the Atlantic to thi 

Pa ■ ii is. Such was the imperfect knowledge of the 

the county, that the clause from " sea to sea 

had but an indefinite meaning in the mind of King dames, 

but it led to endless disputes in the future between lie 




On the other hand, King Charles II., I>v his letters 
patent to the Duke of York, bearing date tin- L2th day of 
Maroh, L6G3 G4, and the 29th June, L674, fixed the 
bounds of the province of New York " from the west Bide 
of tin' Connecticut River to the cast side of the Delaware 
Bay," as will be soon in the description of the territory 
granted in the document hereinbelow given. 


In the year 171!', Benning Wentworth was the governor 
of the pro^ ince of New Hampshire. It was during a period 
of peace between England and France, and of ;i cessation of 
hostilities in the French-and-Indian wars. The people of 
\rw Hampshire were desirous of settling on the lands west 
of the Connecticut River, and applied to Governor Went- 
worth for grants of the same. 

On the 17th day of November, 1749, Governor Went- 
worth addressed a letter to Governor Clinton, of New York, 
informing him of this desire of settlers to take up such lands, 
and desiring Governor Clinton's opinion as to the boundary 
line between the provinces. He also informed Governor 
Clinton that a surveyor and chainman had run the western 
line of Massachusetts, and that it struck the Hudson River 
''about eighty polos between where Mohawk River crosses 
into the Hudson," and desire Governor Clinton's opinion 
as to how " far north of Albany the government of New 
York extends." 

To this letter Governor Clinton replied on the 9th April, 
1750, informing Governor Wentworth that the Connecticut 
River was the eastern boundary of the New York govern- 

In reply to this, Governor Wentworth wrote to Governor 
Clinton that, inasmuch as the provinces of Connecticut and 
Massachusetts claimed the land northeast of the Connecticut 
River up to a line within twenty miles to the east of the 
Hudson, he should claim for New Hampshire the same 

Governor Wentworth also advised Governor Clinton that 
he, Governor Wentworth, had already "granted one Town- 
ship, due north of the Massachusetts line, of the contents 
of Six Miles Square, and by measurement twenty-four 
miles east of the city of Albany." 

In allusion to his name, he (Governor Wentworth) gave 
to this township the name of Benning-ton.* 

To this letter Governor Clinton replied on the 6th June, 
1750, asking Governor Wentworth to recall the grant of 
the township of Bennington, above described. 

The state of the dispute in the year 16o*3 can best be 
ascertained from the following documents, which we copy 
intact : 

"to be the MAST bounds of THE province OF NEW YORK. 

" I'.y the Honorable Cadwallader Golden, Esq. ; His Majesty'a Lieu- 
tenant Governor and commander in chief of the Province of new 
york, and the Territories depending thereon in America. 

" Whereas King Charles the Second, by his several Letters Patent 
bearing Date tho 12th Day of March, 1663-4, and the 29th J ; 

"' Hall's History of Eastern Vermont. 

1674, did give and grant in Pee, unto hi Brother, Joint • Duke of 
)'">•/, pi i i,i in Land . of which tho Province ol Wu ) rk is ;i part, 

containing, an g othoi Tract . 'all thai I land i I com 

monly called by t i ■ * ■ several Name or Name ol l/a 
Inland, situate and being toward the ^ e ' of cap* cor/, and th< 
roio Biggnnsetts, abutting upon the main Land between the two 
Rivers there called or known by the several Nam i I ecticni 

and Hudson* 9 River. Together also with the said EUver, called Hud- 
son's EUver, and >tll the Land from the West Side <•/ Connecticut 
River to th Eaeteidt w Delaware Bay, 1 

"And whereas the Government of Yen Hamp hire t bj i 1 " Lettci 
Patent of his Inte majesty, given at Whitehall, the third Da 
July j 17 11, is described in the words following : 'Our Pro in i 
\ru Hampshire, within our Dominions of New England in America, 
bounded on the South Side by a similar Curve Line pursuing tho 
course of merrimac River, al threi miles Distance on the north side 
thereof; beginning a1 the Atlantic Ocean, nnd ending al a Poinl due 

north of a Place called Pautltckct Full*; :md by a. straight Line 
drawn from thence due West across the said River till it meet* with 
our other Governments; and bounded on the south side by a Line 
passing up through the mouth of Piscataqna Harbour, and np the 
middle of tho River to the River of Newich wan nock, Part of which 
is now called salmon Falls, and through the Middle of the same to 
the furthe.-t Head thereof; and from thence North two Degrees 
Westerley until One Hundred and Twenty miles he finished from the 
■Mouth of Piscataqna Harbour aforesaid, or until it meets with our 
otlur Governments/ 

"And whereas it manifestly appears bj the several Grants or Let- 
ters Patent itbove recited, that the Province of new york is hounded 
to the eastward by the River Connecticut: thai the Province of New 
Hampshire, being expressly limited in its extent II - ttieard and North- 
ward by His Majesty's other Governments, is confined to the same 
River as to its Western Boundary ; and that the said Government of 
New Hampshire is not intituled to Jurisdiction Westward, beyond the 
Limits of that River. 

"And whereas the said Government of New Hampshire, tho' fully 
apprized of the Right of this Government, under the Letters Patent 
aforementioned to the Duke of York ; and sensible also that his 
Majesty had not been pleased to establish other Boundaries between 
his said two Provinces, hath granted Lands Westward of Connecticut 
River, within the Limits and Jurisdiction of the Government of new 
york; in virtue whereof, sundry Persons, ignorant that they could 
not derive a Legal Title under such Grants, have attempted the set- 
tlement of the Lands included therein, and have actually possessed 
themselves of Soil before granted within this PrOl ince ; while others 
claiming under tho said Government of New Hampshire, have en- 
deavored to impose on the Inhabitants here, by offering to Sale at a 
low Rate, whole Townships of Six Miles Square lately granted by the 
Government Westward of Connecticut River, 

" To prevent therefore the Incautious from becoming Purchasers of 
the Lands so granted; to assert the Rights, and fully to maintain the 
jurisdiction of the Government of this His majesty's Province of new 
york ; I have thought tit, with the advice of His majesty's council, 
to issue this Proclamation, hereby commanding and requiring all 
Judges, Justices, and other civil Officers within the same to continue 
to exercise Jurisdiction in their Respective Functions, as far as to the 
Hanks of Connecticut River, the undoubted Eastern Limits of that 
Part of the Province of new york, notwithstanding any contrariety 
of Jurisdiction claimed by the Government of New Hampshire, or 
any Grants of Land Westward of that River, made by the said Gov- 
ernment, AND I DO hereby enjoin the High Sheriff of the county of 
Albany, to return to me or the commander in chief, the Names of all 
and everj Person and Persons, who under the Grants of the Govern- 
ment of X<ir Hampshire, do or shall hold the Possession of any Lands 
Westward of Connecticut River, that they may he procee li d against 
accot ding to La w, 

" G LVEN under my Hand and seal nt Arms, af Fori George, in the 
City of New York, the Twenty-eighth Day of December, 1763, in the 
Fourth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third, 
by the Grace of GOD, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King's 
Defender of the Faith, and so forth, By his Honor's Command, 


" Geo. B \n/ \u, Dep, Secry. 

" God s wk the King." 


HISTORY OF i:k\s:-i:i.\i:k COUNTY, NEW YORK. 


"B i < *■ 

•■ I'.;. II 

lliii. ! 


•• Win in i- II.- II Baqr., Lion 

\. ■» 

u i.niiry 

n ,l u on the 12th day 

I, and ill.- ."'cli June [874, did bj In- several Lot- 

ia Brother tho Duko of York 

a ng other Things all the Land from tho weal side of Con i tioul 

Bay and therein alio seta forth, 

Hampshire, in which description 

1 the fact, 

on which the d - Hampshire dopended, vi'.. Hia 

a of the northern, and western Boundarya of 

nothing can bo 

mora eridenl than thai (few Uampsbirc may legally oxtend her 

■"' I 
■ha clainu '■ tend! to olaim oven to 

H^ji . although ihe never laid oul and settled 

: , it, - pari of Hi- M la Since she existed aa 

"When [i . rernmenl extends her Baalorn Boundary to 

tho Banka v " fork and the Colony of 

the Banka of said River, b a York and 

Bay, ii irou'd have been full early 
. ivernmont ol No« Hampshin 
fully appi ' New York under the before recited Lct- 

■ u> the Duke "f York. 
• • ] of the Boundary 1 

bj || vin. -ni mi, I the Massachusetts 

l , all the Land omenta have boon < Lown- 

to II,- M ' rablo 

I. . daily arising to tho Crown, unlcaa interrupted and im- 

I lamation, whioh Now Hanipshiro will not 


.. i, , of Sen York to the Northward are 
unknoKo, -ml ■<■ toon >- n shall to do- 
, . . II imp b n a ill p ■;■ - n idy and ohearfull ubodi- 
j Inn thai all Grants made by Now Hamp- 
shire ihst arc folBllcd bi thi ■ ill b ifirme I I" them, if it 

tbonl . 

ij \, ■« \ ork 
Strict injunction on tho 

. 11 ill their I; H9, as 

far »• BasUrn D • or, 

! intod 


holding the 

the Duke ia 

ob,.. d Boundary to Now York thai 

. which »rc «rt (.,rtli in thi 
uarl ' tk« of 

on i Hi* Lata 

I .. wr|| » 

A mainuin lb' 

|h ,r,.| »:•) I), 

thi- liming 

ng and cultivating 
mmand all - within 

Una I wb*< V"* 

>nd be dili- 

gonl in oxercising Jurisdiction in their respective offices, ns far wcat- 
ward as Grants of Land have been made by this Government, and to 
deal with any person, or persons, that may presume to interrupt the 
Inhabitants or settlers on said Lands as to Law and Justice doth 
appertain, the pretended right of Jurisdiction mentioned in the afore- 
said Proclamation notwithstanding. 

■•Given at tho Counoil Chamber nt Portsmouth the l:'.th day of 
March, 1764, in the fourth year of Hia Majosty'a Reign. 

"Ii. Wkxtwobth." 

Iii the mean time the home government had the matter 
under consideration, and on the 20th day of July, 1071 
ided in favor of New York, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing order in council : 

"(L. S. . At the court at St. James the 2flth day of July. 1784. 

Present,— The King's most Excellent Majesty, Lord Steward. Karl of 

Iwieh, Earl of Halifax. Earl of Powis, Earl of Hilsborough, Mr. 

Vice Chamberlain, Gilbert Elliot, Esq.. James Oswald, Esq., Karl of 


■ Whereas there was this day read at the Hoard, a Report made by 

tho Right Honorable the Lords of the Commit!. f Council for Plan- 

i affairs, dated the 17th of this Instant, upon Considering a 
Representation from the Lords Commissioners tor Trade and Planta- 
tions, relative to the Disputes that havesomc years Subsisted between 
the Provin :cs of New Hampshire and New York concerning Ihe 
B Hilary Line between those Provinces. His Majesty taking taw 
same into consideration was pleased with the advice of his privy 
Council to approve of what is therein proposed, and doth accordingly 
hereby Order and Declare the Western Hanks of the River Connecti- 
cut, from where it enters the Province of the M i 
far North ns the forty-fifth Degree of Northern Latitude, to I 
Boundary Line between the said two Provinces of New Hampshire 
and New Vork. Whereof the respective Governors and Coinmnn 
in-Chief of his Majesty's said Provinces of New Hampshire and 
York for the time being, and all others whom it may Con 
take n.tiec of his Majesty's Pleasure hereby signified, an 1 Govern 
themselves accordingly. 

"Wm. Blair." 

But the decision of the home government did not end 
the matter. Governor Wentworth bad, between the \ 
1763 and 17G8, granted to numerous persons no less than 
one hundred and thirty-eight townships, and a large 1k«1v 
of settlers, mostly from Connecticut, bad gone into occupi 
ti.ui. The settlors bad. many of them, paid Go> 
Wentworth for their lands, and they did not propose U 
for them the second time to New York. Those settler*, 
under the leadership of Ethan Allen, now became a third 
party to the contest. They resisted all attempts at ejectioii 
and dispossession bj the authorities of Albany County. 
They formed themselves into bands, and committed mlDJ 
depredations in tho counties of Washington and Rem 
sclacr, and flogged the New York officers with beechcn-rodi 
without mercy. The controversy lasted for some t< n 

when the war of the Revolution broke out, and the 
people of the Hampshire Grants warmly espoused the patriol 

\: the conclusion of the war the controversy conl 
for seven years longer with great violence. 

The) pie of the Hampshire Grants found themselves in 

an anomalous condition. The boundary rptestion bad been 
long before d cided againsl them by the home government 
They were legally under the jurisdiction ol New York, bm 
were in a stab of open armed resistance again t her author- 
I - | V -a Hampshire bad long since rclm 

1 her claims. In this emergency the people of the 
Hampshire Grants scl upa sort of independent government 



Cur themselves, willniul tlio sanction ol' law. Of a truth, 

the State of Now York considered them aa rioters and out- 
laws, treated them as such, and made vain attempts i«i re- 
duce (lii'in to her authority. 

The people of the (J rants retaliated, and even wont so far 
as to lay claim to the territory of Washington County and 
the northern part of Rensselaer. They organized a State 
t:i iv i Turnout under the title of New Connecticut or Ver- 
mont. Their officers oven penetrated the territory of Now 
York as far as Lansingburgh, claiming the right to execute 

Two nr three towns ol' Washington, even, joined thorn, 
notably the towns of Cambridge, Granville, and White 
Creek. These towns, however, submitted to the authority 
of Now York in 1782.* 

But the limits of this chapter will not permit a recital 
of the details of this protracted controversy. It resulted 
in the admission of Vermont as a State of t lie Union in 




PREVIOUS to the year 1791, Albany County embraced 
ill that part of the territory of the State of New Y r ork 
iiirth of the counties of Ulster and Dutchess, except Wash- 
ington County, which was taken from Albany County, 
March 12, 1772. Rensselaer County was named in honor 
if the Van Rensselaer family, and was set off from Albany 
bounty, Feb. 17, 1791. 


The first meeting of the officers of Rensselaer County 
fas held in Lansingburgh, at the tavern of Ananias Piatt, 
ii Tuesday, April 15, 1791, at which place the necessary 
athsof office were taken and appointments made for hold- 
tig the courts. The time designated for holding the Court 
f General Sessions of the Peace and the Court of Common 
'leas, was the first Tuesday in May, 1791, at the house of 
Uianias Piatt, in Lansingburgh. A room was secured in 

house formerly occupied by N. Jacobs, near the residence 
f Col. John Van Rensselaer, for the county clerk's office. 

Tho first sessions of the Court of Common Pleas was 
resided over by Hon. Anthony Ten Eyck, First Judge; 
ohn Van Rensselaer, Israel Thompson, Robert Woodworth, 
onathan Brown, Judges; Benjamin Hicks, Robert Mont- 
omery, and Moss Kent, Assistant Judges. The follow- 
ig persons were admitted to practice as attorneys and 
mnselors: John Woodworth, Dirck Ten Broeck, Moss 
•cut, John V. Henry, Peter D. Van Dyck, Ab'm Hun, 
ohn Waters Yates, Nicholas Funda, Gerrit Wendall, 
ohn D. Dickinson, Guert Van Schoonhoven, Cornelius 

a ndenber gh, John Lovett, Peter E. Elmendorf, Sanders 

See copies of the articles of submission of these towns in Doe. His. 
N. V.. vol. i v . pp. 1007-9 

Lansing, and Francis Silvester. The courl thou adopted 
thirty-three rules ami orders to be "observed by all the 

officers thereof." Tl inrl directed "thai a seal be made 

for tlii unty of Rensselaer, and be affixed by the clerk of 

this court to all processes and records thereof to authenti 

oato the same, and that the device be a plow, with the 

words ' Rensselaer County Seal' engraved around the edge 
thereof." Subsequently, after the third day's session, it 
was ordered that the court stood adjourned to the second 
Tuesday in November, then to meet at tho house of Stephen 
Ashley, in the town of Troy. On the fifth day of -July, 
1791, a Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Jail 
Delivery was held at Piatt's loo, in the town of Troy. 
Thereafter the county courts wore held alternately at the 
tavern of Ananias Piatt in Lansingburgh and the inn of 
Stephen Ashley in Troy, until the erection of the court-house. 
For the purpose of allaying as far as it was possible the 
local jealousy existing between the people of Lansingburgh 
and Troy, it was announced by those who bad control of 
the powers of legislation that the village which should sub- 
scribe the most money for the erection of the proposed 
county buildings would have the preference in regard to 
their situation. The people of Troy, in a very quiet man- 
ner, circulated a subscription paper with these words : 

" To all whom these prevents ehall come or may concern : Whereas, 

by an act of the Legislature of the State of New York at their pres- 
ent session it was enacted that a court-house ami gaol should be 
erected and built in the county of Rensselaer, within sixty rods of the 
dwelling-bouse of Stephen Ashley, in the village of Troy, in the town 
of Troy, and that the sum of one thousand pounds should be made 
payable to the treasurer of said county for the time being, for the 
purpose aforesaid, by the inhabitants of the said village in the town 
of Troy. Now therefore know ye, that we whose names are hereunto 
subscribed do respectively promise to pay unto Albert Pawling and 
Christopher Hutton, or to one of them, !o t heir or one of their exe- 
cutors, administrators, or assigns, the sum of money annexed to our 
respective names on demand, which money is to be appropriated to 
the building of a court-house and gaol as aforesaid. Dated Ihis four- 
teenth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand and 
seven hundred and ninety-three." 

This paper received the signatures of sixty-four persons 
in Troy, making a subscription of one thousand pounds. 
This gained a decision for the erection of the county build- 
ings in Troy. 

On the 22d day of March, 1793, Jacob D. Vanderhey- 
den granted and conveyed to Robert Woodworth, Cornelius 
Lansing, Jacob A. Lansing, Benjamin Milk, Thomas 
Sickles, Jonas Odell, and John Wylie, supervisors of Rens- 
selaer County, as gifts, lots 145, 14G, and 147, on the south- 
east corner of Congress and Second Streets, on which to 
erect a court-house and jail. 

While the court-bouse was in course of erection, pro- 
posals for the building of the county jail were advertised, 
Nov. 11, 1794, by Benjamin Gorton, clerk. 

The first court convened in the new court-house was that 
of Common Pleas, on the second Tuesday in June, 1794. 
In 1795 the jail was completed, being built of brick, two 
stories in height, with barred windows, and was situated on 
the corner of the alley, east and in the rear of the court- 
house. The court-house occupied the site of the present 
building, and was surmounted with a cupola, in which 
afterwards was placed a bell. 



SECOND I "i i;i DO 

I C ranty, at :i meet- 

ing held :ii ili.- inn of William Pierce, in Troy, Nov. 15, 
182 : to petition thi - I 1. .mire for an act 

and i mi to r.ii*. bj tax npon tbc people of die 

■\ .i mud of in v ii"t exceeding together with the 

.sum which might 1»- contributed by the people of Troy) 
in the whole twenty Eve thousand dollars, for the erection 
. new court-house. This resolution was dependent on 
the action of the authorities of the city of Troy, in giving 
it the city would defray two-fifths 
of tin . \| ensc of the building over and nbove their quota 
nf tin' residue of bucIi an expenditure. This resolution 

being submitted to the com n council of Troy, the pn 

sition was I, it being undersl 1 that the common 

council and city of Troy should be accommodated with such 
ni> in the court-house as they might require, 

in -t inconsistent with the accomi lotions of the county, and 

that the new building should be erected on or near the site 
of tbc old building, and buill under the superintendence of a committee of the Board of Supervisors and of t lie coni- 
iii. .11 council. Towusend McCoun, Ephraim Morgan, and 
liah Dauchy were appointed that committee. 
An art t.. authorise the Supervisors of the county of 
B t t.. raise by tax upon said county "a sum not ix- 

thousand dollars, Tor the purpose of rebuild- 
ing the court-house in -ai.l county and for other purposes," 
I by the State Legislature, March 13, IS27. 

Finding, however, that i -.■ money would be needed, the 

B ;<1 of Supervisors resolved to enlarge the appropriation 
f..r the building of the court house to thirty-one thousand 

dollars, and in this the common council of Troy i curred, 

Jan. 31, I 

In March, 1831, the Board of Supervisors set apart for 
th us of ili. city of Troy the rooms on the north side of 

the hall on ili. bc< 1 floor of the court-house, marked 

and " ( 'oinin.iii ( louncil room," and 
il.r.s- r. " .in- in the basement st,. r _y. The remainder of the 
building • irt for tlic use of the county. 

building when finished cost about fortj thousand 

Lructed of Sing Sing marble, 1 archi- 

irnlly in nforming to the style of the 


I Brat action taken by the common council of the 

r building a now jail was on May 17. 1825, 

wh.-n it •• f three pci ions 

I I- confer with the Supervisors of the 

. a site for the 

iiiloftli. county. 1 1 of Ephraim 

M rg in, Thomas I Jcrcn I ' i hy. 

(in the '.tli of April. 1826, the I' of - 


the erection ..f the n.w jail, which wo I. the fol- 

lowii in brief the agrccmcul 

1 .■!! lot ' 

.situated on thi - ■. and on the north 

I ; the foiiinla- 

of brick, with a roof of slate; that the corporation of the 
city of Troy should cause to be executed to the count} of 
Rensselaer a good and valid title to the said lot, free of 
ground rent, and should at all times thereafter pay and 
Satisfy all taxes, charges, and assessments which then or 
thereafter should lie taxed, charged, or assessed upon the 
lot or ordinance of the city of Troy, then or thereafter in 
force, and to cause the said lot to be leveled fit to receive 
the building. 

It was ordered that the committee previously 
should draw no the chamberlain of the city for the stun of 
eleven hundred and twenty-five dollars, the purchase-money 
the jail lot, and that the committee should sell the 
buildings and fences found thereon. For excavating ami 
leveling the ground on the jail lot one hundred and 
enty-five dollars were afterwards paid. On Aug. 2, 1832 
it was resolved by the common council that the old hell of 
the court-house .should he placed in the cupola of the new 
jail to be rung for alarms of fire. 


For the erection of a House of Industry and the pur- 
chase of the farm belonging thereto, it was resolved by the 
common council, at a meeting held Oct. 4. 1S21. that the 
Supervisors of Rensselaer County should he rc.|" 
cause the sum of fifteen hundred dollars to be raised by 
tax on the estates of the freeholders and inhabitants nf the 
city of Troy. 

On the 10th of January, 1S22, the Supervisors re] 
to the common council of the city of Troy that the entire 
cost of the farm purchased for the site for a House of In- 
dustry for the poor of the city and of the towns associa 
in purchasing the same, including interest, was fourth 
sand five hundred and two dollars and twenty-eight cents, 
that the new house built thereon and repairing the old houa 
and Lain, etc., cost three thousand and sixty-two dollars anil 
fifty-six cents ; and additional expenses, making a total ol 
nine thousand and sixty-four dollars and eighty-four ' 
Of tins sum the proportion to be paid by the city was : 
thousand six hundred and forty-seven dollars and nil). 
four e.nts. 

Th.- House of Industry is about one and a half 
east of the compact part of the city. The main building 
is built of brick, two Storii - high, one hundred and fiflv 

ng by forty wide, with a wing of the same ! 
and material, thirty by forty feet. There is also a 
building, erected in I860, one story in height, one humi 
and eight feel long by twenty-eight wide. The lunatic 
asylum is built of brick, three stories in height, tliirtj 
sixty feet. The farm consists of about one hundred ami 
fort'. of hind. 

ill. E \i:i. .. i OURTS. 

The courts of tbc State, at the time of the formation 
this county, wi 

1. Thi Court of Errors, consisting of the lieutenant 
i. nr. the senators, the chancellor, and the jud 

nt. This court had sole power to try in 
•Milt-, and a general appellate jurisdiction over ill 



2. The Court of Chancery, with exclusive jurisdiction in 
equity causes. 

I!. The Supreme Courl of Judication, consisting of a 
ohief-justice and three puisne judges. Tins court sal in 
Jane, and heard appeals from the courts below. 

I. The Circuit Court, which was held in each county at 
least once iii every year by one of the judges of the Su 
|n- e Court. It had jurisdiction over all issues of law. 

"i. A Court of Common Pleas in each county. This 
oourt consisted of a lirst judge and at least three judges, 
ami had jurisdiction over all actions at law arising within 
the county. 

li. The Court of Oyer ami Terminer. This was a crimi- 
nal branch of the Circuit Court, and was presided over by 
a circuit judge and at least three commissioned justices of 
the peace of the county, of whom one might be a county 

7. The Court of General Sessions. This was a criminal 
court, held by any three of the justices of the peace of the 
county, and of which a judge of Common Pleas must always 
he a member. 


When King Charles II., in the years 1663-64 and 
1674, granted to his brother James, Duke of York and 
Albany, the vast province of the New Netherlands, and 
brcibly seizing it from the Dutch, its rightful owners, 
lamed it New York in honor of the duke, he also granted 
,vith it to the duke plenary powers of government over the 

The duke accordingly exercised his power as sole propri- 
itorof this province by Governors of his own appointment. 
The lirst Governor appointed by the duke as proprietor was 
rovernor Richard Nicolls, Sept. 8, 1664, and the last was 
iovernor Thomas Dongan, Aug. 27, 1683. It was under 
he Duke of York as proprietor that on the 1st day of No- 
rember, 1683, Governor Dongan divided the province iuto 
en enmities, and named them after the duke and the king 
md family, as described in Chapter 11. 

But on the 6th day of February, 16S5, the Duke of 
Lurk ascended the throne of England as James II., and 
lis title as proprietor to the province merged in his crown, 
nd it henceforth ceased to be a charter government. 

From that time for a period of ninety years, up to the 
var of the Revolution, the colony of New York was a 
oyal government, with a constitution resembling that of 
ircat Britain. 

Executive Power. — The executive power of the colony 
vas vested in a Governor appointed by the king, and hold- 
ng office during the royal will, and possessing ample 
lowers. In imitation of the king's privy council, the Gov- 
nior had a council consisting of twelve members, also ap- 
lointed by the king, and holding their office during the 
oyal will and pleasure. With the Governor, any three of 
hem made a quorum. 

Legislative Power. — The legislative body of the province 
'insisted of the Governor, representing the king; of the 
ouncil, who stood in the place of the House of Lords; 
"d the representatives of the people, corresponding to the 
louse of Commons in England. 

Of these representatives, each of 'he ten countii 
two; the' township of Schenectady, the borough of W • 
cheater, ami the three manors of Reosselaerswyck, fiivirj ■ 

ton, anil Cortland each sent .making in all a body of 

twenty live representatives. After the erecti if the lour 

new counties of Cumberland, Gloucester, Tryon, and Chai 

Inite. it mad.' a body of thirty-three representatives. 

The legislative body so constituted was called the Gen 
cral Assembly. With the advice of his nieil. the Gov- 

cnor had full power to convene, adjourn, prorogue, I r 

dissolve the General Assembly, as he should judge m 

Laws, 'fhe common law of England was considered as 
the fundamental law of the province. 

Tin Judicial Power. — First, there was a Court of Chan- 
cery, in which the Governor sat as chancellor. The officers 
of this court were a master of the rolls, two masters, two 
clerks in court, a register and examiner, and a sergeant-at- 
arms. Second, the Supreme Court; third, the Court of 
Common Pleas; fourth, Justices' Courts. These courts 
were the models after which the early courts of the Slate 
were formed, and their powers were similar to the early 
State courts of the same name previously described in this 


Upon the erection of the territory into a county, in 1791, 
Moss Kent was appointed surrogate, and his first entry in 
the record is dated May 3, 1791, and his last entry May 
26, 1792. 

John Woodworth succeeded Kent, and retained the office 
until April, 1803, when lie was succeeded by Jeremiah 
Osborn, who held the office until April, 1806, when 
Alanson Douglas was appointed. He retained the office 
longer than any of his predecessors, and was succeeded iu 
April, 1813, by David Allen. Iu March, 1815, William 
McManus was appointed, and held office until August, 
1818, when Benjamin Smith was appointed, and continued 
in office until June 20, 1S20. Nicholas M. Martin was 
appointed then, and held the office until April, 1821, 
when he was succeeded by Thomas Clowes. Mr. Clowes 
was succeeded, April, 1827, by Philp Viele, who was fol- 
lowed by Job Pierson in April, 1S35. Mr. Pierson re- 
tained the office until February, 1S40, when Cornelius L. 
Tracy was appointed, and continued in office until Feb- 
ruary, 1844. Of all those above named, Mr. Tracy is the 
sole survivor. 

Stephen Reynolds, Jr., was appointed February, \M\. 
and was followed by George T. Blair, who was elected in 
July, 1847, and who remained iu office until Dec. 31, 
1855. Mr. Blair died in 1S67. Robert McClellan was 
elected to succeed Mr. Blair, and held the office for four 
years, commencing Jan. 1, 1856, and was succeeded by 
Moses Warren Jan. 1, 1860. He retained the office until 
Dec. 31, 1868, when he was succeeded by E. Smith Strait ; 
but Mr. Strait having resigned, upon the death of Hon. 
Jeremiah Romeyn, county judge, after three years and one 
month, he was appointed county judge, and Mr. Warren 
was appointed surrogate, and at the next election he was 
re-elected. He continued to be re-elected, and now most 
worthily fills the position. 





In the earlier yean the presiding count) judge was 
■ First Judge." In addition there were also 
■'Judges" and "Assistant Justices The latter were 
selected by appointment of the Governor from among the 
•• Justin * of the Peace." The office of "Assistant 
Justice" was abolished in 1816. In later years the 
"County Judges" are the proper successors of the First 
a below in the Bame list 

1 11 st .11 noi s. 
1791. Anthony Ten Byck. 1823. David Bud, Jr. 

Robert W Iwortb. 1828. Herman Knickerbocker. 

1 80S. .'..I... - I.. llogi boom. ■ i: Dat is. 


1-17. Charlesfl. Pnrmclcc. I'..:. Jcrcmiab Romcyn. 

Archibald Boll. 1871. E. Smith Strail (now in 

Gilbert Robertson, Jr. office, Ootobcr, 1879). 

John Van . Isrn.l Thompson, Robert W Iwortb, Jona- 
than Brown, Feb. 18, 1791. 
John Von Ren i . ■■ . i: iborl W Iworth, Jona- 
than Broun. Thomas Sickles, Fob. 15, 1794. 

■el Thompson, Jonathan Brown, Thomas 
Siekler, Jan. 31, 1 ::':. 
Jonnt John B. Van Allen, Hoses Vail, Fob. 27, 

Bphi . Nov. 1 1. 1800. 

nathan Brown, Josiah Al nardOnnse- 

Bci .n.iii Smith, Joshna Bnrnham, Jan. 8, 1802. 

pLeonard ort, .lr.. Benjamin 

. Joshna Bnrnham, Mareh 9, 1803. 

rtb, Jonathan Brown, Josiah Mastei I IGanse- 

l, Jr, John Stoughton, Levinus Lai U b 19, 1805. 

lb, Jonathan Brown, Josiah SI lard Ganse- 

-•. .lr.. John Stoughton, Levin March 19, 1800. 

March 22, 1S06. 
Jonall I nl ... I mii'.. 

J»n- Iworth, Leonard Qansovoort, .Tr., 

than Nil.-. William Bell, 

na Bambam, Pi b. 16, 1810. 
Natbi 1310. 

fa 12, 1810. 

H illiam Boll, Aan Burt, Leon- 
ard Q Sholdon, M 
hit, 1811. 

■ i.l Gray, Uonry Piatt, 
I 13. 
i Barnbam, Ilotca MoOt, David Gl< 1814. 

Rowland Hall. April 18, 1814. 

uel I 


. I in ', Jr., June 

moil from 17'. 1 to 1816, 

J ' ,f "' than Nilr«. 


Jacob V 

John Knickerbocker, .lr.. John W. Schermerhorn, Jonathan Nilcs 
Benjamin Ilicks, Nicholas Stoats, Robert Montgomery, John K. 
Van Allen, Ephraim Morgan, Josiah Masters, Jacob Vondcr- 
hoydi n. Fob. 15, 1794. 

John W. Scbcrmcrbi Nicholns Slants, John E. Van Allen. Ephraim 

;an, Josiah Masters, Moses Vail, Cornelius Lansing, Leonard 
Qansovoort, Jr.. Jan. 31, 1797. 
Elijah Jones, Nov. 12, 1800. 

Jonathan Nil,-. Nicholas Stunts, James L. Ilogcbooui, Levinus Lan- 
sing, John YV. Schormerborn, Jan. 2S. 1SU2. 
Jonathan Ronse, March 15, 1S03. 
Rowlond Hall, April 3, 1804. 

Jonathan Nil.-. Nicholas Slants, Jonathan House, Rowland Hall, 
Samuel Vary, Jr.. John W. Woods. Thouins Palmer, Nathan 
tfoyes, March 19, 1S05. 
Simeon Button, Hunson Smith, March 22, 1S0G. 
David Allen. March 13, 1807. 

Thomas Palmer, Munson Smith, Samuel Vary. Simeon Button, David 
Thomas, Lovclt Head, John Breese, Nicholas Stoats, March 10, 
Burton Hammond, Israel Shepherd, March 12. 1810. 
Jnbcs Borrows. John Still, Henry Warren, Joseph Dorr, Ashcr Arm- 
strong, Samuel Vary, Samuel Shaw. Willei Vary. Lovett Head, 
Samuel Coon, Nicholas Slaats, John Breese. Daniel Wngor, 
'l'h. .inns Palmer. Mareh 16, 1811. 
John Stevens. Israel Shepherd, George Gardner. Myndert Grocsbcok, 
Zebulon Scrivcn, James S]icnccr. Daniel Hull. William Douglass, 
Adam Yates, 1'enner l'nlnicr. March 23, 1813. 

Reuben Mcrriam, Joseph Dorr. Henry C i. Martin De Freest, Caleb 

Carr, Samuel Vary. Jonathan Chelate. John Stilt. Simon New- 
conib, Jr.. Mareh l.i. lSl.i. ! 


The following list comprises most of the names of those 
who were appointed to this office in the county of Albany 
for thirty years preceding the formation of Rensselaer 
County. Tt is inserted here because a portion of the list 
belongs to the territory of the present county of Rcnsst 
and it is of further interest to the citizens of Itenssclacr 
County because many of these men or their descendants 
were afterwards identified with the territory east of the 

We have also prefixed an old list of Queen Anne's 


Iii the reign of Queen Anne the following justices of the 
peace were appointed for the city and county of Albany. 
Oct. 1 I. 1702: 

William Smith. Peter Schuyler, Sheldon Broughton, Gernrdus 1 William Lawrence, Abraham Van Dam, John l.i 
Caleb il> of the Govornor*6 Council. 

Alborl Ryckman, Mayor of the oity. 

John At... I. Recordor. 

, Schuyler, David Schuyler, Hcndrick llmiss. John Roscl m, 

J..lin Cuylcr, John Tcunisso, Aid, n 

Dirol Killian Van Rensselaer, Robert Livingston, Jr., I 

Banker, Gi 1 1 it Tcun c, John Sand, i ■-. •. Adam Vrooinan, \ 
Van Uocsc, Jonas Douw, Peter Voshurgh, and Lainorl Jai 

( h r iimri' i-.f ill.—, names, pi rliaj.s. belong to the tl I 

ritory which is now II, nsselaer County. 

Robert Saunders was appointed mayor and clerk of the 
mark, i of the city .if Albany and coroner of the enmity. 

' ri i. 13, 1752. This is the same m us thai of the i I 

inal purchaser of the Stone Arabia Patent, bu( probably a 
-'•II of thai Saunders, as the purchase was seventy yet 

.i- abolished about 1816. 



Jan. 5, 1758, 1 > v commission Prom King George II., the 
following officers wore appointed for Albany County: 

Sybiant Goose \ :m Schaick, Rensselaer Nicoll, Volkerl P. Douw, 
Judges of the [nferior Court of Common Pleae. 

Jacob c Tin Kyck, David Vanderheyden, Hendrick Schuyler, David 

Groesbeok, Garret Vandenbergh, Jacob II. Ten Eyok, Harm - 

Wendell, Volkert A. Iiouw, John Glen, John Tin Eyckj Jacobus 
Van Schaick, Assistant Justices of the Court. 

John I'"' Peyster, Cornelius Cuyler, John \'im Uenssolaer, David Van- 
derheyden, John Joost Herchcimer, Henry Van Rensselaer, John 
Lyne, Cornelius Van Schaick, Anthony Quackenbush, Jacob 
Fri/e, Jacob H. Ten Eyck, Piter Conyn, John Wills, Peter 
Schneider, Johannes Lawyer, Joseph Yates, Jr., Isaac Van Al- 
styne, Johannes Corts, Isaac Smith, Abraham Fonda, Johannes 
Provoost, John Saunders, Rynier Myndertse, William Tillebagh, 
Hendrick Clock, Cornelius Vroomnn, Derick W. Ten Broeck, 
Johannes Van Zandt, Martin Hollinbeck, Dirck Van Veghten, 
Marte Van Bergen, — Justices of (he Peace, Jan. 5, 1758. The 
fust twenty were declared to be Justices of the Quorum. 


Rensselaer Nicoll, Volkert P. Douw, Jacob C. Ten Eyck, David Van- 
derheyden, Jacob H. Ten Eyck, Isaac Swilts, John Glen, John 
II. Ten Eyck, Cornelius Ten Brueck, John Cuyler, Harmanus 
Wendell, Volkert Douw, Abraham Ten Broeck, Henry Van 
Rensselaer, Jacobus Van Slyck, John Baptist Van Epps, Jacob 
Ten Eyck, Johan Joost Herchheimer, Peter Conin, Abraham 
Douw, Cornelius Van Schaick, Anthony Quackenbush, Isaac Van 
Alstyne, Johannis Corts, Abraham Fonda, Johannis Van Zandt, 
Johannis Provoost, John Fisher, John Saunders, John Barclay, 
John Glen, Jr., Rynier Myndertse, Stephi n Van Dyck, Martin 
Hollinbeck, Martin Van Bergen, Isaac Vrooman, Daniel S. Van 
Antwerp, John Butler, John Duncan, Jacob Clock, John Welles, 
Johannis Lawyer, Jr., Guisbert Marscllis, Dirck Ten Broeck, 
Johannes Tm Eyck, Jacob Frize, Killian Van Kensselaer, 
Hendrick Haynes, Daniel Campbell, Hendrick Frey, Jr., Coon- 
radtFranck, Cornelius Vrooman, Evert Wendell, Martin G. Van 
Bergen, John McComb, — Justices for Albany County, appointed 
May 14, 17f»2, by commission from King George III. The first 
fifteen named Justices of the Quorum. 

Thomas Chandler, William Gilleland, Joseph Lord, Isaac Man, Robert 
Harper, Jacob Bayley, Samuel Wells, Nathan Stone, Oliver Wil- 
lard, John Arrnes, James Rogers, Benjamin W hi ting, John Chand- 
ler, Benjamin Bellows, Jr., John Griffiths, Thomas Morrison, 
Samuel Robinson, George Palmer, John Stoughton, John Watson, 
Alexander McNaehten, Jan. 20, 1766, Justices of the Peace for 
Albany County. 

Uolphus Benzel, June 2S, 1766. 

'hiltp Skene, Patrick Smith, Archibald Campbell, Aug. 22, 1766, 
Albany County. 

ohn Munro, Edward Jessup, Robert Lewis, Nov. 24, 1767, Albany 

lenjamin Roberts, March 29, 176S, Albany County. 

'nomas Lyuot, Nov. 15, 1768. 

Li nsselat i Nicoll, Volkert P. Dowd, Jacob C. Ten Eyck, David Van- 
derheyden, Daniel Campbell, John Duncan, John Van Renssel- 
aer, Isaac Switz, Jacob H. Ten Eyck, John H. Ten Eyck, Corne- 
lius Ten Broeck, John Cuyler, George Croghan, Henry Cuyler, 
Harmanus Wendell, Abraham Ten Broeck, Daniel Claus, Philip 
Skene, Jacobus Mynderse, Philip Schuyler, Jacobus Van Slyck, 
William liuer, Henry Van Schaick, Johannis Lawyer, Lybrant 
Q. Van Schaick, Charles Do Fricstenbcrgh, Hans .lost Harkemer, 
John Glen, James Barker, Abraham Dowd, Thomas Peebles, 
Jar,, I, Ten Eyck, Patrick Smith. John .Munro, Jacob Ten Broeck, 
John Vischer, Anthony Van Schaick, Anthony Van Bergen, Kil- 
lian Van Rensselaer, Peter Vosburgh, Isaac Van Alstyne, Johan- 
nis Korts, Johannis Provost, Guisbert Marselis, Derick Ten 
Broeck, John Barclay. Martin Hollinbeck, George W. Dederick, 
John Macomb, Alexander McNaehten, Adolphus Benzel, William 
Gilliland, Thomas Morrison, Edward Jessup, Ebenezor Jessup, 
Archibald Campbell, David Edgar, Isaac Vrooman, John San- 
ders, Rynier Myndertse, John B. Van Epps, John Butler, Peter 
Canine, John Wells, Henry Haynes, Cornelius Vrooman, Hans 
Micoll Harkemer, Peter Ten Broeck, William Sober, Rodolphus 

Shoemaker, Adam l.eueks, Arent A. Brndt, Di Jere- 

miah Hogeboom, John Van Allen, Abraham C. Cuyler, Philip 
Embury, Albany County, Ipril is, 17711. 

John Van Allen. John Watson, Robert Lewi . Benjamin Spet 
Albany County, Dec. 12, 1770. 

Alexander Giant. James Gray, Hugh \\ Idle. May I, 1771. 

Rensselaer Nichol, Volkert I. I w, Jacob C. Ten Eyok, David 

Campbell, John Duncan, John Van Ren elaer, I aac Smith, 

Jacob H. Ten Eyck, John H. Ten Eyok, Cornelius Ten 1 1. 

John Cuyler, Abraham Ten Broe . Robert I.e. ingston, Jr., Henry 

Van Schaick, Henry Cuyler, John Glen, Abraham <'. Cuyler, 
James Barker, John McComb, Guisbert Mr .:i , Dirck W. Ten 

Broeck, John Barclay, Isaac \ 1 nan, Ji bTen Broeck, Martin 

G. Van Bergen, Martin Hollenbeek, Alexander Campbell, David 
Edgar. Abraham Douw, Jacob Ten Eyck, John Van Alen, Peter 
W. Livingston, Robert Van Rensselaer, Peter Van Mess, Richard 
Esselstyn, John Adam Van Allen, Peter Vosburgh, Abraham S. 
Van Alstyne, John Munro, Thomas Morrison, Isaiah Younglovc, 
Dirck Swart. Edward Jessup, James Gordon, George Palmer, 
Cornelius Van Veghten, Jacobus VanSIycke Jacobus Mynderse, 
John Vischer, Jr., John Saunders, Ryner Mynderse, John I;. 
Van Epps, Jurie W. Dederick, Andries Witl.eck, Peter S. Van 
Alstyne, Asa Waterman, William Bradford Whiting, Killian Van 
Rensselaer, Anthony Van Schaick, George Gardner, Matthew 
Adgate, Nathaniel Culver, Stephen I. Cuyler, Stephen Cuyler, 
John Knickerbocker, Peter Williams, Derick H. Van Veehten, 
Stephen Hogeboom, John J. Bleecker, Thomas Peebles, Guert 
Van Sohoonhoven, Cornelius Tvmese, Johannis Lawyer, Cornelius 
Vrooman, Hendrick Haynes, Sybrant Van Schaick, Anthony 
Van Bergen, John Denise, John I. Ten Broeck, Jacob Cuyler, 
Cornelius Glen, Nanning Vischer, Henry Glen, John Vischer, Jr., 
Cornelius Cuyler, John Cuyler, Roger Schermerhorn, Dirck Van 
Veehten, Justus Beebe, James Savage, Albany County, June 18, 

Bliss Willoughby, March 12, 1774. 

Ebenezer Cole, March 12, 1774. 

Peter Vroman, May 25, 1774. 

Jonathan Jones, June 10, 1774. 

Robert William Leake, June 11. 1774. 

Peter Lansing, Oct. 10, 1774. 

Stephen Tattle, ("let. 10, 1774. 

Guisbert G. Marselis, Henry Bleecker, David McCarty, John Roor- 
bock, Charles McDavitt, Thomas Hun, April 12, 1775. 

The above group of six were the last appointments by the 
crown. Thenceforward the appointments were by " The 
People of the State of New York, Ly the Grace of God 
Free and Independent." 

Volkert P. Douw, Abraham Ten Broeck, Pctrus Van Ness, Christo- 
pher Yates, Isaac Vrooman, Killian Van Rensselaer, Henry Out- 
houdt, John Roorback, Henry Glen, John M. Beckman, Matthew 
Adgate, John N. Bleecker, Johannis Lawyer, John Price, Israel 
Spencer, Hugh Mitchell. James Gordon, John L. Bronck. Waller 
Livingston, Peter Yates, Phineas Whiteside, John Fish, Corne- 
lius Vandenherg, Hendrick Ostrum, Nicholas Vandenberg, Alex- 
ander Baldwin, John I. Bleecker, Lawrence Fonda, Myndert M. 
Wemple, John MeKinster, Laurence Hogeboom, Jacob Ford, 
Johannis Van Dusen, Nathaniel Culver, Eleazer Grant. John 
Beebe, Hczckiah Van Order, Samuel Van Veghten, Forner Pal- 
mer, Wm. Wait, Sr., John Waldo, Philip Conyn, Jonas Vrooman, 
William Deitz, Adam Vrooman, John Younglove, John Blair, 
Edward Biggs, Peter R. Livingston, Samuel Ten Broeck, Johan- 
nis l'atric. Peter Bishop, Philip Luke. Hendrick Outhoudt, Jr., 
Henry Quaokenboss, David McCarty, Barent Mynderse, John 
Schermerhorn, Anthony Ten Eyck, Nanning Vischer, Daniel Kull, 
George White, Thomas Watson, John R. Wimple, Abraham Out- 
houdt, Abraham Wimple, Abraham Fonda, Wilhclmus Van Ant- 
werp, Daniel Dickinson, John Taylor, Peter Lansing, Samuel 
Bowlin, John Knickerbocker, Isaac Goes, Jacobus Van Allen, 
Abraham I. Van Alstyne, Wessel Ten Broeck, Philip Rockefeller, 
Peter Rose, Albany County, Jan. 21, 1780. 

John Ten Brueck, Albert Pawling, Ezra Head. Christopher Tillman, 
Thaddeus S. McConnel, Binjamin Bird-all, Albany County, April 
6, 1785. 

BISTORI of i;; cocxty. xrcw york. 

N'\t wo give tbe list of juaticca appointed by the Gov- 
ernor and council lor Rensselaer County from L791 i" 1821. 

mi ji sri. i ~ Hi- mi: PI 
Anth 1 homson, Robert 

fl idworth, Jonathan Drown, John Kniokorl kcr, Jr., John W. 

njamin Hioks, Nioholaa Staats, 
i Montgomery, Moss Kent, John EE. Van Allen, Lcvinua 
ag, Jonah Martin, Hoaca Moffll, Daniel D. Bra-It, Joaoph 

irid Drown, M i at \ ail, Jai MoKown, kbnor Now- 

ton, Stephen Gorham, Jacob Van llstyne, Bphraim Morgan, Jo- 
int Winn.. Jai \ I i' ing, Rowland Uall, 
Hi eklah Hull, William Douglass, Daniol Gray, .i»in' Odell, 
i imin Randall, Benjamin Hanks, Hartnan \ an \ ■ 

imin Milk- Darling, Jacob Vandcrboydcn, .Jr., 

- h.-riiuTli'TTi, Peh. 1^. 1791. 
Nathsu March 23, 1791. 

William Gorslino, OoL 2, 1792. 

Anthonj Ten Byok, John Van 1'.' [araol Thompson, Robert 
Iworth, Jonathan Brown, Thomas Sickles, John Kniokcr- 
er, Jr., John W. Sohormerhorn, Jonathan Nile--. Benjamin 
1 1 i .- ^ ■ ti : . Robert Montgomery, John B. Van Allen, 
Bphi a, Josiafa Ma Vanderheyden, Lcvinua 
l ■ :i Moffit, Daniel B, Bradt, Moaca Vail, James Mo- 
Kown, Abner Mowton, Jacob Van I 
A. Lansing, Rowland Hall, tiesckiah Hull. William Dou 
.•li. Benjamin Randall, Benjamin B 
llarmnn Van Veghtcn, Benjamin Milks. Bbcneior Darling, Jncob 
Vanderhoyden, -Jr.. Nathaniel Jacobs, Sime in Button, Jacob 0. 
rmerhorn, William Gorslinc, Samuel Gale, Abraham Ten 
Mahlon Taylor, Jacob rates, Josiah Hamilton. Walter 
h Wilmot, Marvel L'lli-. Nicholas Van I: 
Jacob fates, welter N. Grocsbcck, 
Van Dyeko, Johi . Elijah Janes, George Tibbits, Wil- 
liam Bell, Zaohariah Tomlinson, Feb. 15, 1794. 
Maf. Iliam Boll, Zachariah Tumltnson, Miobae) Henry, 
y, Troy, .Inn. 31, 1797. 
. Walter N. Groesboek, Nathaniel Km Schaghti- 

ijamin Randall, John Green, Caleb Bontloy, Pctora- 

... Jan. 31, I 
D. Van Dj 3 I, Ja >b H. Fort, Hoi -i--k. 

P i > ■ 


II iwland II. ill, Hotekiah Hull, William Douglass, 

. .'■■ii ithan B 

William Gi aon Taylor, John W. 

II- nrj . Robei I McCheanoy, John Mel 
John oham, William M. 

John \ Fob. 27, 1 SOD, 



I>ar William W. Reynolds, I Inor, 

Rowland Hall. I II Ball, 

Jam<-. MsKowo, Wall mathan lloag, Cornel 




Jonathan I' ItscI 

John Pottor, Joaoph Dorr, Jerry Baker. Cyrua Spicor, .la -"1' A. Fobb 

i il Andrews, Hoosick, -Ian. 28, 1802. 
Tbomaa Palmer, William \V. Reynolds, llc/.ekiah Coon, Job Green 

Francis West, John Roovo, John Grcou, Caleb Bcntley, Pcters- 

burgh. .Ian. 28, 1802. 
I I' ibi is, En toll Be lict, Darius Sherman, Thomas Frost, Col 

nclius I. Schcrmcrhorn, Walter Carpenter, Schodack, Jan. lis, 

Samuel Vary, Jr., Joseph Sheldon, Russel Dorr, Powell (iardner, 

Rowland Hall. Hoioklah Hall. Stophcntown, Jan. 28, 1802. 
Abijnh Wilmot, Solomon Taylor, Jonathan Sedgwick, William Gors- 

lin.-, John W. Wood, Nicholas Van Rensselaer, Greeuhush, Jan, 

28, 1802. 
Benjamin Gorton, John Stoughton, Jonas Morgan, Gideon T<>mlin- 

son, Daniel Wager. Hubert McChcsncy, Troy, Mareli !), 1S03. 
James Spencor, Troy, March is. 1803. 
Jam.- Adams, Troy, April '•'>. 1804. 
Munson Smith, Jacob Vat.-. James S. Musters, James Brookii 

ward Ostrandor, Schaghticoke, March 9, L803. 
Samuel Canfield, Schaghticoke, March is. 1803. 
Lorctl Head, llazael Shepherd, Peter P. Goes, Israel Shepherd, 

Pittstown, March '.', [803. 
Judah Paddock, John Gale Pittstown, March is, 1803. 
Martin Prondergast, Simeon Button, Pittstown, April :'.. 1804. 
John Potter, Joseph Dorr, Jerry Baker, Cyrus Spicer, Jacob 

Lemuel Androws, Hoosick, March l», 180 
John Palmer. Hoosick, March Is. 1S03. 

Benjamin Walworth, Daniel C. Noble, Hoosick. April ". 1804. 
Thomas Palmer. William W. Reynolds, Ilezckiah Conn, Job Green, 

Francis West, John Iteeve, John Green. Caleb Bcntley, Petorf- 

burgh, March 9, Ism::. 

Potter, Petersburgb, -Inly ::. 1804. 
Abijah Wilmot, Solomon Taylor, Jonathan Sedgwick, Willi 

slinc, John W. Wood, Nicholas Van Rensselaer, Crccubuab, 

March 9, 1803. 
Uriah Gregory, Storin T. Vanderzec, Grecnbush, April 3, 1804. 
Bastian Weatherwax, David Coons, Grecnbush. April -, 1803. 
Henry Dubois, Bnoch Benedict. Darius Slierman, Thomas pi 

nclius J. Sehermerhorn, Walter Carpenter. Sehndaek, M li 

Samuel Vary, Jr.. Joseph Sli.-M >n. liussoll Dorr, Powell Gardner, 

Rowland Hall. Ilezckiah Hull, Stephenlown, March 11, IS 
Henry Dubois, Enoch Benedict. Darius Sherman, Tbotnns Fi 

nclius I. Schcrmcrhorn, Walter Carpenti - la k, March 19, 

Joseph Sheldon, Powell Gardner. Ilczckiab Hull. James Han 

Thomas, William Vary, Samuel Shaw. Will Douglass, Jr.. .lon«- 
tb. ui Davis, Stophentown, March 19, 1805. 

William R. Reynolds, Hczi n. Francis Wi 

Reeve, John Green. Caleb Bcutley. Stephen Potter, Joseph 
Potorsburgh, March I'.'. I 

Solomon Taylor, William Gorslinc. Nicholas \'an Kc Iner, Uriah 

M. Gregory, Storin T. Van nan Weatherwax, John 

o, Nicholas B. Hani-. Grecnbush, March I'.', i- 

John Potter, Jerr) Baker. Jacob A. Fort, Daniel I'. Noble. 

Dorr. Lemuel Andrews, Asbcr Arni.-ti g, Cyrus Spiccr. II 

, 10, 1805. 
Hubbard, Bonjamin Gorton, Jonas Morgan. J ame- - 
Jan Gideon Tomlinson, William Bell, Robcrl M 

noy, Troy, March 19, i 

William MeManns, Troy, April 9, Ism.,. 

John Rouse, Jr., Michael S. Vandcreook, Lovcll Head. John Gal'. 
Petci D. Goes, Martin i. Tb a- Ford, Simeon Bol- 

ton. Israel Shophcrd, Pittstown, March I'.'. 1805. 

Munson Smi Mien, 1-Mnard ii.-irainlt-r. Samuel I 

Jai. Samuel Web-I 

John Bowles, Jr., Pctcrsburgh, March 22, 1806. 

- i.n-li. March t:. 1806. 
Daniel Landon, Phillipatown, March :':'. 1806. 
John v ■ . Troy, March 22, i -mi'.. 

William M i .'. is, ii-,. 

Walter Klliot, Edward Tyler. Eli Viekcry, Simon New lb, Jo°" 

Pain . il ... I si,.,. 

rn, March 22, 1806, 



Sybrant Velio, Stephen Gaston, William Groesbeck, Schaghticoke, 

March 22, 1806. 
Manning t. Vischer, Matthew Van Alstyne, Greenbush, Mar oh I::, 

Solomon Zinslor, Pittstown, March 13, IM)7. 
Mvii'lni Groesbeck, John Van Voghten, Ezekiel M'alkci. Bohaghti 

ooke, March 13, 1S07. 
Anthony Millor, Jesse Potter, Hczekiuh Mansell, Jr., Hoosick, March 

IS, 1807. 
bemud Steward, FJisha Wells, Daniel Littleficld, Zebulon Sorivcn, 

Thomas " est, Grafton, March 13, 1S07. 
Daniel Simmons, Brunswick, March 13, IS07. 
ImIhi G. i'ii.j, Petersburgh, March 13, ISO". 
laaiel » biting, Troy, March 1::. 1807. 

in hi- Sherman, Henry Dubois, Thomas Frost, Sal I Coon, Corne- 
lius Schcrmerhoin, .hi,-., I, Mcsick, Schudack, March 10, 1808. 
Enoch Bcncdi t, James Harris, Eli Vickery, Chester Gr is wold, I'hil- 

lipstown, March in. 1808. 
fohn Grci n. Ilozckiah Hull, Samuel Shaw, Uriah M. Gregory, Berlin, 

March in. [SOS. 
mm - Vdams, William B. Sumner, Lansingburgh, .March 10, Isns. 

iiahael S. Vandcri k, Henry Warren, John Stilt, Tsrael Shepherd, 

Anthony Miller, Simeon Newcomb, Jr., Simeon Button, Hazael 
Shepherd, Pittstown, March 10. 1S0S. 
osepb Sheldon, Silas Thomas, Alexander Brown, Willet Vary, 

Matthew Jones, Caleb Can-, Stephentown, .March 10, 1S08. 
'owell Gardner, June 1 ii. 1808. 
lanicl Simmons, Daniel Wnger, John McManus, Alexander Bulson, 

Brunswick, Mnreh in, 1808. 
licholas Masters, James Mallcry, Samuel Webster, Samuel Canfield, 
Jacob Bacbmnn, Stephen Gastin, Garret Von Antwerp, Schagh- 
ticokc, March in, 1SHS. 
tarin T. Vanderzce, Martin De Freest, John .1. Fonda, Jr., Nicholas 
I'.. Hurris, .hirnli WihhI, Snliiiinin Taylor, Nutlmiiiel Paine, Walter 
Elliot, Nicholas Van Rensselaer, John I. Van Sehaiek, Joel 
Bristol, Grei nbush, March 10, 1808. 
I'illiam Goslin, Greenbush, April 7, 1808. 
lanicl Sanders, Lemuel Stewart, Luke Clark, Thomas West, Grafton, 

March in, IS0S. 
• lin Palmer, John IIa\ nes, Thomas Osborne, Nicholas Snyder, Jirah 

linker, Russell Dorr, Hoo.-ick, March 10, 180S. 
rilliam McManus, Stephen Andress, Gilbert Brush, Edward Ostran- 
der, Jabez Burrows, Troy, March 10, 1S08. 

1 i '- Palmer, William W. Reynolds, Stephen Potter, Joseph Case, 

lehnbod Randal], William Hecox, Petersburgh, March 10, Inns. 
tephen Maxon, Job Green, Seth G. Croy, Petersburgh, March 12, 

is in. 

inincl Prindel, Zebulon Scriven, Grafton, March 12. 1810. 
oho W. Wood, Greenbush, March 12, 1810. 
eorge Fahe, Jr., Israel Shepherd, Theodore May, Pittstown. March 

12. 1810. 
urton Hammond, Daniel Gray, James Green. Berlin, March 12. 1810. 
lam Jates, Lemuel llawley. John D. Brown. Brunswick, March 12, 

.'.ki.l Baker, John Bcnway. Myudert Groesbeck, Cornelius Van 

Vcghten. Schaghticoke, March 12, 1810. 
Miner Palmer, James II. Bull, Nassau. March 12, 1810. 
iseph Slade, Sylvester Noble, David S. Ben way, Jonathan Eddy, 

David Gleason, Hoi. sick. March 12. 1810. 
oratio Hickok, Lansingburgh, March 12. 1S10. 
lisha Miles. Peleg Bragg, James Spencer, Daniel Whiting, Ebenezer 

Wileon, Jr., Troy, March 12, 1S10. 
illiiim Douglass, Jr.. Stephentown, March 12, 1810. 
niter. Carpenter, Schodack, March 12, 1810. 
■urge H. Birch, Schodack, March 31, 1810. 

iniel T. Windell, Stephen Andress, David Canfield, Nathaniel Chap- 
man, Edward Ostrander, William B. Sumner, Troy, March 16, 

I"' Green. Caleb Bentley, Storin T. Vanderzce, Berlin, March 16, 

enry Dubois, Darius Sherman. Jacob Mesick, Schodack, March 16, 

alter Elliot. John S. Van Schaick, Martin De Freest, Nicholas B. 

Harris, Nicholas Van Rensselaer, Nathaniel Payne. Joel Bristol, 

Ellis Foster, Greenbush, March Hi. 1811. 

Nichols \i . .km.. Malloi | . I Wi i el Newton, 

Zophaniah Ru ill. Mj nd roi beck, Si liaghticokc, Mai 

I s 1 1 . 
Jonathan J. Sweet, Silas Thomas, Gideon Hall, Caleb Carr, BTatfaan 

Howard, Richard II. Vary, Stephentown, March Ifl, 1811. 
Benajah Brown, Ik nry Clam, Jr., Patrick Gannon, Bo well K nowlton, 

Brunswick, March [6, 181 1. 
Ziba Hewitt, Reuben Morriam, Lake Clarke, Jo opb Burdick, Grafton, 

M 1 1 ■ li 10, 181 I. 

James Adams, J ithan Choate, Abraham L. Lansing, Horatio 

Hickok, Lansingburgh, March 16, 1811. 

Jirah Baker, John Hayno, Hezekiab Munsell, Jr., Thorns. (| l,"rno, 
John Ilavikunl, Archibald Dull, Hoosick, March in, 1811. 

David S. Benway, Hoosick, June 7, Is] I. 

James Harris, Timothy Benedict, Eli Vickery, Stephen Xripp, U 
Bramhall, Jacob Benedict, Nassau, March in, 1811. 

Andrew Ryan, Simon Newcomb, Jr., Israel Shepherd, Anthony 
.Miller, George Fahe, Jr., Hazael Shepherd, Reuben Hal led, 
Pittstown, March 16, 181 1. 

William W. Reynolds, John Bowles, Stephen Potter, lehabod Randall, 

Asa Maxi Facob II. Brimmer, George Gardner, Asa Stillman, 

Petersburgh, March Hi, 181 1. 

Hiram Hunt, Pittstown, April 2, 1812. 

Augustus Burdick, Gilbert Alexander, Brunswick, June 10, 1812. 

James Jones, Jonathan J. Sweet, Gideon Hall, Aden Swan, John 
Babcock, Thomas G. Carpenter, Stephentown, April 2, 1813. 

James Hall, Jarcd Bunt, Jeremiah Brainard, Daniel Litudon, James 
Harris, Nassau, April 2, 1813. 

Nicholas I. Kittle, Darius Sherman, Jaeob Mesick, George II. Burleh, 
Joseph Cain, Thomas Frost, Wolston Brockway, Schodack, April 
2, 1813. 

Justus Gregory, William Goslin, Ellis Foster, Sand Lake, April 2, 1813. 

Evert Van Allen, Martin De Freest, Walter Elliot, James De Freest, 
Zetus Goodman, Greenbush, April 2, 1813. 

Joseph Crandall, Paul Maxon, Hezekiab Hull, Jr., Jonathan Den- 
nison, Berlin, April 2, 1813. 

Jacob Brimmer (3d), Rapin Andrews, Stephen Potter, James Allen, 
Job Green. Reuben Wait, Abel Lewis, Sterry Hewitt, Peters 
burgh, April 2, 1813. 

Thomas West, Jedediah Wilnian, John Babcock, David S. Crandall, 
Ziba Hewitt, Grafton, April 2, 1813. 

Daniel Simmons, Lemuel Hauler, John D, Brown, John Lamport, 
Jarvis Dusenbury, Brunswick, April 2, 1813. 

Stephen Ross, James Spencer, Artcmas Osgood, Rut'us Richards, 
Daniel Hal], Ebenezer Wilson, Jr., Troy, April 2, 1S13. 

Joshua Burnham, James Adams, Aaron B. Hinnian, Abraham L. Lan- 
sing. Lansingburgh, April 2. 1813. 

Myndert Groesbeck, Andrew Follctt, Epenetus Holmes. Harmon T. 
Groesbeck, James Mallory, John Van Veghten, Nicholas Masters, 
Schaghticoke, April 2, 1S13. 

Israel Shephard, James Newcomb, David Kittlebuyn, Daniel New- 
comb, Smith Filkin, Daniel Carpenter, George Fake. Jr., Hiram 
Hunt, Nathaniel Bosworth, Pittstown, April 2. 1813. 

Joseph Slade. Lemuel Brintuell, Lemuel Andrews, David S. Benway, 
Aaron D. Patch in, David Stannanl, Gideon Hickok, David Glea- 
son, Jirah Baker, John Haynes, Hoosick, April 2, 1813. 

Joel Talmadge, Schaghticoke, March 25, 1S14. 

Ebenezer W. Walbridge, Lansingburgh, March 25. 1S14. 

Hezekiab Mim.-cll, Jr., Hoosick, March 25, 181 I. 

Thomas Tillinghast, Pittstown, March 25, 181-1. 

Obed Rice, Troy. March 25, 181 1. 

John Blaiuey, Samuel B. Wheeler, Nassau. March 25, IS14. 

Thomas Hitchcock, Schodack, .March 25. 1814. 

John G. Croy, Petersburgh, .March 25. 1814. 

Henry Sear), Sand Lake. March 25. 1 s 14. 

Abraham H. Witbeck, Jahleel B. Starks, Walter Kinney, Greenbush, 
.March 25, 1814. 

Thomas G. Carpenter, Stephentown. March 25, 1814. 

Hezekiab Mason. Powell Gardner. Willet Vary, Nathan Howard. Wil- 
liam L, Gardner, Gideon Hall, SilasThomas, Stephentown, March 
15, 1815. 

John Bowles. Thomas Reynolds, Ichabod Randall, William Coon, Ben- 
jamin Clark. Lake Maxon, Petersburgh, March 15. 1815. 

James Harris, Stephen Tripp. Eli Vickery. Oliver Carpenter. John 
Griswold, Nassau, March 15. 1815. 


BISTORT OF ki:xshi-:i,\i:i; corxTY, nhw york. 

John • moel Sbaw, John G ilas Horrington, Berlin, 

. 19, 181 S. 
Jacui. - All under, Burwell I 

Daniel Simmons, Brunswick, March 16, 1815. 
Blisha Well*, Joseph Burdlok, William Potior, Thomas West, Graf- 
ton, March 15, 1815. 
Jam, • ]:. \ - »o, Wm. Pilch, Christian A. 

I' ok, Hcnrj D II. i I. Sohodaok, 

b 15, 1815. 

s, Joel Brirtol, Ellii Poster, Stephen W. Millor, Leon- 
ard Thompson, Nicholas B. Harris, Stephen I. Miller, Sand Lako, 

ll ■ Iriek Miller, W terBrookins, 

Sohaghtiooke, March 15, I 915. 
Bbeneser W. Walbridge, 1 n rburgh, March 15, 1815. 
Jarae« Lansing, Jacob P. Bonninger, Daniel It. Wilcox, Storin T. 
. Philip T. Follows, Benjamin It. Bostwiok, Orecnbush 
I i, 1816. 
t Warren, David Rittlchuyn, Thomas Tillinghast, Aaron Browi., 
PitUtowo, March 16, 1815. 

iniel Chapman, William HeManns, Joseph Wold, Stephen Boss. 
Daniel Ball, Arti : ben Andrus, Bbcnoxcr Wilson, 

.lr.. J..lm w Iworth, Jr.. Troy, March 15, 1815. 

J.-lin Haviland, Jirah Baker, Benjamin Randall, Calvin II. Bryan, 

John Haynes, 11 i.-k. March l.*>. 1 — t *» _ 

i, Powell Gardner, Willctl Vary. Nathan Howard, 
William I.. Gardner, Gideon Hall, Silas Thomas, Stephentown, 
i 15, 1816. 
John Bow1< Reynolds, lehabod Randall, William Coon,Ben- 

irk, Luke Maxon, Isaac Saunders, -lr.. Jamea : 
I M iroh 15, 1816. 
Jamea II irris, Stephen Tripp, Bli Viokery, Olirer Carpenter. John 

SL John, Nassau, Mareh 15, 1816. 
Johi nel Shaw, John Green, Nicholas Herrington, l'.«-rlin. 

Jacob Schormerhorn, Jarcd Bctts, Gilbert Alcxandor, Bnrwell 1 

Dan £ - ermerhorn, John M. Filo, Brunswick, 

Mareh 15, 1816. 
Bllsl •■[■li Bnrdick, William Putter, Thomas West, .losinh 

Granger, Joseph Burdlok, Jr.. Grafton, March 15, 1816. 

James P. Vendcq I, David D. Seaman, William lit ih, Christian A, 

• Mesick, Henry Dubois, Lovetl Head, Scbodnok, 
b 16, 1816. 

I Bristol, Ellis Poster, Stephen W. Miller, 
,r,| Thompson, Nicholas B. llarri-. Stephen I. Miller, Sand 
March 15, 1816. 

in Cornell, Hendriok Millor, fl ikins, 

btiooko, March 15, 1816. 
■ Barnham, Lao March I... 1816. 

James Lan licl B. Wilcox, Storin T. Van- 

'hillp T. Fellows, Benjamin I!. Bostwiok, Grecnbush, 
16, 1816. 
Hani i Kiltlehnyn, Thomas Tillinghast, Pittstown, 

Aaron Brown, Nathaniel Chapman, Wm. M oph Wold, 

Daniel Hall, i Stephi n Ai 

. .lr.. Juhi inel Chcover, 

lr .-. , Ma 

John ll>,ilm I. Jirnl, lall, Calvin A. Bryan, 

16, l s l>*,. 

\ iron Vnn- 
Will. H llmot, John Mills, Bonjamin 

Vary, llenrr Vandenbargh, I 
ham. town - 


John li. DafWDb 

f. Wm. P. | 
Jame< It. 11.11. N> 

* It n not rrrj rlmr. from U whether tlii" li«t, marked 


of Ih- 

John Green, Jonathan Berry, Samuel Shaw, Nicholas ITerrington, 

Berlin, Juno 3, L818. 
Daniel Gray, Berlin, 1820. 
Thaddens Dan, Jacob Sohcrmerhorn, Jacob I. Wager, Lodovicus 

Stanton. Briin-wiek. .Inn.' :'<, ISIS. 
Daniol Simmon-. Wm. Van Vlcok, Brunswick, 1820. 
John Baxter, John P. Haner, Exra Davidson, Wm. Potter, Grafton, 

June :t, ISIS. 
Daniel Mills, John Babcoek, Grafton, 1S20. 
Niobolns Masters, Epenetus Holmes, Gideon Cornell, Sehaghticok. 

Juno .:. 1818. 
Hendrick Miller, Myron Hamblin, Daniel Goowey, Schaghticoktj 


Jonathan Choate, Joshua Burnham, Walter Raleigh, Benjamin Dun- 
forth, Lnnsingburgh, June •'. 1818. 
Woostcr Brookins, Lnnsingburgh, 1S20. 
Simeon Noweomb, Jr., James Yates, Wm. P. Qaskins, Aaron Brown. 

Pittstown, June ::, 1818. 
Daniel Halstcd, Thomas Tillinghast, Pittstown, 1820. 
Klam Buel, John Woo, Iworth. Jr., Stephen Andrus, Charles Lemon, 

Daniel Hall. Ebcnezer Wilson, Jr.. Lemuel Hawley, Artcmas 

i »-_' iod, Nicholas M. Masters, Obcd Rice, Troy. June :'., 1^1 8. 
Jabcz Burrow.-. Lemuel Brintnall, Uriah Miller. Troy, 1820. 
John Havilon I, Seth Parsons, John Eldretl, Benjamin Randall, Wm. 

Palmer, Hoosiek, June :'., 1818. 

Hoxekiah Munsell, II ick, Novembor, 1820. 

Nicholas B. Harris. Tb as Frothingham, Stephen I. Miller, Wm. 

1). Butts. Sand Lake. June ::. 1-1--. 
Silas Wilmot, Sand Lake, 1820. 
i 5aun lera, Jr., Joshua Randall, Jr., Thomas Reynolds, St.phen 

Potter. Petersburgh, Juno ::. l-|s. 
Potter Maxon, Silas W. Wail. .Tamo- Allen, Petersburgh, 1820. 
Henry Dubois, Wm. Pitch, Lovetl Head, Aaron Garrison, Schodnck, 

June ::. 1818. 
Wol-ton Be kway, George II. Birch, Jeremiah Gage, Ebor M. Myers, 

Schodnck, 1820. 
Storin T. Vanderxce, Janus Lansing. John De Freest. Jr.. II, my 

Fraxcc, Grecnbush, June 3, l v l-. 
Walter Kinne, Manasscb Rnowlton, Grocnbush, 1820. 
Scth Par.-, ,n-. Edmund Foster, Stephen LTdrcd, Stephen Sweet, II a 

-i.-k, Feb. '-'I. 1821. 
John Green, Edward Whitford, Benjamin Vars, Jonathan Berry, 

Berlin. Fob. 21, 1821. 
Wm. P. Haskins, Jacob J. Wager, Thaddens Dan, Win. Van Vied 

Brunswiok, Fob. 24, i- 
Jarcd Belts, Brunswick, l v :':'. 
Thomas Reynolds, Isaac Saunders, Joshua Randall, Jr., Nathan 

Km, wit. ,u. ( i. Feb. 21. 1821. 

Simeon Griswold, Jamos Cox, Enoch Benedict, John P. Adsit, Naa- 

sau, Feb. 24, 1821. 
Michael Shorman, Nassau, 1822. 
Silas Thomas. Stephen Norton. Sylvester Howard, Caleb Carr. Sle- 

phontown, Fob. 2*, 1821. 

I I mi Buel. John Thomas, John Woodworth, Jr., 

Troy. Fob. 24, 1821. 

1 inol Hawloy, Troy. Mareh 6, 1821. 

Jonathan Choate, Cbnuncoy Ives, Abraham L. Lansing, Andi 

lett, Lansiogbnrgh, Fob. 24, 1821. 
Richard 1. McDonald, Lnnsingburgh, March 17. 1821. 
William Poll D Jos, ph Bur. Ink. Jr.. 

.. 24, 1821, 
William Carmichacl, John Bowers, Ellis Pi lor, Gideon Ri 

Lake, Feb, LM. 1821. 
James Lansing, .Tat I, Jam,- Klliot. Storin T. Van 

Grcenbnsb, Fob. 24, 1821. 
II. id, Samuel Hitchcock, Jr., John Hani. William Fink, 

Sri, 24, 1821. 

l-l >-. Benjamin Smith. 
I B20. Nicholas M. M 
1821. Thorn ,- Howes. 
1827. Philip Vicle, 
I -.:... Job Pioi "o. 
I- in. Cornelius L. Tracy. 


John fl Iworth. 


Hanson Di 
1815, w ill] nn McManni 



is 1 1. Slephi ii Reynolds. 
1847. George T. Blair. 
is...,, llobi ii II. McClclIa 

1863. m i War r on. 

1867. B. Smith Strait, 
1871. Moses Win 1 1 id 

Rev. Jonas Coe, chosen March -I, 1796. 
Charles Soldcn, chosen Feb. 18, 1803. 
John P. Cushman, chosen April 2, 1830. 
Joseph Russell, chosen Feb. Is, 1839. 
Pin hi Buel, chosen March 24, Is (2, 
John \. Griswold, chosen April 29, 1869. 
Martin 1. Ton usend. 


Qeoi ge Gould, Nov. li, I 855. 
Charles K. Ingnlls, Nov. 3, 1863. 


John P. Cushman, Feb. 9, 1838. 


Jan. II, 1703. — Robert Woodworth, Council of Appointment. 

Jan. 7, 171*4. — Zina Hitohcock, Council of Appointment. 

Jan. 3, 1798. — Moses Vail, Council of Appointment. 

1S2I, 1823.— Win. L. Marey, Adjutant-General. 

1825, 1831. — losepb D. Seldon, Canal Appraiser. 

1829.— Wm. L. Marcy, Puisne Judge. 

1829, 1831.— Wm. L. Marcy, Justice of the Supreme Court. 

1830. — George R. Davis, Bank Commissioner. 

ls:;2, is:; I, 1S36.— Wm. L. Marcy, Governor. 

Aet or 1836.— Prof. Caleb Briggs, Geological Survey. 

Ai of 1836. — Pint", .lames Hall. Geological Survey. 

Jan. 1. I S 17- — George V. Huddleston, Surgeon-General. 

Nov. 5, 1850. — John C. Mather, Canal Commissioner. 

Dec. 8, 1853. — Gardner Stow, Attorney-General. 

April 14, IS59.— Thomas Clowes, State Assessor. 

Jan. 12, I860.— Thomas P.. Carroll, Canal Appraiser. 

March In. 1868.- James S. Thayer, New Capitol Commissioner. 

April s, 1874.— Francis S.Thayer, Auditor Canal Dept. 

Nov. 3, 1874. — Adin Thayer. Canal Commissioner. 

Henry L. Lamb, Acting Bank Superintendent. 

IsSO.— Joseph B. Carr, Secretary of Stale. 


Wui. I,. Man-y, Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Pierce, 

und Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Buchanan. 
John M. Francis, Minister to Greece. 

Appointed by the Governor n»d Council. 
Silas Weeks, Feb. 15, 1791. 
James Smith, John De Wandalacr, Aaron Ostrandcr, Abraham Ten 

Eyck, F,h. 18, 1791. 
Benjamin Townsi nd, March 12, 17U.3. 
John E. Lansing, Oct. 2, 1792. 
Stephen Bull, Benjamin Townsend, Aaron Ostrander, James Smith, 

John E. Lansing, Silas Weeks, Abraham Ten Eyck, Feb. 16, 1796. 
Silas V\ , eks, Dai id Henry, Cyrus Spicer, Walter Elliot, Jan. 31, 1797. 
Calvin Barker, Reuben Merriam, Martin Pen. Icrgast, John Bowles, 

Wilkt Vary, Nicholas Tillinghast, March 2, 1S04. 
Calvin Barker, Simeon Vary, Matthew Van Alstyne, John Stitt, 

i:i>cnezcr Cross, Ichabod Randall, Nathaniel Wilson, March 19, 

John Skelding, Joshua Randall, John Van Xess, March 22, 1806. 
N illiaiu Knickerbocker, April 5, 1S06. 
■'■> ioh Quackenbush, Matthew Van Alstyne, Simeon Vary. John Stitt, 

Ebenezer C,„s.=, Ichabod Randall, John W. Rockwell, Nathaniel 

Wilson, Feb. 27, 1807. 

Now in office, October, 1879. 

William Fitch, Nathoniol u [| on Ehenczor Cro ,f mi n \ ary, John 
Stitt, Ichabod Randall, Isaac Ho brouok, Hiram II 
Sharp, Goorgo Springer, March 10, 1808. 
Hiram Hunt, Jami Fate . Man b 12, 1810. 
Abram ll. Witbeck, John W. Rockwell, March 27, [810. 

Archil, nb I Tl ins, March 31, 1810 

■'■ Mallory, Nathan Moi By, I ioo n i bi k, Joseph I 

Joseph Reed, Mo os Armstrong Minei Sbaw, Ju tni B kway, 

Jr., Abraham Ambler, William Fitob, Gurril Yates, Robert Grain, 
George Springer, Jeremiah Burdioks, David Maxon, Martin Van 
Alstyne, March 16, 1811. 
William Walsh, June 19, |S|2. 

Rufus Sweet, John Blany, Ira Ford, Luther I Main,,, 

Stcphi n Maxon, David Bryan, .lam. - Deyo, Harper Rogers, John 
W. Rockwell, .lames Adams, Valentine Cropsey, March 23, 1813. 
Rufus Sweet, John Blaincy, [ra Ford, Luther Bliss, James Maine, 
Stephen Maxon, David Bryan, James Deyo, Harper Rogers, 
John W.Rockwell, .lames Adams, Valentine Cropsey, Andrew 
Thompson, John Bostwick, March 25, IS14. 
John I. Van Alstyne, April 16, ls| I. 

Richard II. Vary, Abraham Ambler, Jeffrey W. Thomas, Laae Has- 
bronck, William Walch, George Springer, David Hell, Darius 
Sherman, Aaron Vamlerkar. Simon Kittle, .lames Gardner, 
James Yates, Cornelius Adriance, Scth Parsons, Gideon Thomas, 
Sinn, ,n P. Button, March 15, 1815. 

Richard II. Vary, Abraham Ambler, Jeffrey W. Thomas. I- II:,. 

hrouck, William Walch, George Springer, David Bell, Darius 
Sherman, Aaron Vanderkar, Simon Kittle. James Gardner, James 
Yates, Cornelius Adriance, Seth Parsons, Gideon Thomas, Simon 
P. Button, Anthony Miller. .March If,, 1816. 
Richard II. Vary, Abraham Ambler, Jeffrey W. Thomas, Isaac Has- 
brouck, William Walch, George Springer. David Bell. Darius 
Sherman, Aaron Vanderkar, Simon Kittle. James Gardner, James 
Yates. Cornelius Adriance, Scth Parsons, Gideon Thomas. Simon 
P. Button. Anthony Miller. Fitch Skinner. Feb. 21. 1817. 
Wooster Brookins, April HI. 1817. 

Darius Sherman, James Gardner, Cornelius Adriance. Wooster Brook- 
ins, Fitch Skinner, Samuel T. Vary, Jacob Hagerman, Rufus 
Barton, Casper Haner, Jesse Stillman, James Livingston, William 
L. Gardner, Isaiah Austin. John Chase, John Kittle. June 13, 
Wooster Brookins. Fitch Skinner. Samuel T. Vary, Jacob nagerman. 
Rufus Barton, Casper Ham, Jesse Stillman, James Livingston, 
William L. Gardner, Isaiah Austin, John Chase, John Kittle, 
Nathaniel Negus, Samuel Morris, John Baxter, Nathan Marble, 
Wooster Brookins. Fitch Skinner. Samuel T. Vary, Jacob Hagerman, 
Caspar Ham. Jesse Stillman, James Livingston, William L.Gard- 
ner, Josiah Austin, John Chase, John Kittle, Nathaniel Negus. 
Samuel Morris, John Baxter, Nathan Marble. Harvey Burncll, 
Martin Van Ilagen. Derick T. Vanderheyden, 1820. 
Samuel Morris, Cornelius Adriance, Alexander Welch, Charles Cole, 
Elijah Smith, Garret Peck, Caspar Ham, Daniel Wilcox, John 
Ryan, Cyrus J. Bentley, Josiah Granger. Stephen Bougbton, 
Siineun Vary, Henry S. Vandercook. John B. Williams, Jesse W. 
Buffett, Garret Peak, Feb. 21, 1821. 
Asa Newell, March 10, 1S21. 

Elected by the People. 
Henry Mallory, Asa Newell, Samuel Tappan, sworn in Jan. 7, 1823. 
Joseph Cranilall, sworn in Jan. In, 1823. 
Ebenezer Prescott, sworn in Jan. 2. 1826. 
Fitch Skinner, sworn in Jan. 7. 1826. 
Henry Sard, sworn in Jan. 1, 1826. 
David Wilcox, sworn in June 2, 1826. 
James Gardner, sworn in Dec. is. 1S2S. 
Ebenezer Prescott, sworn in Dec. 30, 1S2K. 
Winter Green, sworn in Jan. 12, !s2'.t. 
Gardner Landon, sworn in Dec. 5, 1831. 
Winter Green, sworn in Dec. s. Is;; I. 
Ludovious A. Viele, sworn in Dec. 28, 1831. 
David Bid well, sworn in Feb. 2. 1832. 
Lewis Buffett. sworn in Dec. 13, ISISJ. 
David C. Norton, sworn in Dec. 21, ls:;(. 
Silas Thomas, sworn in Jan. 0, Is;::,. 



\. Wii-.n, iworn in Nor. 1 1, 
L 4wrc „ itui Norton, iworn In Dec 

11. t 

Ml .1.111. 1. 

Caswell, nrora la Di 18, 1840. 
Lauren.-.- Rysendorph, iworn in Deo. SO, l s ln. 
Miehlel S. Vandci i In Jan. 7, 1841. 

Andre* B. Merrill, iworn in Jin. I, IMS. 

:i 1'. '. IS, I s l ; - 

i in Jan. l". 1844. 

Lawrence Rysndorpb, rn ;s "- 

KN 1 , I rorn in Dc -. 15, 1844. 

K«r» De 1 n ■ it, iworn in D< 
I-aai- Dineb, -«"rn in Deo. 1 1, 1848. 
a Jan. ... l s l7. 
.. II, iworn in Nor. 23, 1847. 
Timothy 11. Wilds, iworn in Nov. 30, 1849. 
John II. Vandenburgh, >».>in in Doo. ; . 1849. 
Eire De Freest, iworn in Deo. 18, 1849. 
lli'nr_\ B. Jones, iworn in Deo. 19, I 
John II. Vandenburgh, sworn in Nor. 23, 1862. 
William Warner, sworn in Doo. ■. 1862. 

Dteeou, sworn in Deo. 8, 1862. 
Isaac It. Tryon, sworn ii. 
Win. II. Hegcman, sworn in 1853 an. I Ifi 
Chan ■ - am, sworn in January, 1855. 

William >'. 

Henry B.Jones, iworn in Deo, 14, 1855. 
Jam.' 1 1. Uogeboom, iworn in Jan. ... Ifi 
ow II. Burton, iworn in Nor. 20, I - 
Cbarlei S. Allen, sworn in N'..v. 22, 1858. 
William Madden, sworn in Nor. 30, 
A. W. Odell, -worn in Doo. 29, 1868. 
James L. Hogeboom, sworn in Oct. 6, 1859. 
Tabor B. B '86°- 

A D B in Nor. 22, 

Willi.i.. " r. 19, 1861. 

,..rn in NOT. 20, 1861. 

Ulen, sworn in Dee. 28, 1861. 
|. Smith, sworn in N'..*. 23, 1862. 
1 1. Buoklin, sworn in Dec. .i. I -''.:'•. 
Turner Barl Nor. 26, 1864. 

George J. I'. • 1864. 

;■ ,1864. 

John W. Burns, iworn i B64. 

Eire D 

John II. Ilainer. iworn in Jan. 1 i, 1867. 
Jam. ■ " "•'"• 

Thom U »orn in Noi . 25, 1867. 


in, -« n. in Noi . 1 1. 1867. 
li .i Patera, sworn In Nor, 13,1869. 
p»i aa, sworn in v.i I-. It 

Ian, iworn iii Deo. I". 1870. 
Jam.' Murphy, sworn in Doe. 19, 1870. 

Ionian V Deris, sworn 1872. 

Alfred 8eamaB, Jr., n "'• 

V i-»rl C. Holmes, • •« 
1 a-khall, I* 
]..i •. nrora In 

.1 Hayes, >w,.rr. 
Mi i, i I l> ....... ■ 

t - I ... I. iworn i.. 

DI8TB1I I eTTOMIBTB, 1818 ID L876 


i ,.. ,.i L. Sej mour. 
1842. Martin 1. Townsend. 
1847. Robert A. Lottridge. 

tnion Bingham. 
1856. Robert \. Lottri I 
_ V;ni Sanl 
1862. John II. Colby. 

IS65. Robert A. Loltridgc. 
IS69. Timothy S. Banker. 
1872. Francis Rising. 
IS;::. John C. Greene. 
1S75. Albert E. Wooster, 
1S79. Samuel Foster. 

COl NTT CLERKS, 1791 TO 1S7G. 



1 B26. 



Nicholas Sohuyler. 
Rugglcs Hubbard. 

Dole. llil.y. 
Joseph D. Selden. 
Benjamin Smith. 
Archibald Bull. 
Henry R. Bristol, 
[.eland Crandall. 
Charles Hooper. 
Ambrose II. Sheldon. 


lleDry A. Clum. 
Ambrose II. Sheldon. 
John P. Ball. 
J. Thomas Davis. 
Edwin Browucll. 
J. Thomas Davis. 
E. W. Greenman. 
William Lape. 
E. C. Reynolds. 
James Kcenan.* 


Aaron Lune. 
Benjamin Smith. 
Daniel Pari.-.. 
Isaac MeConihe. 
Thomas Clowes. 
Waters W. Whipple. 
Russell Sage. 

II. .race Herrington. 

1854. Myron Hamblin. 
1S57. Henry E. Weed. 
Charles Warner. 
ISfiO. Oliver A. Arnold. 
1S63. Roger A. Flood. 
1864. Samuel 0. Glonson. 
1873. Albert L. Hotchkio. 
1876. Edmund Fitzgerald.* 




Albert Pawling. 



William Quilliland. 



James Dole. 



Moses Vail. 



Miehnel Henry. 


1 806. 

Thumas Turner. 



Lcvinus Lansing. 



Thomas Turner. 



Gerrit I'ccbles. 


Jercminh Schuyler. 



John Brecsc. 



Michael S. Vandcrcook. 



MoSCS Warren. 


11. Vmi I.Tl.urgh. 



William P. Haskin. 



Ebcncior C. Barton. 

• Th, . m office. Qotolx 


Augustus Filley. 

Cornelius Schuyler. 
Volncy Richmond. 
Hi. Kim Reynolds. 
Gilbert Cropsoy. 
Abraham Witbeck. 
John Price. 
William Wells. 

111:111 w . Cornell. 
Joseph F. Balterehall. 
Gcrothmnn W. Cornell. 
Matthew V. A. Fonda, 
.lain.-- McKcon. 
John A. Qunckcnbush. 
Albert L. Hotehkin. 


. ..I ntv. 1792 xo 1847. 

171)2. — Jonathan Brown, John Knickerbocker, John W. Schcrmej* 

born. Thomas Bickles, Moses Vail. 
1793.— Benjamin Hieks, Christopher Hutton, Josiah Masters, -'ona- 
tliiin Nil.--. Nicholas 9 

hi Brown, Benjamin Hicks, Hosea Moflil. Jonas Odell, 
Thomas sickles. 
17(15. — 7, .,,,,11,, n Brown, Daniel Gray, Benjamin Hicks 11.-, a M.ffit. 

.1 b ' . Behormerhora. 

roiiah Bird, Daniel Gray, Rowland Hull, John Knickcr- 
1 r, Jr. 
I797. — I„hn Bird. John Carpenter, Jacob A. Fort, Daniel liray, 
■■ . 11 '■; ifflt. 

' Bird, Jacb A. Fort, Daniel Gray, Jonathan Hoag, 
11 , Moffil, Israel Thompson. 

\. Port, Daniel Gray, Jonathan Hoag, John W. 
merhorn, John I. Van 1 
1800. — 1. I 1 James McKoun, Josiah Master), 

John W. Sehermerhorn 
1 • .in Brown, John Lovclt, James McKoun, Josiah Mas- 

icrs. Uosea Moffit, Jobn B. Van Alcn. 

« {tow in office, October, |s;y. 



1302.— John Carpenter, Jnoob A. Fort, John Green, Barton Ham 

mond, John Knickerbocker, Jr.. John Stevens. 

1803. John Ureeii. Jonathan House, John Bynn, John W I»m Mi. 

180-1.— Ash Mnnn, Jonathnn House, Charles Sehlcn, William Stewart, 

Samuel Vary, Jr. 
|g05, Jonathan Burr, John L. Ilogeboom, Neheroiah King, Asa 

Mann, John Ryan. 
1806.— Jonathan Niles, Wm. W. Reynolds, John Ryon, Nicholas 

Staats, Jacob fates, 
1807.— Gilbert Eddy, Asa Mann, Wm. W. Reynolds, Robert Wood- 
worth, Adam Yates. 
1808.— James L. Ilogeboom, Ebenezer Jones, Adam Yates, Jacob 

1809.— Derick Lane, Henry Piatt, Cornelius I. Sehcrmei Imni, Israel 

1810. — Timothy I nnrd, Henry Piatt, Cornelius I. Sohermerhorn, 

Jeremiah Schuyler. 
1811. — George Gardner, Stephen Gregory, Abraham L. Vielie, 

Stephen Warren. 
1812-13. — David Allen, James II. Ball, John Carpenter, Jr., John 

1814. — William Bradley, Burton Hammond, Bethel Mather, Bar en t 

Van Vleck. 
1815. — Davit! Allen, Henry A. Lake, Jaoob A. Ten Eyck, Zcbulon 

1816. — Job Greene, David E. Gregory, Herman Knickerbocker, Sam- 
uel I. McChesney, Samuel Millinar. 
1817. — Daniel Carpenter, John D. Dickinson, Burton Hammond, 

Henry Plait, Ebcnezer W. Walbridge. 
1S18. — Abijah Bush, Andrew Finch, Myndert Groesbeck, Cornelius I. 

Sehermerhoin, Man son Smith, Thomas Turner. 
1S1 9. — George II. Davis, Andrew Finch, Henry Piatt, Daniel Simmons, 

Stephen Warren. 
1820.— John Babcock, David Doolittle, Wm. C. Elmore, George Tib- 
bits, Ebenezer W. Walbridge. 
1821.— Wm. C. Barker, Richard P. Hart, Wm. B. Slocum, Calvin 

Thompson, John Van Alstyne. 
1822.— Daniel Gray, James Jones, Harper Rogers, Levi Rumsey, 

Gardner Tracy. 
1823. — Joseph Case, Gilbert Eddy, Chester Griswold, Stephen Warren. 
1824. — Caleb Carr, Henry Dubois, Martin Van Alstyne, Stephen 

1 S25. — John Carpenter, Jacob C. Lansing, Fcnner Palmer, John G. 

1826.— Robert Collins, Augustus Filley, John F. Groesbeek, William 

1827. — Jeremiah Danchy, John De Freest, Reuben Halstead, Henry 

1828. — Samuel S. Cheever, Alonzo G. Hammond, Wm. Pierce, Joseph 

1829. — Nathaniel Barnett, Jr., Martin De Freest, Wm. P. Hecrmans, 

Henry Mallory. 
i 1830. — Abiel Buckman, Geo. R. Davis, Ziba Hewitt, Abraham C. 

1831. — George R. Davis, Chester Griswold, Martin Springer, Aaron 

Worthing ton. 
1832. — Hosea Bennett, Henry J. Genet, John C. Kemble, Nicholas 

M. Masters. 
1833. — Wm. P. Haskins, Alonzo G. Hammond, John I. Kittle, Seth 

1834. — Archibald Bull, Smith Germond, Nicholas B. Harris, James 

1835. — Chester Griswold, Jacob W. Lewis, Daniel Lennons, Martin 

1836. — David L, Seymour, Alexander O. Spencer, John J. Vielie, 

Nathan West. 
1837.— Randall A. Brown, Alexander Bryan, Abraham Van Tuyl. 
1838.— Hezekiah Hull, Jacob A. Ten Eyck, James Wallace. 
1839.— Richard P. Herrick, Day 0. Kellogg, Gideon Reynolds. 
18-10.— Gerardus Devoe, Sam!. W. Hoag, Wm. H. Van Schoonhoven. 
1841.— Claudius Moffit, John Tilley, William H. Van Schoonhoven. 
1842.— George R. Davis, Martinus Lansing, Silas W. Waite. 
1843.— George R. Davis, Samuel Douglass, Henry Van den burgh. 
1814.— John L. Cole, George B. Warren, Jonathan E. Whipple. 
1845.— Harry Betts, Roger Hcrmance, William H. Van Schoonhoven. 

1 846. — Henry Z. Hnyner, Samuel MoClellan lu tice Noltoo. 

is 17. Joseph Gregory, Amos K. Hadley, Daniel I mar a. 

Under the constitution of 1846 the county traa divided 
into districts for the election of assemblymen, and the fol- 
lowing list is complete from that date. 


Seegion of 1848. — Speaker, Amos K. Hadley, First Difitricl George 
T. Den nl son, Second District; George W. Glae - Third Di 


1849.— Speaker, Amos K. Hadley, First District ; Bcnajab Allen, 
Second District ; William H. Budd, Third Di trict 

1850. — George Lesley, First District; Edward 1'. Pickett, Second 
District; Lansing Sheldon, Third District. 

1851. — George Lesley, First District; William Russell, Second Dis- 
trict; Oliver C. Thompson, Third District. 

1852. — Jonas. C. Heartt, First District; Albert E. Richmond, Second 
District; William II. Herrick, Third District. 

1853. — Jason C. Osgood, First District; Charles B. St rat ton, Second 
District; Peter G. Ten Eyck, Third District. 

1854. — Jonathan Edwards, First District ; Lyman Wilder, Second 
District; George Bruce, Third District. 

1S55. — Jonathan Edwards, First District ; Nicholas M. Masters, Sec- 
ond District; Edmund Cole, Third District. 

1856. — George Vnn Santvoord, First District; Augustus Johnson, 
Second District; San ford A. Tracy, Third District. 

1857. — Darius Allen, First District; Volney Richmond, Second Dis- 
trict; Ebenezer S. Strait, Third District. 

1858. — John C. Osgood, First District; Daniel Fish, Second District ; 
Martin Miller, Third District. 

1859. — Thomas Coleman, First District; Henry V. Clark, Second 
District; Anson Bingham, Third District. 

1S60. — Thomas Coleman, First District; James Culver, Second Dis- 
trict; Anson Bingham, Third District. 

1861.— Charles J. Saxe, First District ; L. Chandler Ball, Second Dis- 
trict; Anson Bingham, Third District. 

1862.— Charles J. Saxe, First District; David S. Maxon, Second Dis- 
trict; Sylvester Waterbury, Third District. 

1863. — James MeKeon, First District; John A. Quackenbush, Second 
District; Ebenezer S. Strait, Third District. 

1864, — James MeKeon, First District; Geo. W. Bnnker, Second Dis- 
trict; James Bearstyne, Third District. 

1865.— Geo. C. Burdett, First District; Robert M. Hasbrouck, Second 
District; Mathew V. A. Fonda, Third District. 

1866.— Jnmes S. Thorn, First District; Marshall F.White, Second 
District; Eleazar Woostcr, Third District. 

1867.— Wm. Gurley, First District; Marshall F. White, Second Dis- 
trict; Eleazar Wooster, Third District. 

1868.— John L. Flagg, First District; Jared A. Wells, Second Dis- 
trict; Harris B. Howard, Third District. 

1869.— John L. Flagg, First District ; Edward Akin, Second District ; 
Harris B. Howard, Third District. 

1870. — John L. Flagg, First District; Eugene Hyatt, Second District ; 
J. Thomas Davis, Third District. 

1871. — John L. Flagg, First District; Horace C. GifFord, Second Dis- 
trict; Sylvester Waterbury, Third District. 

1S72. — Jason C. Osgood, First District; John L. Snyder, Second Dis- 
trict; Castle W. Herrick, Third District. 

1873.— Wm. V. Clcary, First District ; John L. Snyder, Second Dis- 
trict : Castle W. Herrick, Third District. 

1874.— Wm. V. Cleary, First District; Robert Dickson, Second Dis- 
trict; Jacob M. Whitbeck, Third District. 

1875.— Wm. V. Cleary, First District; Wm. F. Taylor, Second Dis- 
trict; Jacob M. Whitbeck, Third District. 

1876.— William V. Cleary, First District; William F. Taylor, Second 
District; Thomas B. Simmons, Third District. 

1877.— John H.Burns, First District; John J. Filkiu, Second District; 
William H. Sliter, Third District. 

1878. — John II. Burns, First District; Solomon V. R. Miller, Second 
District; William H. Sliter. Third District. 

1879. — Francis N. Mann, Jr., First District; Eli Berry, Second Dis- 
trict; Thomas B. Simmons, Third District. 

1880.— La Mott W. Rhodes, First District; Albert C. Comstock, 
Second District ; Barnis G, Strait, Third District. 




Iitortb, IT I I . ■ l 

1 109-1802 ; Christopher Hull lh, ISO) 7: 

- Jen, l«"~ ll : Raggle* Uubbnrd, ISIS 

' lv .111- 

ble, IS ■: I li -nil; \v. II. Van Sel n- 

Albert It. Pox, I -I" B. Carroll, 

nhovcn, I8S2 S3; Elisha N. Pratt, 
I- •: ■ John D. Will;. 

Volar; Richmond, 1880 ■: Frederick II. Umlings, 181 
Francis S. Thayer, 1808 71; Roawoll A. P« M-75; 

Thomu ' olcman, l s 7.'. 77. 




Abraham Vail 
Wtllinn; I 
John W« odworth. 
Albert Pan I 
Jonathan Re 

Gilbert Eddy. Smith. 
Daniel D. Campbell. 

II ] i 

Qi ffilh P. Griffith. 
1 344. Nicholas M. Masters. 
l - 1*, [graol Seymour. 
i. Pierton. 
ihn 0. M Murray. 
John 1'. Winelow., 
1868. John II. Colby. 
1872. Thomu Colemnn. 


Van Allen. Henry Vail. 

John Bird. 1843 15. David L. Seymour. 

rge T.I. I. ii«. 16. Riohard P. Derrick. 

Jonah M 1845 17. Thomat C. Ripley. 

'. hi Allen. 1-17 Roynolda. 

I, Derm. Knickerbocker. 1851 i3. David L. Seymour. 

1813 17. II.-... M..ITH. 1853 57. Russell - 

■nnn. 1857-63. Abram B. Olin. 

I. John D. Diekii 1863-71. John A. Griswold. 

II ■•.■ I..... in. 1871-73. Joseph M. Warren. 

:. Willi;. m McMannus. 1875-70. Mnrlin L Townscnd. 

1870-81. Walter A. Wood. 
II. ram P. Hunt. 


1859 TO 1-71. 

1 • Warren w. Enowlton, Jam 

II. Allen, Firal District; .1. W. Boyco, Allen 
I . Oilman, N\ m. I.. Coltrcll, George W . Ili.lly, 

Bdward Wait, I ir«t Distriot, r.n-1 Gardner Mori ;> , Sc md D 
now in offl [870. 


Ilandei II. Thon II. Thompson, 

: Wilkin.. 


m, ff. Roj nolds, -l<>na- 

Bni I, -ii . James L. U John 

J„hn w H 

Mtihii Wltbook. 
• r| . Mi P. A Martin I. Town- 

" - »nei". 


D OF -i rin\ ISOR8 "r 1 -7 

»m. Clerk ; .lolin I i 
n II ' »mi irle« linker. 

' .Ilium 

.lam. is 1'. A -1.1. v. Troy, Fourth Wnr.l ; Samuel Little. Troy. Fifth 

Ward; Jos. P. O'Shen, Troy, Sixth Ward: Michael Carroll, Troy, 

th Ward; M. Ilartignn, Troy, Eighth Ward; Tin. mas Ry- 

n.ii. Troy, Ninth Ward; John Hunt. Troy. Tenth Ward; Philip 

Casoy, Troy, Eleventh Ward; ('. IS. Burke, Troy, Twelfth Ward; 

1>. K. Winnie, Troy, Thirteenth Ward : .1. Dcnison, llerlin ; Paul 

Springer, Brunswick ; David Phillip*, East Greenbush; Levi T. 

Dunham, Grafton : .lames Murphy, Greenbush; J. P. Armstrong, 

II i,l, : A. A. Peebles, Lnnsingburgh ; Giles Kirby, N'assan; 

.1. II. Dearstyne, North Greenbush; Eli Perry. I'ittstown ; S. B. 

Reynolds Petersburg)! ; G. II. Cooper. Poestenkill ; Mil.. Hob). 

A. P. Co.. per, Schngbticoke ; Frank P. Harder, 

Gideon S. Hall, Stophcntown. 




Tt wuuld be of considerable public interest to Lrive an 
extended notice of the militia regiments of the county. 
The materials ;iiv. however, difficult of access. In the ad- 
jutant-general's office al Albany there arc no records afford- 
ing information upon this subject between the Revolutionary 
war and the year 1802. From this latter date to the 
breaking out of the war with England in 1812, a period 
of about ten years, there are preserved the volumes of 
general orders and the rolls of commissioned officers. 
From these we have taken the notes given below. It is 
audi rstood that the records covering the war of 1812 wen 
turned over to the National Government as a basis of cor- 
rect information in the award of pensions, and so much 
fraud has been perpetrated by corrupt pension agents thai 
the government does not permit these lists to be copied 11 
length, even for historical purposes. 

Subsequent to the war of 1812 the data in the oil 
Albany are v.rv meagre, until about the year l-l'.il. The 
limits of this volume will not permit us to write to an;. 
extent of the militia in a period comparatively so modem, 
. -| i tally as it is necessary to treat at great length of the 
noted wur periods ot the nation. 

The following items relating to the period just pr. . 
the war of 1S12 arc of much value. In the list of 
given there are many who afterwards became prominent 
in the camp and on the field, or who acquired prominence 
as civilians and statesmen. 

•• Amuim i.i m hai/s di n. i . 1". ■!.. -'-. I-"'-'- 
.. Htm. — You arc requested to deliver Ihe 

your ) ission to Ciipl exander, of the Artillery, in Ihe 

limits ..I i.uir Regiment. 

order "f the Commander in I 


I'. March 15, 1808, in conformity to in 

• Congress authorizing a detachment from the militia 
of the United States," and in accordance with a requisition 
of the President of the United States, calling for li 

...I three hundred and eighty-nine men from ll" 1 
State of New Y..ik. for said detachment (he Rcnssebei 
Count*, Brigade, commanded by Gen. Moffitt, was required 
to furnish four hundred and eleven. 

The further organization of this contingent appears in 
the general ordei - of the follow ing 



Michael S. Vandercook was appointed inspector and, 
mnjoT of the brigade. Francis Adincourt, of Itensselaer 
County, was appointed adjutant of the battalion of infantry 
included in the brigade. John E. Wool, of Rensselaer 
County, was appointed quartermaster of the squadron of 
cavalry included in the brigade. 

Pursuant to an acl passed March 29, 180!). general 
orders were issued providing for the 3d Regiment of 
Cavalry from the territory of Columbia and Rensselaer, to 
consist of two squadrons, one from Columbia and one. from 

•■ Headqi lrters, Amuw, 27th of May, 1809. 
.-.' Order*. The company of Trojan Greens in llio pillage 
,i i (i m. having been organized into a rifle company pursuant to the 
iliiitv third section of i lie militia law of the State, but their uniform 

not having been prescribed, the nuiander-in-chief directs that the 

uniform of said company shall bo green short coats, with black faeinge 
trimmed with yellow cord ; caps of the description heretofore worn by 
the company, with green or white under-clothes. 

" liy order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

"A. Lamb, Lieut.-Col. and Aid-de-Camp." 

By general orders issued Bitty 10, 1810, the commander- 
in-chief provisionally organized a rifle company in Lieut- 
Col. Cornelius J. Schcrmerhorn's regiment, in the county of 
Rensselaer, and assigned Joel Bristol as captain, William 
Carmichael as lieutenant, and Wallace St. John as ensign 
thereof. The uniform was designated as " green rifle frocks 
and plantations, with yellow fringe and buttons, black 
gaiters, round black hats, with yellow buttons, black loops, 
anil short green feathers." 

By general orders Sept. 15, 1810, the commander-in- 
chief authorized the formation of a company of artillery in 
the county of Rensselaer, and designated Daniel St. John 
;ts captain, Joseph Benedict as first lieutenant, and Nathan- 
iel Durry as second lieutenant. 

By similar orders, July 24, 1810, another company of 
artillery was constituted, with Brevet Martin Van Alstyne 
as captain, Nathaniel Payne as first lieutenant, and Rinier 
Van Alstyne as second lieutenant. 

The following order was complimentary to the county of 

" Headquarters, City of Albany, April 6, 1811. 

" n immander-in-chief has heard with much satisfaction of the 

enterprising spirit and military ambition which prevails among the 

-el soldiers of the companies of riflemen in the county of 

Rensselaer, and it having been represented to him that there are 

already three companies in the brigade of militia, in said county, each 

"' "'''''' nlains more than thirty men uniformed and equipped 

' rdtog t" 'aw, he does hereby direct that the rifle companies in the 

said brigade be henceforth organized into a battalion of riflemen, to 
bo commanded by Maj. William S. Parker, of Troy." 

'flic full complement of officers was as follows: William 
S. Parker, First Major, Commandant; Henry Coon, Sec- 
ond Major; Stephen Warren, Captain; David Bell, Cap- 
tain ; Jedediah Tracy, Lieutenant; James De Freest, Lieu- 
tenant ; Sidney Dole, Ensign ; Abraham II. Lansing, Junior 
Ensign ; Joel Bristol, Captain ; William Carmichael, Lieu- 
tenant; Stephen Tripp, Ensign. 

In the reorganization pursuant to general orders, June 
18, 1812, Tisdale Eddy, of Rensselaer County, was ap- 
pointed Second Major in the 9th Regiment, lid Brigade; 
Michael S. Vandercook, Brigade Major and Inspector in 
Iho 2,1 Brigade. 

I!\ orders of December I, 1812, forty-two person 

siding in the c t.y of Rensselaer were organized into .a 

rifle company, with the following officers : I ten I pen Babcock, 
Junior Captain; Ellis Foster Lieutenant , He: \ ■. . 

April 13, 1812, the 8th Brigade of Infantry, county of 
Rensselaer, was composed of sis regiments, commanded as 
follows: 1st, by Caleb Can'; 43d, Cornelius J. Schermor- 
horn; 45th, Gilberl Eddy; 78th, Joseph Dorr; 86th, 
Thomas Reynolds; 155th, Thomas Davis. The brigade 
was under the command of Jacob A. Fort, and was in- 
cluded in the 3d Division, Henry Livingston major-general. 

The following is a list of the appoint men I- for the bl 

of the county of Rensselaer: 

Field and Staff.— Feb. 22, 1803, Michael S. Vander- 
cook, Inspector. March 22, Ism;, Hosea Moffitt, Briga- 
dier-General. June 8, 1800, Nathaniel Adams, Brigade 

Captains. — March 7, 1803, Amos Potter (2d); March 
18, 1803, Jacob Lansing; May 24, 1800, Henry Koon, 
— Riflemen. 

First Lieutenants. — March 7, 1803, Thomas Osborne; 
March 18, 1S03, George Young; May 24, 1S09, David 
Bell, — Riflemen. 

Second Lieutenants. — March 7, 1803, Joseph Potter; 
May 24. 1800, James De Freest,— Riflemen. 


Field and Slaf. — March 27, 1805, Francis Saltus, Sec- 
ond Major. 

Captains. — April G, 1807, James D. Wallace. 

Second Lieutenants. — April 6, 1807, George R. A. Pick- 
etts; April G, 1S07, Nathaniel Richards. 


Field and Staff.— March 18, 1803, Abram Ten Eyck, 

Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding ; Stephen Andres, Adju- 
tant. April 2, 1803, Dirck Vanderheyden, Quartermaster; 
John Loudon, Surgeon. April 5, 1805, Adam Yates, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Commanding ; Henry T. E. Schuyler, See- 
on. 1 Major. March 22. 180G, Henry T. E. Schuyler, Fifth 
Major; Levinus R. Winsor, Second Major; Gordon Corn- 
ing, Adjutant. April 6, 1S07, John G. Vanderheyden, 
Paymaster. June 8, 180G, Thomas Davis, Second Major; 
Barent Schuyler, Paymaster; David Butler, Chaplain; 
Hugh W. Henry, Surgeon's Mate; John Sampson. Quarter- 
master. May 24, 1809, Ely Burritt, Surgeon. March 12, 
1810, Barent Schuyler, Adjutant; Martin Van Alstyne, 

Captains. — March 18, 1803, Abraham Lansing, Francis 
Collison, Nathaniel Adams; March 16, 1804, Joseph 
Stead ; April 5, 1805, Solomon Buckley, Henry Searls, 
James Adams, John I. Fonda; March 22. 1806, Jonathan 
Hatch, Daniel Simmons, John I. Fonda, Jr. ; April G, 1S07, 
Hazard Kimberly, Sylvanus Jenks Penni man, Thomas Davis ; 
June 8, 1808, William S. Parker, Ebenezer W. Walbridge, 
Guilli.rd D. Young. Amos Salisbury; Nov. 11, 1808, Guil- 
ford D. Young, William S. Parker; May 24, 1809, Fred- 
erick G. Bergen, Cornelius Swartwood, John Newman ; 



Maj31, 1-"'.'. Zacharinh Curtis; March 12, 1810, John 
De Freest, .Jr. ; April 10, 1811, Ebenezer W. Walbridge. 

/ • r». — Marcli 18, 1803, Daniel Goewey, Patrick 

\ in, Jonathan Hatch, John C. Redmund; April 16, 

1804, Daniel Sinn is; April •">. 1805, Hazard Kimberiy, 

Reuben B. Crowncr, Isaac Hasbrouck, John De Freest, Jr., 

• i ph Chambers; March 22, 1806, Jacob Bishop, Sylvanus 

• l Penniuian, Amos Salisbury, Joseph Sears, John Mc 
Manus, John Newman; April 6, 1807, Guilford D. Young, 
r. i W. Walbridge, Zacbariah Curtis, W. S. Parker; 
June 8, 1808, Benjamin High - lien Warren, Stephen 
Clark, Frederick Barringer, Elam Lyndes; Nov. 11, 1808, 

■ mill Higbce, Stephen Warren ; May '_' I. lsn9, Philip 
|| Bcrger, Abraham Lansing, Nathan Barber, Oliver Lyon ; 
May 31, 1809, Stephen Clark, Gurdou Corning; March 12, 

1810, Martin I' Frees) William Case, Cornelius Adriance, 
James Giles. 

tits. — March IS 1803, Samuel Comstock, William 
Lam] J '■ Bishop. Joseph Chambers; March 1G, 
1804, John McManus; April .">. 1805, Stephen Chandler, 
John Newman, William P. Rathbun, Martin Van Alstyne, 
John F. Whipple; March 22, 1806, Zachariah Curtis, 
Ebenezer W. Walbridge, Jared I'ells. Jacob J. Wager, 
William Schoby, Jacob Wyganl : April 6, 1S07, Benjamin 
Higbee, Stephen Clark, Cornelius Adriance, Abraham R. 

Wi \ Stephen Warren ; June 8, 1S0S, Jcdcdiah Tracey, 

aan Bickok, Cornelius Swartwout, Samuel P. Hawley, 
Oliver I.; S 11, 1808, Samuel P. Hawley, Jedediab 
Tra 309, Luther Eddy, Eliphalet King, 

Nathaniel Challis, Josiah G. Kinne, Cornelius Slyter ; 
Ma; 31 1809 '.melius Adriance; March 12, 1310, 
William W. Slyter, Richard J. De Freest, Luther Bliss. 
Additional appointments in the 155th are as follows: 

•di.I Staff.— Adam Yates, Lieutenant-Colonel. 
April 10, 1811, Thomas Davis, First Major; April 10, 

1811, Amos Salisbury, Second Major. Feb. 29, 1812, 
Thoi Lieutenant-Colonel; Amos Salisbury, First 
Maji r, M 20, 1812, Guilford 1>. Young, Second Major. 

-April 10, 1811, Oliver Lyons, Philip l>. 
»ei Jum ■> 1-11, Cornelius Adriance, Hiram 
I: Is; May 20, 1812, Benjamin Higbee; May 23, 

1-12. Joseph Ballard. 

/ ''.«. -April 10, 1-11. Roger King, Isaiah (i. 

Kin i .1 h I - ph. M ( Hark : June 5, 

1811, Arteium I, J nNorth; Feb. 29, l812,Joscph 

Ballard, Nichi I Luther Eddj ; Maj 1". 1812, 

\ I. ■ M 23, 1 B12, Samuel I!. Il> dges. 

April 10, 1811, William Bognrdus, Cornelius 

M \ mdcrl irgli Edward A. Ci ■'■!>. Cornelius Bcckman ; 

imon Will* Ji Philip I loons ; Feb. 

ider, Samuel I' II J ib P. 

Swartwoul ; Maj 20, 

1-1 . n '-'■ De 1 t, William L Marcy M 


Eddy, Lieu- 

Douglas! Major; 

Will \'.in Vli i k, 

S« March 21, li Brown, Adjutant. 

March 2, 1S04, Henry Warren, Second Major; Nehemial 
King, Surgeon's Mate. June 8, 1808, William Knieker 
bocker, First Major; Tisdale Eddy, Second Major ; Andrew 
Ryan, Quartermaster; Theodore May, Surgeon. March 12 
1S10, John J. Groesbeck, Paymaster. Feb. 11, 1811 
Thomas Smith, Surgeon's Mate ; Simon Ncwconib, Surgeon 
Feb. 29, 1812, Thomas Smith, Surgeon. 

Captains. — Feb. 20, 1803, John Groesbeck, Benjamin 
Agan ; March 2, 1S04, Bethel Mathers, Darius Thurber 
Stephen Gasten ; April 3, 1S04, Tisdale Eddy ; March 22. 
1S00, Amaziah Hcrrick ; April 0, 1S07, Samuel S. Storm. 
Myndert Groesbeck, George Bruce; June 8, 1S08, Court- 
land Elliot; May 24, 1S09, Jonathan Rowland, Daniel 
Kiser; Feb. 11, 1811, Munson Smith; April 10, 1811, 
Burwcll Retts, David Bryan, James Anderson ; Feb. 29, 
1812, John Fake John Downing. 

Lieutenants.— Feb. 26, 1S03, Tunis Vide, Asahel Mar- 
veil; March 2, 1804, Amaziah Herrick, James Mallcry, 
Stephen Cushman, John I. Filkins ; April 3, 1804, 
Andrew G. Weatherwax ; March 22, 1S0G, Jonathan 
Rowland. Courtland Elliot, Samuel Wilson ; April 6, 
1 SOT. Henry S. Yandercook, D.fvid Bryan, Daniel Kiscr; 
June 8, 1808, John Downing; May 24, 1809, Charles 
Lounsbury, James Anderson, Burrell Bctts ; Feb. 11, 
1811, Peter Vandenbergh; April 10, 1811, Adam Clum, 
John W. Groesbeck, John Fahc ; Feb. 29, 1812, Stephen 
Yates, Matthew De Graff, Jacob Williams; April 1, 1812, 
Richard Bryan. 

Ensigns. — Feb. 22. 1803, Daniel Cadwcll, John Agan ; 
March 21, 18H3, Myndert Groesbeck; March 2, 1804, 
Jonathan Rowland, Ira Hawley, James Van Name. 
William Rice. Noah Levins; April 5, 1S05, Cortland 
Elliot, Charles Lounsbury, Samuel Storm ; March 2. 
1 SilO. Janus Anderson, John Downing, Nathan Bardcn ; 
April li, 1S07, Samuel Cole, Cornelius Yates, James An- 
derson, Burrell Bctts; June 8, 180S, Matthew Graff Wil- 
liam Groesbeck; May 21. 1S09, Jacob Williams, John 
Fake, Adam Clum. John W. Groesbeck, Thomas Weath- 
erwax ; Feb. 11, 1811, Joseph Reed; April 10. 1811, 
.lames Morrison, Jacob Bachman, Stephen Yates; Feb. 
29. 1 Si 12. Stephen L. Yiele, John Lamport, Richard 
Bryan, Peter I. Yates; April 1, 1812, Isaac Talmadge. 


Field and Staff.— April 5, ISO."). Randall Spencer. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding; David Wilcox, Fay- 
master. June 9. ISti7, Zebulon Scriven, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Commanding; Samuel McChcsney, First Major; 
Jonathan Irish, Second Major. May 24, 1S09, Samuel 
McChesney, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding ; ThoUMi 
• 1-. First Major; Matthew Randall, Second Major; 
i : Max. ui. Quartermaster. March 12. 1810, William 
Clark, Paymaster; Ebcn Moffitt, Adjutant. April 10, 
1811, Thomas Reynolds, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding; 
Matthew Randall, Firel Major; Gideon Palmer, - 
Major. June 11, 1811, Elijah Brown, Chaplain; Jeffiej 
W Tl,.. ma-. Surgeon's Mate; Thomas W". Phillips, Pay- 
master. February 29, 1812, William II. Murray. Adju- 

tint March 1-. 1 S03, Thomas Reynolds; April 



:,, 1805, John Nichols, James Allen, Benjamin Lee; 
March 22, 1806, .lames Godfrey; June 9, 1807, Josiah 

Hall, Rufus Waite, Gid< Palmer, Matthew Randall; 

Mane 8, 1808, Joseph Crnndall, Enos Larkin, Daniel 
Arnold, Aaron Sedgwick ; May 24, 1809, Aaron Worth- 
le.'ton, Benjamin Rogers, Asa Stillman, Asa Prosser, 
William ('. Barber; March 12, 1810, David Mattison, 
Foseph Burdick, Munson Smith, Benjamin Babcock ; 
rune 10, 1811, Elisha Coon, Hezekiah Hull, Jr., Oliver 
fcVelhnan; February 29, 1812, Reuben Babcock. 

Lieutenants. — March IS, 1803, Solomon Root; April 5, 
[805, Josiah Hull, Jr., Joseph Crandall, James West, 
Verge Stillman, Asa Stillman, James Godfrey, Caleb 
Wells, Jr.; March 22, 1806, Benjamin Rogers, CJideon 
Calmer, Daniel Arnold; June 9, 1807, John Enos, Andrew 
Whipple, Elisha Coon, Asa Maxon, Jr., Aaron Worthing- 
,ni ; June 8, 1808, Edward Whitford, William C. Barber, 
'Samuel Hutton, David Mattison, Elisha Eggleston ; May 
.'I, ISO',), George Brimmer, Joseph Burdick, Thomas S. 
Iarvey, Sanford Hewitt, Benjamin Babcock, Pliny Miller, 
lr.; March 12, 1810, Hezekiah Hull, Solomon Smith, Jr., 
A'illiam Cbilils, Peter Vandenburgh (of Riflemen), Elisha 
hirdick ; April 10, 1811, Robert Davis, Rodman Thomas, 
leuben Babcock, Jr.; June 11, 1811, John Brimmer; 
?ebruary 29, 1812, Joseph Amidon. 

Ensigns.— March 18, 1803, Caleb Wells; April 5, 1805, 
Stephen McChesney, Eliphalet Johnson, Benjamin Rogers, 
iideon Palmer, Thomas S. Harvey, Daniel Arnold, Aaron 
rVorthington ; March 22, 1806, Joseph Burdick, Elisha 
'oon, David Mattison; June 9, 1807, William C. Barber, 
tobert Davis, Asa Prosser, George Brimmer; June 8, 
808, Sanford Hewitt, William Childs, Hezekiah Hull, 
'liny Miller; May 24, 1809, Joshua M. Striven, William 
'oon, Elisha Burdick, Thomas Phillips, Jr., Robert God- 
ivy ; March 12, 1810, Jarvis Green, Zebuion Scriven, 
olin Hutton, Joseph Reed, John Brimmer; April 10, 
811, John Worthington, William II. Murray, Jonathan 
tarry, Joseph Amidon ; June 11, 1811, Archibald Jones, 
Vuiiel Palmer; February 29, 1812, Otis Gould, Asa Bur- 
iek, Jr. 


Fir/,/ mid Staff. — April 5, 1S05, Hosea Moffitt, Lieutcn- 
ut-Colonel Commanding; Jonathan Dennison, Second Ma- 
li' ; Wiu. L. Gardner, Adjutant ; Rufus Sweet, Paymaster ; 
Hllet Vary, Quartermaster ; Joshua Griggs, Surgeon ; 
oab II. Gardner, Surgeon's Mate. April 3, 1806, Elisha 
tewart, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding; Caleb Kerr, 
irst Major; Adil Swan, Second Major; Matthew Jones, 
•minister. June 9, 1807, Barent Van Vleck, Quarter- 
master. June 8, 1808, John Younglove, Chaplain. March 

2, 1810, Caleb Carr, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding; 
liphaz Spencer, Kirst Major ; Rufus Sweet, Second Major ; 
ber Moffitt, Adjutant; Win, K. Scott, Surgeon. April 

3, 1810, Nathan Howard, Paymaster. May 23, 1812, 
eorge Forsyth, Quartermaster. 

Captains.— March 25, 1S03, Elisha Adams, Bernard 
ix, William Vary; April 5, 1805, Charles Dennison, 
li Viekery; April 3, 1806, Benjamin Chase, Richard H. 
ary, Eliphaz Spencer; June 9, 1807, Fenner Palmer, 
mos James, Rufus Sweet, Henry Tucker; May 24, 1809, 

Cyrus Spencer, Willet Vary ; March L2, 1810, James Jone* 
Aimer Bull, Barnard Mix, Samuel E. Gibbs; April 10, 
1*] 1, Si n Tifft, Pliny Miller, Josiah Humphrey, Nathan 

dale; May 23, 1812, Pliny Miller. 

Lieutenants. -March '_'.">. 1803, J; - 1 lempstead, Nathan 

B. Gardner, Eliphalet Reid, Silas Thomas (Grenadier 
April 5, 1805, Paul Bray man, Henry Tucker, Eliphaz 
Spencer, Benjamin Chase; April 3, 1806, Amos James, 
Willet Vary, Rufus Sweet: April 5, 1806, Stephen Ben- 
ton; June 9, 1807, Darius Phillips, Aimer Bull, Jr., 
Ebenezer Martin, Cyrus Spencer; June 8, 180*. John 
Blauey; May 24, 1809, James Jones, Josiah Humphrey; 
March 12, 1810, Thomas L. Adams, Samuel Post. Solo- 
mon W. Lawrence, Chauncey Foster; April 10, 1811, 
John B. Adsit, Martin Field, Benjamin Rogers, Cornelius 
W. Schermerhorn, Henry Reynolds, Jr.; May 23, 1812, 
John Curtis. 

Ensigns. — March 25, 1803, Minor Jones, Benjamin 
Chase, Eliphaz Spencer, Win. Lamport Gardner (Grena- 
diers); April 5, 1805, Daniel Arnold, Aaron Sedgwick, 
Stephen Boughton, Matthew Jones, Daniel Greene; April 
3, 1806, Cyrus Spencer, Jeremiah Marks, James Jones, 
Abner Bull, Jr. ; June 9, 1807, William Sheldon, Samuel 
Coleman, Samuel Post. John Blaney ; June S, 1808, Jacob 
P. Heermance ; May 24, 1809, Chauncey Goold, Simon 
Tifft, Thomas P. Adams; March 12, 1810, Wm. Jones, 
Henry Reynolds, John Adsit, Jr., Daniel St. John, Ben- 
jamin Sweet; April 10, 1811, Daniel M. Gregory, Syl- 
vester Howard, William Kittle, Jr., Henry J. Dusenbury ; 
May 23, 1812, David Tifft, David Braiucrd, Jr. 


Field and Staff.— March 30, 1803, Nicholas Staats, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Commanding; John Billings, Adju- 
tant; Joachim N. Staats, Quartermaster. April 5, 1805, 
Philip Staats, Lieutenant- Colonel Commanding; Cornelius 
J. Schermerhorn, Kirst Major; Nicholas J. Kittle, Second 
Major; John J. Kittle, Adjutant; Benjamin Rowe, Sur- 
geon ; Nicholas B. Harris, Surgeon's Mate. April 0, lNliT. 
Daniel Van Buren, Paymaster; John W. Van Vechten, 
Quartermaster. June 8, 1808, John L. Zabriskie, Chap- 
lain ; Nicholas B. Harris, Surgeon ; Cornelius Heermance, 
Surgeon's Mate. June 13, 180S, Jacob G. Vandenburgh, 
Quartermaster. March 12, 1S10, Cornelius J. Schermer- 
horn, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Nicholas J. Kittle, First Major; 
John J. Miller, Second Major. April 10, 1811, John J. 
Miller, First Major ; Joshua Griffiths, Second Major ; John 
S. Miller, Surgeon's Mate. Jan. 25, 1813, James Elliott, 

Captains.— March 30, 1803, Silas Welmoth, John J. 
Miller, Joshua Griffith, Zachariah Fuller; April 5, 1805, 
Garret Yates, Jacob Barhite; April 6, 1S07, James G. 
Myers, John II. Van Rensselaer; June 8, 1808, Abra- 
ham Herrington, William N. Staats; May 24, 1809. Jon- 
athan J. Witbeck, James Livingston ; March 12, 1810, 
Stephen J. Miller, Erastus Lyman; Kob. 11, 1811, Joel 
Bristol; April 10, 1S11, Hugh Gordon, Abraham Hnyek, 
Jonas Miller. David E. Gregory, Samuel Myers; Feb. 29, 
ISIl', Braddum Yale, Manassch Knowlton. 

Lieutenants. — March 30, 1803, Samuel Hammond. 



Samuel Comble, John Witbeck, Henry Row, Henry Dun- 
April 5, 1805, Eber Wilcox, Jonathan J. Witbeck, 
John 11. Van R ass laer, Samuel 1!. Campbell, William 
Crandall; April t'., lsnT. Abraham Huyck, Jonathan J. 
Witbeck; June 8, 1808, Manasseh Knowlton, Anthony 
I'.: ■ ^.retua Lyman, Peter Ostranderj May 24, 1809, 
.1 . Bristol, Uugh Qordonj March 1'-'. 1810, Bradman 
Fates, David E. G . Simeon Weh I II 1. 1811, 

William Carmichael; April 10, 1811, Martin Witbeck, 
John Carpenter, Samuel Myers, Henry Livingston, Stephen 
Abraham V. I' 1' Gregorj : Feb. 29, 1-12. Abra- 
ham P. Staats, Almon 1!. Bostwick, James Elliot. 

rii*. — Ma"rch 30, 1803, Abner Wilcox, John Wea- 
ver, .Ir., Jonas Miller, David Cravour; April 5, 1805, 
Pownal Hitchcock, Anthony Brccse, Jr., Stephen J. Miller, 
Abraham Huyck; April 6, 1807, John Carpenter, Joel 
Brestor; June 8, 1808, Nathaniel Paine, James Living- 
David E. Gregory, Simeon* Welch ; May 21. 1809 
- ael Myers; May 31, 1809, William Van Schaick; 
March 12. 1810, Abraham I. Staats. Abraham V. D. 1'. 
_..ry. Adam Smith; Feb. 11. 1811, Stephen Trip].; 
Apiil 10, 1811, John N. Kittle, James Elliot, Stephen 

I Abraham P. Smith, Thomas Phillips, John Ladue; 
Feb. 29, 1-1 J. Henry Vandcnburgh, A. lam Smith, Andrew 

li. Jacob II. Hcrrington, Matthew Conklin. 

( 1\ 1 Y 1 hiHTII REGIMENT. 

April 2. 1^03, Jacob A. Fori. Licu- 

tcnant-Coloncl Commanding; Asher Armstrong, Surg i; 

Aaron D Patchin, Surgeon's Mate. March 22, 1806, John 
Carpenter, Adjutant ; Jeremiah Schuyler, Paymaster; Jacob 
Lansing, Quartermaster. June 8, 1808, Sylvester Noble, 
od Major. March 12, 1810, Joseph Dorr, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Commanding; Sylvester Noble, First Major; John 

II - .1 Major; Charles II. Wetmore, Surgeon's 
Mai June 5, 1811, James Olmstead, First Major; Samuel 
Wih E nd Major; Abram Hallcnbcck, Surge* 

M . James G Chaplain; Nathaniel Cole, Junior 

Feb. 29, 1-12. Samuel Wilson, First 

Major; John II. Hayncs, S nd Major; Russell Dorr, 

ii. Archibald Ball, Quartermaster. 
' \- il 2. 1803, Henry Van Ness, John Mat- 

tison ; April •">. 1805, Nathaniel Bishop, Gideon Gilford, 
Atariah Haskins; March 22, 1806, Daniel R \pril 

I'.. 1807, Darius Thurber ; June - Samuel Fans 

I: . i M 24, 1809 Henrj Warren, Samuel 

m, John II R \ ■ ■ M irch 12, 1 -in. 

James Olmstead, John II. Hayncs, -I ■ - 1 1 r » Spicer, Lemuel 

d, Abraham lv • . 1 1 ; .Inn.' 5, 1-11. 

R Davis, Abraham Nan Wart. Roswcll Granger, 

i 29, 1812, Moses Wright, •' sse 

'.< — Aptii J. 1803 II nr B gh, Nathan- 

1. 1 Bishop, ' ~ 1805, Ji scph 

Jai ' id, Samuel Wilson ; 

• 1 II i: April 

6, 1807,8 \ iron Baldwin, 

I John 

M irch 12, 1 liam Van 

I II [Hi dI 

Conrad Raymond, John B. Ryan; June 5, 1S11, Joscp 

I. Northrup, Reuben Williams, Jesse Holmes, Earl Pearo 
Moses Wright; Feb. 29, 1812, Daniel Halstead, Samu. 
Van Surdam, Noah Baker. 

Ensigns. — April 2, 1S03, Samuel S. Munroe, Shernia 
Baker, Royal Abbott; April 5, 1805, John II. Ilaync: 
Samuel Faxon, Isaiah Austin, Nathan Burden; March 2i 
1-ni'i. llussi'll Chase, John Spicer, John Wallace, Jr. 
April 6, 1807, Nathan Burden ; June 8, 1S0S. John Mar 
clu -i. i. Jonas Halstead, Garret Hallenbeek ; May 24, 1 80f 
Conrad Raymond, Allen Spicer, John B.Ryan; March 1: 
1S10, Reuben Williams. Moses Wright, Earl Pearce, Ri 
Green, Roswell Halstead, Daniel Delavan ; June 5, 1811 
.lames Van Surdam, David S. Wing, Stephen Hunt. Rufn 
Sluices, Clark McGowan, Noah Baker, Daniel Rogers, Jr 
Feh. 2D. 1812, Israel T. Holmes, Levi Croukhite, I 
R. Reach. 


Field Officers. — March 12. 1S10, Herman Knickei 
bocker, Major. Feb. 11, 1811, John Chester. Chaplain 
Moses Burt, Surgeon's Mate. Feb. 20, 1812, Davii 
Kittle, Second Major; Theodore Romcyn Beck. Si. 
John M. Bradford, Chaplain ; Henry Jones. Paymaster. 

Captains. — March 12, 1S10, Wooster Brookins; Jun 
5, 1811, Evert Van Alen ; February 20, 1S12, .1 - | 

Lieutenants. — March 12, 1S10, Braddoek Hall. AlatBOl 
Clark. Richard Yates, Martin Overocker ; April 10, 1811 
Braddoek Hall, Alanson Clark; June 5, 1811, Marti' 
Overocker, Alanson Brookins. Charles Doughty. Gilbel 
Riley; Feh. 20. 1S12. Paris Green, Jonathan Carpcntei 
James Rogers. John Coons. 

Cornets. — March 12, 1810, Joseph Amidon, Willian 
Dunn ; April 10, 1811, Paris Green ; June ."), 1811, Johl 
Fell.t. George W. Staats; Feb. 20, 1812, Israel Piatt 
Simeon Cranston. 


Field and Staff. — June 5, 1811, Joshua Ilnmden 
master; Levi Coolcy, First Major; Cornelius Holnii S 
geon's Mate. 

Captains. — Feb. 11, 1811, Rapine Andrews, David - 
John; June 5. 1-11. Stephen C. Miller; May 20 
James Vanderpool ; May 2:'.. 1812, John Blakcslj 

II, 1812, Buggies Hubbard | Flying Artillery). 

/ .i Lieutenants.— Feb. 11, 1S11, Mordecai Bull 
Lewis Finch, Joseph Benedict; Jun.. 5, 1811, N'athsnii 
Payne; May 20, 1812, Freeman Fellows; May 23 
Gideon Reed, Daniel Cordon. Elias Worden, Thonw 
Stevenson; Aug. 11. 1812, Richard M. Livingston. 

5 nd Lieutenants.— Feb. 11, 1811, Isaac \\ 
Gideon Bead. Joshua Phillip-: June 5, 1811, 
Smith M Vounglove; Maj 20, 1-12. Ira Stom 

Samuel T. Vary, Samuel GifTord, John C. Conklin. 

Philo I> : Aug. 11, 1812, William Me.Manus i Flying 

Artillery . Jacob Springer ! Cornet I. 

i i Colombia. 




field and Staff.— May 23, 1813, Th ns Reynolds, 

,ieutenant-Colonel Commanding; Jeffrey W. Thomas, 
lurgcon; Ebenezer Robinson, Surgeon's Mate. 

Ctyrfains.— May 23, 1812, Thomas S. Hervey. 

lieutenants. — May 2:5, 1812, William Coon, Nathan 

Ensigns. — May 2:!. 1812, David Mason, Josiah Stewart, 
ob Matteson. 


Among the matters which excited considerable interest 
ii Rensselaer County, and in the State at large, a genera- 
ion ago, were the disputes between landlords and tenants, 
rowing out of leasehold tenures, which were generally 
Titled the " anti-rent troubles." We have room in this 
(irk for a simple outline only of the subject. 

The original grant of the manor of Rensselaerswyck was 
uule by the Dutch in 1 630. The territory granted, begin- 
ing at Cohoes Falls, extended twenty-lour miles down the 
[udson and eight miles from the river east and west. A 

!0 1 grant, known as the Dongan Patent, was given by 

lie English government, and extended the manor twenty- 
iur miles from the river east and west ; this extended to 
a- Massachusetts line, and covered the whole of Rensselaer 
ounty, except the northern tier of towns. Nearly the en- 
re county was leased under perpetual leases drawn by 
en. Alexander Hamilton for his brother-in-law, and ex- 
ulted by the late Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer about 
775 to 1800, — he receiving the estate by entail, and with 
im the entail, under constitutional provisions, ended. The 
■nants surrendered the few leases previously given, and 
iok others in fee, reserving rents in wheat, fowls, and 
■rvicewith wagon and horses amounting to annually about 
xteen cents an acre, the land then being worth about two 
illars and fifty cents per acre ; reserving also quarter-sales, 
liich entitled the landlord to one-quarter of proceeds of 

ery sale, but no rights from descent. The lessor, who 
as a revered and beloved landlord, died in 1839, and 
svised the west manor (Albany County) to his oldest son 
S his first marriage (Stephen), and the east manor to his 
dest son, William P.. by his second marriage. These young 
en coming into possession led to fears among the tenants 
tat the quarter-sale forfeiture (which never had been en- 
rced by the late patroon) would be enforced by his suc- 
issors ; and, therefore, sent a committee of their best men to 
•gotiate a purchase of all the reservations in the leases, and 
rminate the tenure. The landlords declined listening to any 
opositions, and the report of the committee so disappointed 
e tenants that they were aroused into an active opposition. 
Iiey were led to believe that the landlords never had a 
>od title, that they had obtained their grants by fraud, 
id that by political organization and representation they 
uld get relief from their liabilities. They believed, also, 
at their lawyers could successfully defend them, which 
suited in organizing anti-rent associations. These became 

bo powerful, exacting, and threatening, thai conservn 
men did not dare to either oppose them or pay rent. Dia 
guises were resorted to, and crimes committed, until Btatutes 
were enacted making it a felony to wear false fa 

The firsl conflict which awakened general attention hap- 

pe I in the town of Grafton, Rensselaer Co., where a band 

of anti-renters, in disguise, killed a man named Smith, 
during an altercation on the highway. A legal investiga- 
tion, at which more than two hundred persons were from 
time to time examined, failed to disclose the author of the 

deed. In his messages of 1841—12. (inventor Seward <li~- 
cussed the grievances complained of by the tenants. He 
recommended a reference of the mailers in dispute to arbi- 
trators, and appointed three' men to investigate and report 
to the Legislature. This commission accomplished nothing. 

The disaffection and excitement increased, until, alter a 
tragical affair at Andes, Delaware Co., in 1845, Governor 
Wright issued a proclamation, declaring the county in a 
state of insurrection. The trials and convictions of certain 
anti-renters in that and Columbia Counties, for conspiracy 
and resistance to law, put an end to operations by the dis- 
guised bands. 

The anti-rent associations determined to form a political 
party, whose policy should bo to elect all town and county 
officers from their own ranks, and to vote for no officer un- 
friendly to their cause. In the Legislature of 1842 to 
1847 about one-eighth of the members were elected in the 
interest of the anti renters. In the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1840 some of the ablest men were avowedly anti- 
renters, whose influence procured the insertion of a clause 
in the new constitution abolishing all feudal tenures and in- 
cidents, and forbidding the leasing of agricultural land for 
a term exceeding twelve years. The Legislature at succes- 
sive sessions passed laws which bore heavily upon the land- 
lord interest, and tended gradually to ameliorate the con- 
dition of the tenants. After 1847 the excitement died out, 
the anti-rent influence ceased to be a disturbing force in 
politics, and the anti-rent organization contented itself with 
efforts to contest in the courts the validity of the titles of 
the landlords, and the legality of the conditions and cove- 
nants contained in the manor grants. 

In 1854 the two Van Rensselaers, wearied in their ef- 
forts to collect their rents, sold out to Mr. Walter S. Church, 
of Albany, who has since persevered untiringly until the 
organizations have been entirely broken up, and scarcely a 
representative of anti-rentism is to be found. Mr. Church 
has brought at least one thousand suits in Rensselaer 
County in ejectment on a forfeiture of his leases for non- 
payment of rent, and recovered as many judgments. The 
tenants have been impoverished, the lives of three public 
officers have been sacrificed in attempts to execute process, 
— but the courts have invariably discharged their duty 
faithfully and sustained the contracts. Col. Church has 
collected all that he was entitled to, unless the debt was 
insecure, or he chose to abate where distress and equity 
prompted him to extend kindness and favor. The tenants 
and country have suffered groat damage from the excite- 
ment, but as nearly all of the leases have been settled, and 
the reservations sold to the tenants, it is not probable that 
any further excitement will occur. 



(11 A l'T E R XVI. 


Tiik citizens of the county of Rensselaer are justly 
proud of her brilliant record in the great Southern Rebel- 
lion. In the following ] ive separate accounts of 
the major part of the several regiments and commands raised 

within her limits. 

This regiment was organized at Troy, N. Y.. under the 
call of the President for volunteers to suppress the 
i; bcllion, and in accordance with the provisions of the 
law, passed April 16, I8G1, entitled "An act to au- 
thorize the embodying :ni«l equipment of a volunteer militia, 
and to provide for the public derens ir the term 

of two years, unless sooner discharged. The several coni- 
panics comprising the regimcnl were organized in Troy. 
The tii -t company organization was commenced about the 
lTtli of April, IStil, and the others soon aftcr.f 

As - n as fully organized, inspected, and accepted, the 

companies went into camp in the grounds, and occupied 

the buildings, of the Rensselaer County Agricultural So- 

ciety, just north of the city, and at once commenced drill, 

:, in the school of the soldier and company, without 

arm-. The camp was under the personal supervision of 

L Willard, first lieutenant 9th Infantry, United 

- Army, and Joseph B. Carr, colonel 24th Regiment 

\ Jfork State Militia. 

hough the men had neither camp-equipage or army 

Lhing, they were rendered comfortable by the citizens of 

T | vicinity, who kindly supplied them with blankets, 

On I I Hb of \| iil. eight companies 

having been organized, and the regit jnnizalion 

being considered sufficiently completed, an election for 

field-officers was held, which resulted in the selection of 

G 1. Willard as colonel, Joseph B. Carr as licutcnant- 

ocl, and R. Wclla Kcnyon as major. The officers thus 

■ once entered upon the discharge of their duties; 

ippointed, regular <lrills instituted, and 

the theoretic instruction of officers and non-commissi 1 

officers commenced. On the '.Mi of May the regimeut was 

ind numbered by the State Military 

,| The Unit - uthoritics, much to the n 

r | i Lieut Willard leave of 

I , r the pui immanding the regiment, and 

a ,, jucntly h ' • Rath- 

■ which Lieut-Col. Carr was ch n colonel, 

M K nant-col l.andRichard l». Bloss major, 

li of whom • ■ [ucntlyi imisi 

by the • loven 

lit. .1 t.. tin- maximum 

standard ment, numbering thirty mmis- 

n hundred and fil istcd 

! "« i. 

men, was mustered into the United States service May 14th, 
at their camp, then known as ■■ (.'amp Willard," by Capt. 
1. Sitgreaves, Topographical Engineers, U. S. A., for the 
term of two years from that date. Arms and uniforms 
were received, and the men supplied therewith, on the 17th ; 
the arms being of the National Armory pattern, percussion, 
bright, and the uniforms of gray cloth, looking well at first, 
but proving to be of VERY unserviceable quality. These 
uniforms were afterwards accounted for on the muster-rolls 
f the several companies, at full prices, as ungenerously 
and wrongfully determined on by the State authorities, and 
required by orders from the War Department. 

The next forenoon, the 18th, at eight o'clock, the regiment 
left Camp Willard, and. escorted by the 24th Regiment 
V v, l'ork State Militia, the Fire Department of the city, 
and Doring's Hand, marched through crowds of citizens, 
who seemed to have turned out en mass,, to the court house, 
where it was presented with a regimental Hag.— the stars and 
stripes, — by the Hon. George Gould, on behalf of a few of 
the young ladies of Troy. These ceremonies ended, the 
procession, alter marching through several of the principal 
Streets, halted near the "steamboat landing." and the regi- 
ment, went on hoard two old, small, and uncomfortable 
barges, which had been provided by the State officials for 
its transportation. At twelve o'clock the barges, amid the 
music of the hand, the cheers of men, women, and chil- 
dren, with whom the dorks were crowded, and the waving 
of flags and handkerchiefs, left the dock in tow for Albany. 
On its arrival there, the regiment, with its baggage, was 
placed on one barge, which, with another barge, was made 
fast nine being placed on each side) to the steamboat 
» Alida," on board of which was the 3d New York Volun- 
teers, Col. Townsend, and at about five o'clock p.m. started 
for New York. Before leaving Albany. Col. Cur was in- 
formed that his regiment could occupy a portion of the 
barge on the opposite side of the "Alida;" but Col. Town- 
send refusing permission for the men of the 2d Regiment 
iss his boat (being at that time about four miles be- 
low Albany i, the lines were cut by order of Col. Can', and 
the barge with the 2d Regiment, after drilling a short dis- 
tune,, was taken in tow by a small steamboat, the " Cumin 

and towed back to Albany, where Col. Carr at once rc- 
portcd the matter at headquarters. New arrangements 
were soon made, when the regiment, with its baggage, was 
transferred from the barge to the steamboat " New World," 

and at about nine o'clock P.M. again started for New \ ork, 

where it arrived at nil 'lock the next morning, and soon 

after went on bore and marched up Broadway to Devlin's 
Building, on Canal Street, where it was quartered during 
its stay in the city. 

On the 'Jl>t the regiment was provided with knapsacks, 
canteens, haversacks, and camp-equipage, and on the after- 

i ,, of the 22d embarked on the Btcamcr ".lames Adger," 

which immediately left the dock and anchored off the Bat- 

\i about one o'clock the nexl morning th< Bteamer 
1. ;,i,,i at four ..'dock on the morning of the 24th ar- 
rived at Fortress Monroe. During the forenoon the regi- 
ment disembarked, ond at about noon marched across the 
l, r |,; |] ( . to the mainland, where pickets 

were thrown OUl and tent- pitched. This was the first 


encampment in Virginia, outside of Portress Monroe, of 
volunteer troops in United States Bervice after the com- 
mencement of the Rebellion. During this day the pickets 
captured Col. Sewell, Maj. Cary, and another officer of the 
rebel army, all of whom were taken to Fortress Monroe and 
delivered to Gen. Butler, who was then commanding the 

Tn honor of the home of the regiment, the camp was 
christened by Col. Can- as "Camp Troy," but the name 

was afterwards changed by order of Gen. Peirce to " Camp 

The theoretic instruction of officers and non-commis- 
sioned officers and company drills were at once resumed, 
and drills in the manual of arms and by regiment com- 

On the 27th two bronze six-pounder field-pieces were re- 
ceived from the fortress by Col. Carr, who at once placed 
them in charge of Company F, Capt. Park. 

The following-named regiments arrived, and encamped 
near the 2d New York, as follows, viz. : the 1st Vermont 
Volunteers and the 5th New York Volunteers (" Duryea's 
Zouaves"), May 25th ; the 1st New York, the 20th; the 
3d, June 6th; and the 10th on the 8th. The Vermont 
regiment remained but one day, then moved to Newport 

The troops encamped here were occasionally drilled as a 
brigade, the first drill of this kind being on June 1st, with 
Col. Duryea in command, the brigade consisting of the 1st, 
2d, and 5th Regiments, New York Volunteers. The camp 
at about this time was under command of Brig. -Gen. 
Ebenezer W. Peirce, Massachusetts Volunteers, although 
he was never in command of the troops at any of the 
brigade drills. 

During the earlier period of encampment here alarms were 
of almost nightly occurrence, at all of which the regiment 
turned out and formed line. R°connoitering parties were 
frequently sent out, generally in the direction of Buck 

On the 7th of June, Maj. Bloss and Companies E and 
G were detailed to " proceed to Hampton by land on a re- 
connoitering expedition." In the execution of this order 
they, together with several volunteers from other compa- 
nies, left camp, and, after scouting beyond Hampton, 
returned to that place and remained overnight. 

On the next day, with Capt. Wilson in command (Maj. 
Bloss having injured his ankle), they scouted towards Big 
Bethel. When near New Market Bridge, a small force of 
the enemy was met, but as they were uniformed nearly the 
same as our men, doubt was entertained as to whether they 
were the enemy or Union scouts from Newport News; one 
of our men advancing to ascertain, was made a prisoner, 
when skirmishing at once commenced, and our companies 
fell back, sustaining no further loss. 

An alarm in camp was caused by this skirmish, and the 
remaining companies of the regiment formed line and 
inarched out beyond Hampton, Company F " hauling" the 
two field-pieces. The artillery was left at Hampton Bridge 
m charge of a squad of Company F, and the remainder of 
the regiment soon returned to camp. 

In accordance with orders Lieut. Cross, in command of 

Company !■', with the two field-pieces, hit camp at nine 

o'clock P.M., June 0, L861, and proceeded to Hampton. 

where he left Ins two sis-pounders and a portion of his 
men, and at one o'clock tie- next morning, with the re- 
mainder, twenty -even men. ,,[ hi- company ami two light, 

twelve-pounder howitzers, left Hampton, and. accompany 
ing the 3d New York Volunteers, moved toward- Big 
Bethel. At about half-past three o'clock, when n n I. 

Bethel, the) were met ami. being taken for tl smy, fin I 

on by the 7th New York Volunteers, Col. Bendix, which, 
with other forces and two six-pounder field pieces, had left 
Newport News to unite in the advance with the regiments 
from Camp Hamilton. The lire was returned, but soon 
recognizing each Other the forces united, and, with Brig.- 

Gen. E. W. Peirce in command, proceeded toward- Big 

Bethel. Arriving near this place, they were find on by 
the enemy from artillery placed behind earthwoi ks and par- 
tially masked by trees. Our artillery, all under direction of 
Lieut. Greble, United States Army, at once took position 
in dchelon, in a road running to the left of the enemy s 
position, and returned the fire. Lieuts. Cross and Harrison, 
of Company F, had each the immediate charge of one how- 
itzer; regulars from the fort pointed them and prepared 
ammunition, while the remaining duties were performed by 
the men of Company F. The engagement commenced at. 
about nine o'clock a.m., and continued, with more or less 
severity, until near two o'clock p.m. 

The remaining companies of the 2d Regiment left camp 
at about nine o'clock a.m., June 10th, and, with the 1st 
New York Volunteers, moved towards the front. At Hamp- 
ton they were joined by Sergt. Dodge and eight men, all of 
Company F, with one six-pounder field-piece, which was 
hauled by them most of the way to the scene of engage- 
ment, where they arrived at about one o'clock P.M. The 
regiment at once formed line near the position of the artil- 
lery, where they remained until the retreat of our forces, 
awaiting orders from General Peirce. The six-pounder 
brought up with the regiment was at once placed in posi- 
tion by Lieut. Greble, and three shots fired from it, when 
he gave orders to cease firing and moved a short distance 
from the piece to take observations, where he was struck by 
a solid shot and instantly killed. Sergt. Dodge soon re- 
sumed firing, which was continued until the attack was or- 
dered discontinued and the order to retreat had been given 
and repeated, when the gun squads fell back, the regiment 
with all our forces moving at about the same time. The 
retreat was conducted in an orderly manner, though much 
indignation was felt and expressed at the mismanagement 
of our forces and the consequent result of the engagement. 
The regiment reached camp at about six o'clock p.m., the 
casualties therein being one man slightly wounded. 

On the 15th of June the regiment received its first pay, 
it being from the State, for services commencing with the 
organization of the several companies and the regiment 
respectively, and ending with the muster into United 
States service. By order of Brig.-Gen. Peirce. the two 
six-pounder field pieces in charge of Company F, with 
the squads detailed " to manage" them, served under the 
direction of Col. Max Webber, 20th New York Volunteers, 
from June 15th to July 1st, when the guns were delivered 



over to Maj. II. D. Whittemore and Ihe men of Company V 
were returned to their company. 

The fact thai no medical examination of the regiment 
had ever been made having been brought t" the knowledge 
of Gen. Butler, by his order ;i board consisting of Surg. 
i: ,- II Gilbert, 5th Now York Volunteers; Surg. Fax- 
ton, of the Massachusetts Volunteers; and the regimental 
■ i; l B Bonticon, convened at the regimental hos 
pilal on the 1 8th of June, and at times thereafter, and made 
;i medical examination of the enlisted men therein. The 
business of said board seems t" have boon loosely and im- 
properly performed, a< some men were given the choice to 
or stay," :ni'l a~ the wishes of company officers about 
retaining or rejecting nun were taken into consideration. 
Memorandum lists of the "rejected" were handed to ilirir 
mpany commanders, with verbal orders from 
Co). Carr (which were n ml.-r^t r .< .• 1 in come through him 
from Gen Butler) for their discharge. On such orders 
om hundred and eighteen men were reported on the 6th of 
July as discharged, and were soon after scut home. Must 
nf the men thus discharged re-enlisted. Those who re- 
enlisted in the 2d Regiment proved physically fully equal 
to the ordinary recruits. Brig.-Gen. Peirce having 

left lor home with the Massachusott-. Volunteers, about the 
middle of July Col. Duryea, 5th New York Volunteers, 
being senior officer, assumed c immand of the camp. 

At t'ti o'clock a.m., July 25th, the regiment in obe- 

dience to orders struck tents and fell into line with one 

day's rations, prepared to move, but awaiting further orders. 

next morning line was again formed, and an order read 

for the 2d, 3d, and 5th Regiments New York Volunt 

I ready :u once t ve to Washington. The camp- 
equipage was then taken to the wharf at Fortress Monro 
• need on transports, but it was soon ordered back, and 

the order lor the 2d Regimen) t .ve was intermanded, 

the " California Regiment," Col. Baker commanding, being 
stituted in The next day the 2d Regiment 

mpi d "ii it- "Id grounds. 
Col. Duryea having left with the 5th New York Volun- 
Col. Max Webber, 20th New York Volunteers, being 
the senior colonel, assumed command i f Camp Hamilton. 

tin ihe 5th da) of August the regiment broke camp, 
went "'i board two Btcomboats, and, with its camp-equipage, 

taken to Camp Butler, Newport News, whei 
arrived at eigbi o'clock r.>i.. went on Bhore and bivouacked 
|. -r the night. The next day the camp-equipage, etc., was 
removed from the boats, and the regimen) encamped out- 
of and adjoining the earthworks, on their southeast 

1 uler at this time was under command of J. 

W Phelps, then colonel of the 1st Vermont Volunti 

subsequently brigadier-general United States Volunteers. 

1 Keoyon and Maj Bloat having resigned 

r tho battle ol Big Bethel Capt. William L Olmstead, 

mi. d lieutenant colonel, and Capt 

i.i-T. tie ir appointments 

in. hi Angus) 7th. A- the 

term of three months the muster of the regiment 

into the Unit - xpiration, the 

men seemed i" Income pnwos-ed with the idea thai as 

other regiments had lel'i lor home at the expiration of that 
term, they were to do the same; and the fact of their 
bavin- received no pay from the United States up to this 
time >o added to the discontent that, notwithstanding the 
explanations and earnest advice of some of the officers, the 
morning of August 15th found the arms of the regiment 
Stacked in the company streets, and the men refusing to do 
duty. About twenty men, who had or were supposed to 
have acted as leaders in this refusal, were at once arrested 
and sent bv boat to the •• Rip-Raps" as prisoners, and of 
the men detailed for guard duty that morning, eighty-live 
who utterly refused to do duty followed them in the after- 
noon. At the brigade drill the same afternoon about sixty 
men of the regiment performed duty. After the close of 
the drill Gen. Phelps addressed the men. explained to them 
their duty and the rights of the government, and allowed 
them until the next morning to make up their minds what 
they would do. At the morning drill on the Kith about 
one hundred and twenty-five men were on duty, including 
all of Company F, Capt, Park, but in the afternoon two 
hundred and ten, who still refused to do duty, were sent as 
prisoners to the " Rip-Raps." After having time to fully 
consider their situation, most of the*.' men signed a request 
to be allowed to return to their regiment and do duty, and 
Gen. John E. Wool, then commanding at Fortress Monroe, 
generously granted their request, and on the 23d all but 
some ten or fifteen of the party, who were retained for 
trial, again joined the regiment. 

On the 28th of August Lieut. -Col. Olmstead. with one 
non-commissioned officer, left camp for Troy. N. Y., having 
been detailed on the recruiting service, with orders to pro- 
ceed immediately to that place and recruit the regiment 
to the maximum one thousand and forty-six. On the 22d 
of September Capt. Arts and one enlisted man were sent 
on io Troy to assist Lieut. -Col. Olmstead in his recruiting 
duties. They rejoined the regiment November 21st, having 
been on duty n.ost of the time in Albany. Lieut. -Col. 
Olmstead and the rest of the recruiting-party rejoined it 
December 13th, Luring its tour of duty this recruiting- 
party enlisted and forwarded to the regiment at different 
times one hundred and eighty-one men, in addition to 
"Doring's Land'' of Troy, consisting of sixteen musicians. 
This band, one of the very best in service, joined the 
regimen) < Ictober 20th. 

'flio ranks of the regiment werestill further increased by 

the transfer thereto of one hundred and t bin \ men, who had 

originally enlisted in volunteer regiments as follows, viz. : 
in the 2d Maine, sixty-six; 13th New York, one; 19th 
\ i York, twenty-three ; and 2 Is) New York, forty. 

At the expiration of three months from their res| live 

musters into United States service these men bad refused 

to do duly, and bad been ordered, without trial, to be sent 

to the Dry Tortugas " for mutiny ;" but while temporarily 
stopping at the "Rip Haps' they were induced by Gen. 
Wool to -i-'n an agreement to return (o duty and serve out 
the balance of their time, and they were then by his orders 
transferred to the 2d New York Volunteers, Those from the 
2d Maine and 13th and 21st New York were transferred 
ber 3d, and those from tho L9th New Y..ik. November 


(in the 11 ill <>f November die cutting of timber for bar- 
racks :■ ml officers' quarters commenced. The barracks- one 
for each company — were completed and occupied in Decem- 
ber, 1861, and the officers' quarters in the hitter part of Jan- 
uary, 1862. 

Gen. Phelps having been assigned to duty with the 

■• Butler Expedition," Gen. J. K. F. Mansfield was assig I 

to and resumed command of the forces at Camp Butler, 
Nov. -I, 1861. 

On the 1st of January, 1SH2 (the regiment at this time 
numbering nine hundred and eighteen enlisted men), Capt. 
Win. McConihe, Lieut. .James A. Cross, and four enlisted 
men were detailed on recruiting service and ordered to report 
to Maj. J. T. Sprague, Superintendent of Volunteer Recruit- 
ing, at Albany, N. Y., for orders. Of tliis party Lieut. Cross 
rejoined the regiment April 14th, and the remainder May 
23d, having enlisted and forwarded l hereto during its tour 
of service only seventeen men. 

On the 17th of January, 18G2, Col. Carr, in command 
of seven companies — about five hundred men — of the reg- 
iment, made a roconnoissance about six miles up the James 
River, on the northeast bank, arrested and brought into camp 
one man wealing the uniform of the enemy, drove in his 
pickets, and gained much valuable information relative to 
the topography of the country. 

During this reconnoissance two of the men who were 
deployed on the flank, coming to a swamp, took the outside, 
which led to the lines of the enemy, by whom they were 
taken prisoners. 

The arms in use by the regiment not being deemed ser- 
viceable for sharpshooting, those in possession of the flank 
companies, A and F, were, during the winter, exchanged for 
Remington rifles as they could be obtained. 

The troops at Camp Butler being brigaded together, 
were on the 7th of 31 arch designated by the general com- 
manding as the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Department of 

At about ten o'clock p.m., March 8th, the rebel iron- 
clad steamer " Merrimac," followed by two small vessels, 
rounded Craney Island on her first appearance from Nor- 
folk, and moved direct for Newport News. Passing the 
frigate '' Congress," she attacked the " Cumberland," which 
lay about one-eighth of a mile off shore at the mouth of 
the James River. After ramming into the " Cumberland" 
and firing shot and shell through her hull, she backed off', 
smashed into her again, continued her firing, aftd then, 
leaving her in a sinking condition, moved slowly about a 
mile up the James River. The " Congress" had fired on 
the " Merrimac" as she passed, the " Cumberland" had 
nobly fought her, and the water battery on shore had 
poured a continuous plunging fire of eight-inch shot and 
shell into her, but all had not made the slightest perceptible 
impression. The " Merrimac," accompanied by the " James- 
town" and " Patrick Henry," from Richmond, soon re- 
turned and attacked the " Congress," which had slipped 
her cables and started towards Fort Monroe. After a 
short encounter the " Congress" surrendered. 

A small steamboat was soon sent alongside the " Con- 
gress" (which had now run aground), by the enemy, to 
remove the officers and crew, but the sharpshooters who 

lined the shore, acting under Gen Mansfield's orders, 

opened upon it with SUCH a severe lire that il was BOOH 

driven away. Then the " Merrimac" again opened on the 
"Congress," with shell, setting her on fire, after which she 

moved slowly away. .Most of tin- officers and eiv\v of the 

"Congress," including the wounded, were brought on 

shore BOOn after, but about fifty having been taken off' as 

prisoners. She continued burning until eleven o'clock p.m., 
when her magazine exploded. The "Cumberland had 
been gallantly fought to the last, refusing to surrender, but 
going down with all her killed and wounded, and with her 

colors flying at her mast-head. About one-half of her 
officers and crew escaped by swimming to the shore. 

At about hall-past one o'clock P.M. of this day, as the 
"Merrimac" arrived off Newport News, the long roll was 
beaten, and the regiment formed line on its parade-ground, 
where it remained until evening, no one being injured, 
though many shot and shell from the enemy's guns passed 
through and over the camp. Acting under standing orders, 
Lieut. George Gould, of Company 15, and a detachment of 
about twenty-five men of the regiment, who were detailed 
and had served as artillerists, wen' engaged during this 
action in serving a light field-piece and the larger guns at 
the " water battery." 

The " Merrimac" and other vessels of the enemy lay off 
Sewall's Point the next morning, and at nine o'clock the 
engagement with the " Ericsson" monitor, which had arrived 
the night before, commenced, and continued until about 
noon, when the " Merrimac" and her consorts returned 
towards Norfolk. A land force of the enemy advanced to 
and remained this day within about one and one-half miles 
of our picket-lines, but made no attack. 

Owing to the strong probability of active service at this 
post, on the 12th of March Gen. Mansfield ordered all 
officers whose wives were with them to " send them off to 
their homes or a place of safety," and on the 18th, by 
direction of the War Department, all persons not necessary 
to the command were ordered to leave without delay, and 
all officers and soldiers having valuable baggage or other 
articles with them were ordered to send it out of the way, 
or to a place of safety. 

During the latter part of March the muskets and Rem- 
ington rifles in possession of the several companies were 
all turned in, and " rifled muskets, model 1S22, brown 
bands," issued to all the companies of the regiment. These 
arms, the homeliest in the service, were retained during 
the balance of the term of service of the regiment. 

On the afternoon of the Oth of April nine companies 
of the regiment (Company F being left behind as camp- 
guard) started for " Young's Mills." After proceeding 
about eight miles they bivouacked for the night, and the 
next morning moved on to the Mills, which were found to 
be about thirteen miles above Newport News, and near 
Warwick Court-House; at this place was found an evacu- 
ated secesh camp, which, by order of Col. Carr, was desig- 
nated as " Camp Mansfield." Here the regiment was 
posted to prevent the enemy, who occupied Mulberry 
Island, from lauding to attack Gen. McClellan's forces in 
the rear, they at this time occupying the lower portion of 
the Peninsula, the works at Yorktown not having been 


history of rknsski.akk county, new york. 

take « of. 'I'll-- r. gimi "t remained at this post 

doing picket duty until the 17th, when, being relieved by a 

regiment from Casey's division, it retur 1 to Camp Butler. 

The -lil. of April, the anniversary of the organization 
of the regiment, was celebrated by n full-dress parade and 
review by Gen. Mansfield, an address by Quartermaster 
M Vrtlnir. and speeches by Gen. Mansfield, Col. Cur. and 

Prom the time the regiment arrived at Newport News, 
the officers and men therein were drilled there being usu- 
ally two drills each daj at the baj t exercise, as skirm- 
ishers, and at company, regimental, and brigade drills. 
D tails from the regiment were also drilled in both light 
and heavy artillery. 

[mmediately after th icupation of Forktown by the 

forces under Gen. McClellan, In accordance with orders 

red, preparations to move were made by the forces at 

\ re, and on the LOth of May, by order of Gen. 

\\ ; -i »d N ■■• fork and 29th Massachusetts Volun- 

brokc camp, and marched to Camp Hamilton. 

II the 2d New Fork was quartered in the bay-lofts 

over the stalls of the llili Pennsylvania Cavalry. The 

29th Massachusetts, with other forces, all under command 

.n. Wool, moved on towards Norfolk, which was taken 

n of by them the same afternoon. 

At about five o'clock the next i uing, May 11th, the 

notoi as Merrimac," which bad often made her ap- 

rince her engagement in March, and had created 

istcrnation at times, was abandoned and 

blown up by the enemy while "lying to" near the Craney 

[sland batteries. 

On the 13th this regiment went into camp, occupying 
the quarters but recently vacated by the lu'th Massachu- 
in. -lit of gains and losses in the 2d Infantry Regi- 
ment, New Y.irk Volunteers, during its first year- - 
in the United States Army : 

on ii 

• wiili the 


! in. n ■■!" Ibi 












..ill I lie 

1. I'll 




1 152 


1 1 9 


mftrtiAl 1 

Died, Accidentally killed 1 

" ..I disease 7 

l bolbro leaving New York State 39 

altor leaving Virginia 13 

Bolonging to regiment, Mi; i i. 1862 



11. 52 

During the stay of the regiment at Camp Hamilton 
but few drills were had. large numbers of the men being 
detailed as nurses at the " Mill Creek. Hospital." which was 
the icupied by the wounded from the battle of Williams- 

On the 18th (just one year after its departure from 
Troy, N. Y. the regiment again broke camp, marched to 
Portress Monroe, embarked on steamboats, and was taken to 
Portsmouth, where it landed and marched to the intrench- 
ments about one and one-half miles back, on the Suffolk 
road. It then bivouacked for the night, and the next day 
went into camp. The 10th New York Volunteers arrived 
a few days later, and encamped near the 2d. This camp 
was designated and known as " Camp Viele," and the two 
regiments were attached to the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 
Department of Virginia, and were under the command of 
Col. Carr. 

During the stay of the regiment at this place there wore 
no drills, large details being required for guard duty. 

At five o'clock on the afternoon of June ild. in obedience 
to orders received the day previous, the 2d and lllth Regi- 
ments broke camp, marched to the dock at Portsmouth, 
and i mbarked, the 2d Regiment on board the United States 
Bteamship " Fulton." As clothing bad been up to this lime 
issued by the quartermaster of the regiment largely in ex- 
cess of that required for immediate use, largo quantities re- 
mained in possessi f company officers, a part of which 

was stored at Portsmouth, while more was placed on the 
steamship, together with company desks, officers baggage, 
tents, etc. The labor of getting these articles on board oc- 
cupied until midnight, soon after which the" Fulton" swung 
out into the stream, and at six o'clock the next morning, 
June I th. sailed. Passing down the Elizabeth River and up 
Chesapeake Bay and the York River to mar West Point, 

whore she arrived at half-past live o'clock P.M., she cast 

anchor and remai 1 until the m-xt morning, dune 5th, when 

the regiment, with its officers' baggage, was transferred to 
the steamboat 'South America," which sailed at half-past ten 
ick up the Pamunky River to White House Landing, 
where ii arrived at t\y o'clock . where the regimenc 
disembarked, leaving camp-equipage and baggage, except 

such as could be carried by tl Biccrs themselves, on board 

the b 

Orders were now received assigning the regiment to 
Patterson's 3d Brigade, Hooker's 2d) Division, and 
Heintxelman's 3d) Corps. (Patterson's Brigade, up to 
this time, comprising only four regiments.— (be 5th, Gth, 
7th, and 8th New Jersey Voluntei i 11 itions were soon 

issued and ked, and shelter tents distributed to both 

officers and men, and about eight o'clock the - in vening 

the regiment marched up the railroad towards Richmond. 
i marching about ten miles it halted and bivouacked 

for the night, dun.' Gth, regi nt started again soon after 

ighl and marched to mar Savage's I se, about a mile 



in rear of the battle-field of May 31s) and June 1st, where 
shelter-tents were pitched, the ground being very wel from 
rain, which had fallen the two previous days and still con- 
tinued falling. At five o'clock p.m. the bugle-call Bounded 
to fall in (this being the last music heard for three weeks 
except that made by shut and shell . when the regimeut 
formed line, marched to the front, and occupied the rifle 
pits on the battle-field of Fair Oaks, near the twin cotta] 
and on the left of the Williamsburg road. Here the 
stench arising from the decaying corpses of half-buried 
men and half- buried horses was nauseating and sickening 
in the extreme. The regiment at this, its first night in 
the rifle-pits, numbered over seven hundred enlisted nun. 
Being relieved the next morning, it marched bark to its 
camp, which, the next day, the 8th, was moved farther to 
the front, and located about half-way between the Williams- 
burg road and the railroad, and the twin cottages and 
Fair Oaks railroad station. This camping-ground in the 
midst of the battle-field was occupied by the regiment up 
to the "change of \>.t*ii" of the Army of the Potomac. 
It was within easy range of the enemy's light guns, shot 
and shell from which passed through and over it almost 
daily, fortunately without any casualties to the 2d Regiment 
occurring therefrom. 

On the 12th of June, Brig.-Gen. Patterson being absi nt, 
sick, Col. Carr assumed command of the brigade, and Lieut. - 
Col. Olmstead of the regiment. On the 13th Sibley 
tents were issued to and occupied by the officers of the 
regiment. The enemy having attacked our picket-lino, 
occupied at the time by another regiment of the brigade, on 
the morning of June lGth, Companies D and E of the 2d 
Regiment were sent out as reinforcements. After a brisk 
skirmish, our forces succeeded in driving the enemy back, 
without loss to the 2d Regiment. At about six o'clock in 
the afternoon of June 21st the 2d Regiment, occupying 
the picket-line, and a new redoubt near said line and to the 
right of the Williamsburg road, was attacked by the enemy, 
a diversion being made on the left while an assault was 
made on the redoubt, which was handsomely repulsed by 
the pickets, aided by a few rounds of grape and canister 
from the guns in the redoubt, the loss to the regiment 
being one man killed and six wounded. These were the 
only casualties sustained by the 2d Regiment while on 
picket duty at Fair Oaks. 

At about eight o'clock a.m., June 25th, the 1st and 2d 
Brigades of Hooker's division advanced on and to the left 
of the Williamsburg road, beyond the picket-line and 
into the woods immediately beyond it, meeting with a sharp 
resistance from the enemy, who, after about two hours' 
fighting, were driven therefrom. The 2d Regiment occu- 
pied the rifle-pits at ibis time, but at half-past one o'clock 
p.m., with Lieut.-Col. Olmstead in command, it left its po- 
sition, with orders to advance through the woods on the 
right of the Williamsburg road, from the line on the 
right of the 2d Brigade, and throw out skirmishers to the 
edge of the woods next the enemy. The regiment at once 
advanced in line of battle into the woods, which were al- 
most impassable in places, owing to the swampy nature of 
the soil, ponds of water, and the dense undergrowth. 
During the advance several volleys of musketry from the 

enemy, who could nof bo Been from the regiment m< >■ ri 
ceived, which were impulsively replied to by some of the 
men, while most of them did nol fire until orders to do so 
were given by some excitable office] if own skirmishers 
and a pari of the 2d Brigade being in front of the regi- 
ineiit at the time , while other offii 1 the firing to 


The i ICtion with the 2d Brigade, alter :-< 

changes of position, being finally made, the line of skir- 
mishers or pickets was established, under the personal 
supervision of Lieut. Joseph Egolf, of Company l». near 

the outer edge of the w Is, connecting on the left with 

those of the 2d Brigade, and oq the right with those from 
Sumner's corps. At about six o'clock p.m. the regiment 
was relieved and returned to camp, the Casualties being 
one officer, (.'apt. Arts, severely wounded, two men slightly 
wounded, and two men prisoners. 

From June 6th to 27th. the regiment bad, with its 
brigade, served either on picket uuatd or in the rifle-pits 
every third day, with occasionally extra tours of the same 
duty. This, taken in connection with camp-guard and 
police duties, labor on redoubts and rifle-pits, want of Bleep 
occasioned by falling in line at all alarms, both day and 
night, and at three o'clock each morning to remain until 
daylight, often getting but two or three hours' sleep in a 
night when off guard, bad air and water, etc., reduced the 
effective strength of the regiment about two hundred and 
fifty men, which reductions, with eleven casualties in action 
and ten desertions, left but about four hundred men who 
could, on the 27th, be counted on for service. 

At about half-past three o'clock in the afternoon of the 
27th the 3d Brigade broke camp, moved to the rear, and 
commenced pitching tents near Gen. Hooker's headquarters, 
when orders were received, and it marched to the right and 
front to the support of Sumner's corps, two brigades from 
which bad moved to its right to the support of Porter's corps, 
which had been engaged with the enemy since about noon. 
Having moved by a very circuitous route, the 3d Brigade 
did not arrive in position until nine o'clock ; here it 
bivouacked for the night, and the next morning, soon after 
daylight and before breakfast, marched to the rear, passed 
Gen. Hooker's headquarters, and then moved to the front 
and again encamped on its old ground. Thus the brigade 
was inarched about four miles in the hot sun. though its 
camp was but filteen minutes' walk from the bivouac of 
the previous night, with woods intervening and hiding all 
movements from the enemy. Such strategy, tending to 
enfeeble and disgust both officers and men, was at this time 
occasionally exhibited, even in the Army vl' the Potomac. 

At four o'clock p.m. of the 28th the brigade marched to 
the rifle-pits and picket-line, one company of the 2d Regi- 
ment being placed on picket, and the remaining companies 
in the rifle-pits on the left of the Williamsburg road. 
During the night the sick who could walk were started from 
camp to the rear, and the several companies were success- 
ively ordered to their camp, where they packed their knap- 
sacks, placed three days' rations in their haversacks, slung 
their shelter-tents, and in obedience to orders cut and 
burned up their Sibley tents, extra baggage, and quarter- 
master's stores, and broke and destroyed all extra arms and 



equipments, and then resumed their positions ;ii the front. 
At about half-past four o'clock the next morning — the 29th 
— the regiment was relieved, and at once marched down 
the Williamsburg road to the rear and formed line with 
its brigade in a Geld opposite t" Gen, Booker's bead- 
quarters. The brigade soon after moved Mill Farther to 
the rear and on the ridit of the road, behind earthworks. 

During the after i :i Bharp engagement took place to 1 1 1 » ■ 

right and front of this position, which the ■"»! Brigade lefl 
:ii four p.m., the 2d Regiment in rear, followed by Kearney's 
division, which covered the retreat and marched i" White- 
Oak Swamp, which it succeeded in crossing at twilight, 
and then on towards the Quaker church until nine o'clock, 
when it halted and bivouacked in an open field. During 
this march the heat was oppressive, ond many of the mi n 
n< 'ily exhausted and discouraged . thousands on thousands 
straggle I from t li<-ir commands, and the road was Btrewn 
with knapsacks, blankets, and every conceivable article of 
clothing; parts of several regiments would occupy the mad 
at the same t i tn •. an 1 occ isioually ii would !"■ 10m i entirely 

blocked, yet there was tlarm, no stampede. 

At two o'clock the next afternoon, the 30th, thi 
mcnl was moved i" the woods near by for shelter from the 
Mm. but Bharp cannonading commencing soon after, it was 

moved towards the Charles < !ity road, in obedii nee t - ders 

1 1 Qcn. Sickles and was by him assigned to a posi- 
tion "ii the left of his brigade and left of line of res rves, 
and behind ;i fence at the edge of the woods near the 
Quaker church. 

Company V was del iched soon after and thrown to the 

left of the regiment as pickets or skirmishers, when, bc- 

ing partially engaged with the enemy, it succeeded, 

without loss, in capturing Licut.-Col Marge, four line-offi- 

and about forty men, with their arms and equipments, 

als battle-flag, all belonging to the 17th Regi nt Vir- 

ginia Vol i [.Con pany !•'. having 

bj a regiment from the 1-t Brigade, re- 
joined the regiment, and Company (' was thrown to the left 
and front a- skirmishers. During the nijii they succeeded 

ipturing several of tl nemy, meeting with a I"-- of 

one man killed, and ot fficer and two men taken prison- 

- .in I equipments taken were destroyed, in 

rderg, the prisoner) were escorted to division 
I impany E, and the battle Bug and line- 
officera' sword i. forwarded to Tmv. N I 

ami presented to the Common Council thereof, in whose 

maincd until the fall of 1865, when, by their 
unanimous vote, they were transmitted to Albany and de- 
Military Record, where they 
iinvr remain. The remainder of the regiment remained in 
ii during the "iitiri- battle of Qlendale, or Charli - 
' I l: nd until half-past three o'clock thenext 

morning, Julj 1st, when it rejoined its brigade and marched 
ii Hill, which it reachi dal about five. At half past 
nine tillcry ti r i i > ■_: commenced,and lasted about 

an limir. Th ' this time moved towards the 

in a valley on Kemp's fat m, 
where it r> maim I during the 

in.- artil of which I in ii- front and 

position of tl. 

behind :i fence, and was so sheltered by the ground in front 
as i,i he entirely protected from the shot and shell from the 
enemy's guns, which passed ever ami around it. At three 
o'clock p.m. artillery firing again commenced, and continued 
niily a short time ; but at a quarter-past six o'clock a renewed 
assault was made by the enemy, and one of the severest 
battles of the campaign commenced, lasting until nine 
o'clock, and resulting in their complete defeat and rout. 
During this day a partial supply of its subsistence reached 
the army from its new " base" on the James River, hut 
none reached the 2d Regiment, which dined on fresh 
pork, the men having discovered, captured, confiscated, and 
slaughtered two hogs found at large. 

\i three o'clock the next morning. July 2d, the brigade 
left its position and hurriedly marched to Harrison's Hay. 
on the .lames River, where the 2d Regiment arrived at 
seven o'clock, hailing near the old Harrison mansion. This 
march, during the last half of which it rained, proved 
nearer a rout than any previous one. Different corps, 
marching some on the road and some across the fields, 
crossed each other's lines and separated brigades and regi- 
ments, so that but few retained their proper positions; in 
fact, the ■• Army of the Potomac" arrived at its new "base" 
in fragments, wet. weary, discouraged, and floundering in 
the mud. In the afternoon the brigade was gathered 
together and pitched its shelter-tents; hut the nest day 
moved camp about a mile to the left, and again moved on 
the 5th about a mile farther to the left and front, where it 
encamped in the woods, behind earthworks. On the Gth, 
Brig.-Gcn. Patterson having rejoined the brigade, Col. 
Carr was relieved from its command and resumed command 
of the regiment. 

On the 7th the regiment again moved camp a short dis- 
tance farther out. and commenced the erection of new 
earthwork- in it- front. The completion of these, in con- 
nection with guard duty, cutting down dead trees and re- 
moving them and all other refuse matter from camp, and 
digging well.-, without which water could not he procured, 
aud from which water of miserable quality was obtained, 
ipied the lull time of the men who Were not on the 
sick-list until th,' loth. 

On the Huh the 115th Regiment, Pennsylvania Voluilj 
-. Col. Robert E. Patterson commanding, was assigned 
to and joined the brigade. 

On the li'.th. company, regimental, and brigade drills 
were resumed, and were kept up with considerable regu- 
larity until the evacuation of Harrison.- Landing. 

tin the 19th Sibley tents were issued to the line-officers 
of tic regiment, who had. since leaving fair Oaks, occu- 
lt il sheltcr-ti uts in common with their men. 

(iii the 2d of Aug n -i ile n L nt formed at sundown, 

pn pared to move with its division on the enemy at Malvern 
Hill, and at half-past eight o'clock it left camp with its 
brigade ; but, owing to a lack of promptness and the advance 
taking the wrong way, the expedition was abandoned and 
the troops returned to camp, the 2d Regiment reaching 
ii at half-past one o'clock the next morning, having been 
hut about a mile th. rcfroin, though the advance had movi d 
out about live mile,-. 

On the Jth tin- regiment, with two days' cooked rations 



in haversack, left camp at six o'clock p.m., and with its 
brigade and division, together with Sedgwick's division and 
artillery and cavalry, again moved towards Malvern Hill. 
After marching aboul eight miles, our Forces halted and 
bivouacked until near daylight the next morning, and then 
moved on towards, and prepared to Burround, the hills , bul 
the enemy who occupied them being aroused by a bugle- 
pall which was unfortunately sounded by I5rig.-(ien. V. 10. 
Patterson, commanding 3d Brigade of Hooker's division, 
this design was frustrated. At about seven o'clock A u Col. 
Can- was placed in command of the brigade, Brig-Gen. 
Patterson having been relieved, and Capt. Wilson in com- 
mand of the 2d Regiment, which at this time was moving 
by the flank into position under lire of the guns of the 
enemy. Arriving at the designated position, it formed 
in line of battle, moved forward to the brow of the hill, 
and halted, when Companies 10 and F were thrown to the 
front as skirmishers. At six o'clock p.m. the skirmishers 
were railed in, and the regiment changed its position to 
the right of the brigade, and then threw out piekets. Here 
it remained until one o'clock a.m. of the 7th, when our 
forces evacuated the position and returned to camp, which 
the '_'d Regiment reached at reveille, having during the 
movement lost one man, a straggler, taken prisoner. The 
expedition had succeeded, with but small loss, in driving 
the enemy from Malvern Hill, and in capturing a few 

On the 7th, in accordance with orders received from 
Maj.-Gen. McClellan, fifty-two men, then remaining in the 
regiment, of the sixty-six who were transferred thereto 
from the 2d Maine Volunteers Oct. 3, 1861, were re- 
transferred to said regiment. Of the other fourteen, four 
had been discharged for disability, two died of disease, and 
eight deserted. 

On the 9th Company H was detailed and detached from 
the regiment as division provost guard, and Capt. Boutelle, 
Lieut. Harrison, and ten enlisted men as a recruiting party. 
The recruiting-party proceeded to Troy, N. Y., established 
an office, and entered upon their duties. On the 6th of 
October, Capt. Boutelle and Lieut. Harrison were relieved 
by Capt. Quackenbush and Lieut. Dickie, both of whom 
were convalescing from wounds received in action at Bris- 
toe Station August 27th, and soon after rejoined the regi- 
ment. Enlisted men of the party were occasionally sent 
in charge of recruits to the regiment, with which they 
remained. The officers and the last of the' enlisted men of 
this recruiting-party rejoined the regiment Jan. 12, 1863, 
having during its tour of service (about five months) 
enlisted eighty men, of whom but thirty-six ever joined the 
regiment; the other forty-four either deserting or proving 
to be deserters from other regiments. 

Ou the 10th orders were received to be ready to move 
at two o'clock the next afternoon. The next day tents 
were struck, and the knapsacks of the men packed with all 
clothing (of which a full supply had just been issued | not 
required for use within the next few days, when the order 
to move was countermanded, and an order received for the 
regiment to hold itself in readiness to move. Notwith- 
standing these orders the officers' baggage, company books 
and papers, and the packed knapsacks of the men of the 

regi tit, together with those ol the resl of the briga 

were, in obedience I lers, taken to the landing, and 

placed on board the barge " Mar) Ann foi ti in portation. 
As this barge had been lying al the landing for omi i 

siderable time withouf cargo the inti n e heal had pened 

her seams that she sink before the nexl morning. Pari of 
the baggage was afterwards transferred to another barge 
and taken to Alexandria, where, aboul a month later, it was 
regained 1>\ its owners, still wel and almost worthless. The 
knapsacks and their contents were completely destroyed. 
Thus, through this blunder of officers of the quarl 
master's department, the enlisted men of the 2d Regiment 
alone lost six hundred changes of under clothing, three 
hundred and fifty great-coats, two hundred and seventy-five 

pairs of trousers, and other articles of clothing in propor- 
tion, for which they have never been reimbursed one i 
either in money or in kind. 

On the 12th of August the promotion of Capt. George 
W. Wilson, of Company E, then commanding the regiment, 
to the position of major, vice George H.Otis, whose resigna- 
tion was accepted July 7th, was announced in orders. 

During the entire stay of the army at Harrison's Laud- 
ing the heat, which was oppressive; extra fatigue, which 
was never lessened by the full ration of double-quick step, 
which was invariably taken at each brigade drill ; exposure, 
bad water, lack of vegetable food, and the seeds of disease 
taken into the systems of the men at Fair Oaks, caused 
many eases of chronic disorder, fever, rheumatism, and 
scurvy, and reduced the effective strength of the regiment 
one hundred and eight men, who were sent from camp to 
the hospitals in Baltimore and Pennsylvania. But few of 
these men ever rejoined the regiment for service, most of 
them being either discharged for disability or retained as 
nurses in hospitals. 

On the 15th of August, 1862, the Army of the Potomac 
evacuated Harrison's Bar, or Landing. At four o'clock 
a.m. of that day orders were received by the regiment to 
break camp, and be in line ready to move at half-past six. 
These orders were complied with, but the regiment did not 
leave camp until about noon, when, with its brigade and divi- 
sion, it moved down the Peninsula, marched until seven 
o'clock P.M., when it arrived at the " Poor-House Farm." 
pitched shelter-tents, and remained until hall-past ten 
o'clock the next moruing, at which time the march was 
resumed, the regiment moving to within about a mile of 
" Jones' Bridge," where it encamped for the night. 

On the next day, the 17th, marched nineteen miles, 
moving at seven o'clock A.M., and encamped at half-past 
three o'clock p.m. On the 19th marched to Yorktown, 
and there encamped until the 21st, when the brigade em- 
barked on board the steamer " Baltic," and sailed for Alex- 
andria, where it arrived the night of the 23d. The 2d 
Regiment disembarked the next morning, and at three 
o'clock in the afternoon, with its brigade, moved about one 
and a half miles back of the city and encamped on low 
ground, near the railroad. Here it remained until noon of 
the 26th, when it took the cars on the Orange and Alex- 
andria Railroad, and at five o'clock p.m. arrived near War- 
recton Junction, where, without joining its brigade, which 
was about a mile farther up the railroad, it pitched tents. 



Early the next morning the regiment Pell in line and 
join its brigade, but was met bj orders to remain 
where it thru was and join the brigade as it passed, 
II ker's division being then on its way down the railroad, 
which road was in n of the enemy in our rear, 

near Manassas Junction, where, the night previous, it had 
destroyed the track and trains, burned bridges, etc. The 
records of the regiment during it> first year's service, and 

the entire regimental hospital n rds, together with extra 

arms and equipments, quartermaster's stores, etc., were now 
replaced on the cars to be taken back t'> Alexandria. Tl 
cars, with their contents, were burned near 1 lri.~t • •< ■ Station, 
on the 30th, by order of Gen. Banks, to prevent them fall- 
ing into the bands of the enemy. At hall-past seven o'clock 
the regiment, with three days' rations in haversacks, took 
its position on the right of the brigade, which this day led 
the division, and moved towards Manassas Junction, keeping 

near the railroad, and marching on th> mmon road and 

through the fields, as was deemed most expedient. The 
heat was intense, and many of the officers all of whom in 
the brigade were dismounted and men were overpowered 
thereby and obliged to fall out of line. In the afternoon, 
when near Kettle Run, Company F of the regiment was 
thrown in advance as skirmishers, and at about the" same 
time Maj. Wilson, who had been unwell for some time pre- 
vious, was go overcome by heat and the fatigueof the march 
that he turned his command over to ('apt. Park. 

At about three o'clock, when near Bristoe Station, the 
enemy was t • > 1 1 1 1 • 1 in strong force, both artillery and in- 
fantry, posted near the railroad. The regiment was thrown 
int.. line of battle on the left of said road, and advanced 
-- the fields, the other regiments of the brigade moving 
in concert until evening, when it was halted for orders. 
Col. Carr, commanding the brigade, soon ordered the regi- 
ment to advance in line and clear the enemy's skirmishers 

from the w Is. The scrubby tries were 80 thick, and 

their branches so low, that the men had almost to crawl 
on the ground at times, but by taking partial advantage of 

paths running through the w Is the regiment succeeded 

in passing through without the alignmt nl being materially 
interfered with. The enemy's skirmishers fell back with- 
tirin'.' before the advance of the regiment. A- il 
neared the edge of the woods next the enemy, another 
regiment of the brigade, which was near its left and a little 
in advance, moved into line in the open field, with a cheer 

which was at once taken up by the 2d. which formed line 

on its right, but on higher ground, and with no force con- 
ng with its right. Here it was at once met by an 

artillery and musketry fire from the enemy, who were 

1 in the me two or three hundred yards in 

front, which was briskly replied to. and soon after by a 

galling musketry lire from behind the railroad cuibank- 

itS right flank. Company E's -kii mi-h.r- having 

lined in tl. hind the regiment, tl,. regi ntal 

line when formed comprised but fifteen officers and about 

two hundred aid twenty-five enlisted men. Within a 

■■ time after the flmk fire opened on the regiment, 

M Quackenbush, and Perkins, and Licuts. 

I i Kirker were wound.d. ami 

f the cnlii ither killed or wounded; and 

BS there was no possibility of the regiment proving effect- 
ive in its position, it being fully exposed, while the enemy 
wire almost entirely protected from its fire by the woods 
and railroad embankment, and as other regiments of the 
brigade had failed to make their appearance on or near the 
right of the 2d, ('apt. Park ordered it to fall back to the 
edge of the woods for shelter. Up to this time not a man 
of the regiment, except those wounded, bad left the ranks, 
but n iw, some of the subordinate officers having given the 
order to retreat, a panic seemed to seize a portion of the 
officers and men. who made quick time through the woods 
to the rear, where they remained until the close of the 

Capts. Park, Tibbits, and llagen, and Lieuts. Savage 
and McNullyat once exerted themselves, and succeeded in 
rallying a portion of the men. who were moved out by 
('apt. Tibbits and temporarily commanded by him. while 
Capt. Park and others were still engaged in rallying the 
men in the woods, ami formed in a position parallel with 
the railroad, and partially protected from the enemy's fire 
by slight elevations of ground. 

('apt. Park, with more men, soon joined the men under 
Capt. Tibbits. all of whom remained in this position, keep- 
ing up a fire on the enemy behind the railroad embankment 
until a New Jersey regiment of the brigade, which had 
slowly passed through the woods on the line of the railroad, 
opened a flanking fire on the enemy, who then started to 
leave. At this time the 2d New Y'ork, with the 7th New 
.Jersey regiment, advanced at a run, crossed the railroad, 
and occupied the position just vacated, the enemy in the 
woods in front having at about the same time, firing but 
few shots alter our forces appeared through the woods on 
the railroad. Bere ('apt. l'ark. who had been sick during 
the entire Stay of the regiment at Harrison's Landing and 
had rejoined it at Alexandria, being worn out with fatigue, 
turned the command over to ('apt. Tibbits. 

The losses to the regiment during tltis short engagement 
were ten men killed and six officers and forty-nine men 
wounded. Of the officers, three were wounded in the head, 
one in the neck, one in the shoulder, and one in the hand, 
showing effective work on the part of the enemy's sharp- 
si ters, there being but lew of the enlisted men of the 

regiment Beverely wounded. The dead were the next, 
morning buried and their graves marked by a party sent 
back from the regiment for that purpose. Soon after t lie 
close of the engagement the regiment and brigade rcformi d, 
moved a short distance, and halted. Here Maj. Wilson, 
who had. in accordance with Gen. Hooker's orders, pro- 
cured a horse, rejoined the regiment and resumed command. 
After a halt of about an hour, lie- brigade moved on about 
two miles farther, halted in a position about half a mile 
north of the railroad, and bivouacked. 

On the afternoon of the next day. the 28th, at aboitl 

tWO o'clock, the brigade left this position, marched p.i-t 

Manassas Junction, and at seven o'clock halted in an old 
deserted camp near Blackburn's Ford, and bivouacked. 

At three o'clock the next morning, tin' 29th, the brigade 
Bgain on the match, moving towards Ccntrcville, near 
which it halted at sunrise. By this time st of the field- 
officers had supplied themselves with horses, some l>cing 


- ; 

tnki'ii from our artillery and cavalry '1 others from the 

farmers' fields and stables near the route. A.fter a hall of 
about an hour the brigade moved up the Gordonsville road, 
and at about eleven o'clock halted and formed line near the 
battle-field of the Second Bull Run, which battle was then 
in progress. At two o'clock p.m. the brigade was ordered 
to the front. After unslinging and piling knapsacks it 
moved forward, and halted at the edge ofw Is then occu- 
pied by the contending forces. Five regiments of the 
brigade were at once advanced into the woods, and engaged 
the enemy, while the 2d New York was held in reserve. 
In about half an hour it received orders, and at once ad- 
vanced tn the position held by our forces, which was in the 
woods, and along the line of a partially-constructed railroad. 
Here it relieved another regiment, and threw forward one 
company to relieve the skirmishers, who were said to be in 
front beyond the railroad, but could not be found. This 
company was soon driven back upon the regiment, with a 
loss of one man killed. (The other regiments of the brigade 
were relieved from the front line at about the same time 
that the 2d Regiment advanced to it.) In about half an 
hour after the regiment took its position the one next on 
its left was relieved by a newly-tunned regiment, which 
cheered as it took its place in line, and was answered by a 
volley from the muskets of the enemy. Soon after this a 
regiment marched up in line in rear of the 2d and halted 
a few minutes (it was afterwards ascertained to relieve it }, 
then advanced across the railroad, passing over the men of 
the 2d, who were lying down to avoid the bullets of the 
enemy, but soon returned, and formed line a few paces in 
its rear. The enemy's fire increasing, this regiment soon 
broke to the rear in confusion, and disappeared. At about 
this time our forces towards the left of the line commenced 
giving way, moving through the woods and up the railroad, 
seme by the flank but more in a mass, breaking through 
and over the lines of the regiments yet in position. Not- 
withstanding this, and the still increasing fire of the enemy, 
the 2d Regiment maintained its position until the regimen! 
next on its left gave way, and the enemy appeared both on 
its left and in its rear, when, being ordered to fall back, it 
moved by the right flank without panic, yet in no regular 
line, the men halting and firing, as occasion offered, until 
the open field was readied, where it formed line, marched 
back to rear, the position it first occupied on its arrival, 
and bivouacked. The loss to the regiment during the day 
was thirteen, viz. : one killed, three wounded, and nine — 
three of whom were also wounded — taken prisoners. 

All seemed quiet during the forenoon of the 30th. But 
few changes were made in the disposition of our forces, 
though the rising dust within the lines of the enemy indi- 
cated a movement on his part towards our left. 

At two o'clock P.M. the brigade formed in line, and at 
about half-past three, the action having commenced, moved 
towards the front to the support of a field-battery which 
was posted in an open field near the woods from which our 
forces were driven the previous day. The brigade took 
position facing southerly the edge of woods in rear of and 
on lower ground than that occupied by the battery. Here 
it remained something over an hour, when, a raking lire 
being opened upon it from the right, it moved by the 

left flank to a position farther to the rear. After remain- 
ing in this se id position a shorl time il ved bj the 

righl flank along the road in fronl of our artillery, which 
was then engaged, passed the stone house which was occu- 
pied as a hospital by our 1 in Juhj ! 1, a the first 

battle of Hull Run, and again formed line', lacing westerly, 
The regiment, though not subjected to a musketry Sre 
under a severe artillery tire while in iis first position and 
until ii passed the stone house, yel not a man therein was 
injured. Tlie brigade had occupied its (bird position but 
a silent time when Col. ('an- received orders to move his 
command " down the road to the rear in as good order as 
possible." At this time, seven o'clock, ii was twilight. 
The brigade was at once moved in retreat towards Centre- 
villi', marching by the flank in g 1 order, wit bout excite- 
ment or confusion. Though the night was dark, it moved 
through woods and open fields during a portion of the 
march, forded the Bull Bun Creek, which was aim 
thigh-deep, twice, and arrived at Centreville, tired, wet, and 
disheartened, scum after midnight. Here: it bivouacked 
during the night, and as rain commenced to fall about day- 
light, the shelter-tents were then pitched. On the after- 
noon of the 31st, the rain having ceased, the 2d Regiment 
moved to the Alexandria side of the village and encamped 
just outside the earthworks, expecting to remain there for 
a considerable time. Still later in the afternoon the regi- 
ment was mustered for pay (Maj. Wilson being temporarily 
absent) by Capt. Park, in accordance with orders received 
from Col. Carr. 

Brig.-Gen. Cuvier Grover this day assumed command of 
the 2d Division, vice Joseph Hooker, ordered to Washing- 
ton. Firing was heard this day on our right. 

At half-past two o'clock the next after n, September 

1st, the brigade was ordered to fall into line prepared to 
move, and at five o'clock (Capt. Park in command of the 
2d Regiment) it moved down the road towards Alexandria. 
In about an hour and a quarter thereafter, the firing be- 
tween Gen. Kearney's forces and the enemy, near Chantilly, 
was heard, and the brigade soon after halted, the rain pour- 
ing down in torrents at the time and thoroughly drenching 
the men, and formed in line of battle on the left or north- 
erly side of the road. Here it remained until half-past 
nine o'clock ( Maj. Wilson, in the mean time, having arrived 
and taken command of the regiment), when it moved 
about half a mile across the fields towards Chantilly. and 
halted. The night was terribly dark and unusually cold, 
and the men, being wet, suffered severely. 

At half-past two o'clock the next morning, the 2d. the 
brigade again moved; at daybreak it halted about half a 
mile from Fairfax Court-House ; and at sunrise moved 
close to the village. At half-past eleven it move! to the 
green near the court-house, where it was supplied witli 
fresh bread, which had been sent up from Washington. 

After marching past the wagons and receiving its supply 
the brigade presented rather a unique appearance, each 
man, from the commanding officer to the contraband ser- 
vant, firmly grasping his inestimable loaf, while jaws inured 
to toil on hard tack and salt junk Were tar from being idle. 
At noon the body of the brave and gallant Gen. Phil 
Kearney, who was killed the evening before at Chantilly, 



:it Fairfax Court-House, it having been sent within 
our linos l>v the enemy during the foreni 

At two o'clock P u. the brigade left Fairfax Court- 
II .- | to Fairfax Station, and halted, II 

M Wilson, being ill, took the cars for Alexandria, nfter 
turning the command of his regimen! over t<> Capt. Park. 
In n -li'Tt time the march was resumed, nnd after moving 
four miles the brigade halted and bivouacked 
for the night. 

\ lock "ii the morning of the 3d the brigade, 

pting the 2d New York, which was detailed as rear- 

cnard, resumed the march. The 2d started at seven o'clock. 

lock heavy firing was heard t" the left. At three 

u, the regiment joined it.- brigade near Fort Lyon, 

\ Kandrin, nnd bivouacked. The next afternoon, the Ith, 

the brigade moved about a mile to the south of Fort Lyon, 

and went into camp. On this day, by orders from 

War Department, Gen. McClcllan assumed "command of 

if Washington and of all troops for the. dc- 

Capitol;" but on the 7th. being called to the 

. he assigned the imi liate command of the defenses 

he Capitol to Maj.-Gen. N. IV Hanks. At this time 

of the troops belonging to the 3d Army Corps 

included in this command. On the loth Lieut-Col. 

Olmsl ■ had been absent, sick, from July 2lst) rc- 

joincd the regiment and assumed command. On the 11th 

and 12th the division moved camp ahum half a mile to 

the west, locating "n high ground. On the 13th Col. Carr, 

cm the recommendation of Maj.-Gen. Hooker, and much 

to the gratification of those who best knew his services 

and worth, received his appointment as brigadier-general 

I'll!- - Volunteers. On the 15th the brigade again 

nip, this lime encamping behind the line of rifle- 

nexl south of Fort Lyon. By order of Gen. Can- this 

impmenl was designated and known as " Camp Hooker." 

ived for and occupied by the 

enlisted men of the regiment. 

On the 24th, Brig.-Gen. Carr was relieved from the 

tnand of the 3d and assigned to thai of the 1st 

B 2d Dh n. On the 27th Brig.-Gen. Sickles 

.Hid of the 2d Division, via Grover. On 

the 30tl F. E, Patterson rejoined the bri 

i command thereof. 

I of Sickles' division was held 
in ih m, and the officers of the 3d Brigade were 

Sickles in tl vening, tho f the 1st 

and 2 B iving been previously received by him. 

the 4th, a raid n I, artillery moved to the front, 

all ready for a move. On the 5th of October the brigade 
moved camp to about a mile to the right and ft-onl of I 
i. This cam] ii it' d as < lamp Ki air 

•hat there was another one bearing 
-. on the 23d, 

le 15th, Gen. I fron ommand of 

old brigade . ' I 
tion .md drill, review by I 
lie 17th. t - W Park, of Coin] 

•nine ndalion of Bi ig, i '•■ n, i '.or. 
been < ived bis ■ 

mission as such and assumed command thereof; and the 

acceptant f the resignation of Maj. George W. Wilson 

was received. On October 2:2d. 2d Division was reviewed 

by Gens. Hanks and Hcintzelman and President Lincoln. 

During the month of September there were but tV<w 

drills, but in October regimental or brigade drills were 

held almost daily. October 30th, distant cannonading was 

heard soon alter dark. 

At fouro'clock A.M., November 1st, orders were received 
to be ready to move at a moment's notice, with two days' 
rations in haversacks, the regiment to have one wagon for 
the transportation of officers baggage and headquarters 
camp equipage, and one for the use of the medical depart 
meiit. the remaining regimental wagons to he used by the 

brigade commissary for the transportation of supplies. A 

lock P.M., ('amp Van Leer having been broken up, the 
nt. numbering three hundred and twenty-five officers 
and men, — two hundred and eighty-four rank and file, 
— joined its brigade and marched to near Fairfax Semi- 
nary, where it joined the rest of its division, and with it 
moved to about six miles hack of Alexandria, on the Fair- 
fax road, and at six o'clock halted in an open field and 

At half-past four o'clock tho next morning, the 2d, the 
brigade '• tinned out'' and had breakfast, and at halt-past 
six took up the line of march. At nine o'clock it passed 
Fairfax Court-House, then moved on to Centreville, whore 
it halted, heavy artillery tiring being beard at the time in 
the direction of Gainesville. In about two hours it moved 
again, taking the road towards .Manassas Junction and 
crossing Bull Run. At live o'clock it again halted in the 
old deserted camp near Blackburn's Ford, and bivouacked 
Burnside's troops were in the advance this day. The next 
morning, the .'Id. the 2d Regiment was detailed for guard 
duty along Bull Run Creek, as follows, viz.: two com 
panics at tho Manassas and Centreville turnpikc-bridgi 
at or near Blackburn's Ford, four at the crossing of the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and three at the fori 
when- the turnpike CTOSSCS, near Union Mills. After pos 
ing Companies II and I. under ('apt. Hagen, at the turn 
pike bridge, the remaining companies of the regiment, at 
seven o'clock, started for Union Mills. Crossing Bull Bun 

and then strikiiiL' tlCTOSS the fields to the road running from 
Centreville to the Mills and (hen moving down that road, 

they arrived there at ten o'clock, ami relieved a detach 

lliellt of the 58th New Yolk or I 'el Ills) 1 \ al I i.l A'olllll 

tecrs belonging to Sigel'a corps. Companies A, C, F 

and G, under ('apt. Boutellc, were at -e posted at the 

railroad-crossing, and E, 1*. and 1\. under ('apt. Maguird 
nion Mills and the ford. Soon after t he arrival ol 
these companies, one company of the 1-t Massachusevj 
Volunteers, from the 1st Brigade, al Fairfax Station, al 
arrived to relieve the detachment from Sigcl's corps. Im 
being too late, it rejoined it- brigade. The nexi morning, 

November Ith. the rcgimenl was relieved by (he L'lith 

Pennsylvania Volunteers, of the 1st Brigade. The seven 

i near Union Mills were relieved at elovo 
o'eloek. .and at noon started to rejoin their brigade 

Moving ii]' tin- railroad i M Junction, they we 

; by Companies I! and I. who had been tir-t relieved 



and won- there halted. After a shorl rest the regii I 

proceeded up tin- railroad to within about one and a half 
miles el' Bristoe Station, where, at four o'clock P m ., it re- 
joined its brigade and encamped with it in the woods north 

of the railroad. Sickles' entire division was at this time 

engaged in guarding the line of (he railroad from Burke's 

Station to above 1 S «■ i — Station. 

On the 6th the brigade was relieved by one regiment of 
the 2d Brigade, and at two o'clock p.m., having one day's 
rations in haversacks, accompanied by artillery and a de- 
tachment of one hundred cavalry, left camp, and marched 

along and near the railroad until near sunset, when, being 
within about three miles of Warrcnton Junction, our cav- 
alry met and drove in (he enemy's cavalry videttes. Here 
our forces halted, and, after placing the artillery in position 
and posting cavalry videttes and about three hundred in- 
fantry piekets, bivouacked. The night was bitter cold, and 
the bivouac being on high ground and in an open field the 
men suffered severely. During the evening the regimental 
and detachment commanders were called together by Gen. 
Patterson, who explained to them the supposed position and 
superior force of (he enemy, and the undesirable position 
occupied by the 3d Brigade. It was reported that the 
enemy, with a force of four thousand cavalry, were then at 
Warrenton Junction. At a quarter to three o'clock the 
next morning the brigade was ordered under arms, and at 
three o'clock orders were given to " move off down the road 
towards camp," the 2d Regiment leading. Receiving no 
further orders, and supposing the force to be following, the 
regiment continued its march, and arrived in camp at six 
o'clock. The balance of the force, having been halted near 
the place of bivouac, arrived in camp about an hour later, 
and just as the first snow-storm of the season commenced. 

At half-past seven o'clock P.M., the same day, the bri- 
gade started for Manassas Junction. Marching on and 
near the railroad, the 1st and 2d Brigades of the division 
were met en route, for Warrenton Junction. On arriving 
at Manassas Junction, the brigade, after posting pickets, 
bivouacked for the night near (he railroad station. 

The next day, the 8th, the brigade encamped, the 2d 
Regiment being located alongside and north of the railroad, 
below the station, and just inside the old line of earth- 

On the 9th, Lieut.-Col. Olmstead was relieved from duty 
with the 2d Regiment, and placed in command of the 1 15th 
Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, and Company E was 
detailed for permanent duty, to report with arms, etc., to 
the division quartermaster. On being relieved from these 
services they rejoined (heir regiment as follows, viz : Com- 
pany E, below Fredericksburg, Dec. 14th, and Lieut.-Col. 
Olmstead at " Camp near Falmouth," Jan. 26, 1863. 

('apt. William B. Tibbits, of Company G, having been, 
on the recommendation of Brig.-Gen. Carr and Col. Park, 
promoted to be major, vice Wilson, resigned, the announce- 
ment thereof was made in regimental orders on the 10th. 

On the 11th, the 3d Brigade, and other troops located 
in the vicinity of Manassas Junction, were formed in line 
above and near (he railroad station, to pay passing honor 
to Maj.-Gen. McClellan, who was on bis way to Washing- 
ton, he having been, by direction of (he President, relieved 

from the command of the Army of the Pol tc by Maj.- 
Gen. Burnside. 

On the 17th, in accordance with orders, most of the 

tents were struck, and, with (he baggage, sen I to the rail- 
road d< pol for transportation to Fairfax Station or be- 

On the 18th, at one o'clock p.m., orders were received 

to be ready to move at hour's notice. The remaining 

tents were at once struck and the Wagons loaded, but as no 

orders came to move, the tents were again pitched. 

During the l'.ith troops wen- being rapidly trans] 
down the railroad from the front, and the commissary stores 
at Manassas Junction were placed on the cars and taken to 
the rear. In accordance with orders received on the after- 
noon of the 19th tents were struck and wagons loaded at 
seven o'clock a M. of the •_'!tth, and the regiment formed 
line and moved to near the depot, where brigade line was 
formed. Rain soon commenced to fall, but at half-past nine- 
o'clock, the division being formed, it left Manassas Junc- 
tion and marched to Centrevillc, where it arrived at two 
o'clock P.M. After a halt of about an hour and a half the 
march was resumed, and the division moved on, through 
rain and mud, to within about a mile of Fairfax Court- 
House, where, at about six o'clock, it baited and bivouacked 
in the woods. 

At about eight o'clock the next morning, the 21st, the 
march was resumed. When within about a mile of Wolf 
Run Ford, the 3d Brigade baited and encamped. 

On the 23d, Company II, having been relieved from 
duty as division provost-guard, rejoined the regiment. 

At seven o'clock a.m. of the 25th the brigade broke camp, 
and soon after, with two days' rations in haversacks and 
three in wagons, joined (he 1st and 2d Brigades, and com- 
menced the march towards Fredericksburg. The 2d 
Regiment being detailed, with cavalry and artillery, as rear- 
guard for the day, left camp at about nine, and after march- 
ing about eight miles, baited at dark and bivouacked in a 
rain-storm alongside the road in the edge of a piece of 
woods. At half-past eight o'clock the next morning, (be 
26th, the regiment again moved, rejoined its brigade after 
about two hours' quick marching, and with it continued 
(be march. At noon the brigade passed Dumfries, an old, 
tumble-down, miserable, deserted-looking village, and after 
crossing Occoquan Creek, and marching about three miles 
beyond, bivouacked for (lie night, short of rations. The 
wagon-train coming up the next morning, the 27th, rations 
were distributed and cooked ; and at about ten o'clock the 
brigade again took up the line of march. Passing Aquia 
Creek, near the village, it moved on towards Stafford Court- 
House, and at about half-past four o'clock p.m. bivouacked 
in a grove of young pines. On the 2Sth the brigade 
marched at half-past seven o'clock a.m., passed Stafford 
Court-House at noon, and at three o'clock p.m. halted about 
two and a half miles back of Falmouth, near Boscobel, 
and encamped ; (he remainder of (he 3d Corps, which 
was at this time under command of Gen. Stoneman, being 
located in that vicinity. 

On the 2d of December orders were received from di- 
vision headquarters to recommence drills, both by company 
and regiment. On the 3d the 2d Regiment moved camp 


history of uensselaer county, new york. 

a ~h.>rt distance, locating near brigade headquarters in an 
open field, alongside of and on the righl of the road from 
Boscofa 1 i" Falmouth. <>n the -1th the 2d Division was 

ived by Gen. [looker in the 1 'Ding, and later in the 

day the officers of the regiment presented to their lute 
colonel, Brig.-Gcn. Joseph B. Carr, commanding lsl Bri- 
al his headquarters, a sel of horse equipage, as a 
token of remembrance and esteem. On the 9th orders 
were received from division headquarters to be ready to 
move at an hour's notice, after sunset on the evening of the 
10th, the men to be supplied with sixty rounds of ammu- 
nition, and both officers and men with cooked rations, to 
include the 1 -1th. 

The first reveille heard the next morning, the 11th, was 
sounded at half-past two o'clock. Others followed, at irreg- 
ular intervals, until near daylight. A.I about half-past five 
o'clock the report of two cannons in quick succession, fol- 
lowed by a rattling fire of musketry, was distinctly heard 
in camp. This was the commencement of the " battle 
of Fredericksburg." At seven o'clock the 3d Brigade 
formed line, uniting with its division, moved to within 
about a mile of Fredericksburg, where it halted, remained 
the rest of the day, and bivouacked at night. The bom- 
bardment of the city was kept tip almost continuously by 
our artillery, fifty-seven shots a minute being fired at times 
during the day. Although every effort had been made to 
obtain supplies of <|uartermasters stores since the arrival of 
the brigade at its camp near Falmouth, many of the men 
started on this march without sufficient shoes or stockings 
to keep their bare feel from striking the cold, rough ground, 
but during the day sufficient clothing was received and 
issui d to the nun to make them comfortable. During this 
movement all tent-baggage, etc., was packed in the regi- 
which remained behind in camp. 
next morning (the 12th) the brigade moved about 
half a mile towards the left and front, and halted on high 

ind near Gen. Sumner's headquarters, where it remained 

until about three o'clock p.m., when it changed position a 

.short distance to the rear. At lour o'clock it again moved 

to the left, continuing the march, though the ground was 

muddy and the night very dark, until pasl seven 

ck, when it halted iii the woods within about a mile 

of the i" in t -bridges which had been that day thrown 

Ra] pahannock al t two and a hall' miles below 

I iri.k-l.ur_'. and bivouacked for the night, the orders 

red by the officer commanding the 2d Regiment being 
in there anywhere, and stop to night." Considci 
artillery firing was heard this day, during which our fi 
had I in throwing their pontoon-bridges across the 

P iii.-k-l.ur_' as well as below it. and in 

occ": • of the city. 

Karl) the next morning (the L3th the brigade moved 

■bout lialfa mile to the led and j..i 1 its division. During 

the ! iily afternoon the battle raged fearfully 

Hi four miles below it. 

.-lit- on the opposite Bide of the 

which the 2d Db I and where field- 

. and cngagi d iii Bhelliog the en- 

- I. iii sad 

'-. p m the l-i Kean 

old division moved towards the front, and was soon followed 
by the lsl Brigade Carr's) of die 2d Division, and at three 
ick the 3 1 Brigade followed them, all going to the sup- 
port of Franklin's division in this engagement, — the left 
wing. Crossing the pontoon-bridge, the 3d Brigade — the 
2d New York leading — advanced about a mile to the left and 
front into a corn-field between the river-road and the rail- 
road, and formed on the 2d, near the first line of battle, 
which was occupied by the 1st Brigade. In a short time 
a battery of the enemy, posted on the heights to the right 
and front, opened a fire of shot and shell upon their posi- 
tion, when they were ordered, and fell back, to the river- 
road, which, being of the regular Virginia-turnpike style, — 
deep ditch on each side, with the earth diked up outside, — 
afforded admirable protection for the men. At about lialf- 
pasl eleven o'clock the 2d New Y'ork and 115th Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers received orders, and moved back to the 
pontoon-bridges where they had crossed the river in the 
afternoon, and relieved a regiment of the 1st Brigade which 
was there on guard. At seven o'clock the next morning 
(the 1-lth these regiments received orders, and returned to 
the front, where they arrived at about nine o'clock, when 
the 2d Regiment was posted on the left of the brigade 
which retained its position in the road), where, in the 
afternoon, Company E, Cap.. Savage, alter an absence 
on special duty since November 9th, rejoined it and re- 
ported for duty. In the afternoon the brigade was under 
a flanking fire from a battery of Whitworth guns within 
the enemy's lines on our extreme left. Filing was this 
day kept up between the pickets until three o'clock p.m., 
when it ceased. The wounded of both armies were then 
gathered in, and the dead of the Gth Corps, who had re- 
mained within the enemy's lines after their " charge" of 

the 13th, were delivered by them between the picket-lines. 
Officers from each army, meeting between the lines, agreed 
that picket-firing ought to cease, and such was the tacit 
agreement. After this but l\-w shots were tired by cither 
side; none in front of the 2d Division ; though up to this 
time the 1st Brigade alone had here lost ninety men, killed 
and wounded, on picket. 

At eight o'clock the next morning, the 15th, the 
brigade left the mad (the 2d Regiment changing it- posi- 
tion from its left to its right . and. moving to the front, 
relieved the 1st (Carr's) Brigade. At eleven the picket- 
line was relieved by a detail from three regiments of the 
3d Brigade, thai from the 2d Regiment consisting of 
Companies D and Ii. under Capt. John Maguire. They 
«ii.: iii turn relieved, at dark, by details from the other 
three regiments of the brigade. During this day there 
was considerable cannonading on the extreme left of our 

lines, and in the afternoon the battery on the right of thfl 

brigade -helled a position of the enemy in a small piece of 

ii front. At ten o'clock p.m. the brigade was ordered 

to form and mOVC hack behind the road. In a few iniiiiil'S 

after it- arrival, the brigade again received orders to march, 
and al once Btartcd for the river. Moving as quiet as pos- 

siblc, but at a lively gait, a p.ut of the tin ii the " double? 

quick, i I the] n-bridge at about midnight, and 

With the entire left wing of the army crossed over without 

the knowledge of the enemy or the tiring of a gun. After 



moving about two miles from tin- river, towards its " ('amp 
near Falmouth," the brigade, at one o'clock a.m. of the 
Hiili, filed off into the woods and bivouacked. Here it 
remained until noon, when ii moved back to the camp it so 
lately vacated, not in the best of humor over the result of 
the engagement, but happy in knowing that during the 
entire affair the loss to the brigade had been small, 
that of the 2d Regiment being but three or four men taken 
prisoners; and as these were "stragglers," there was really 
no loss. 

Orders being received therefor, on the 22d the erection 
of huts, chimneys, etc., for the comfort and health of both 
officers and men, was at once commenced, and in a few 
davs thereafter all were provided with comfortable quarters, 
although there was a perfect lack of uniformity in both 
the huts and streets of the camp of the 2d Regiment. 

On the 25th, Christmas, Brig.-Gen, Joseph W. Revere 
was transferred to the command of the 2d Brigade, and was 
succeeded in the command of the 3d by that brave and 
gentlemanly brigadier-general, Gershom Mott. 

On the 28th the 2d New York and 5th and Gth Regi- 
ments New Jersey Volunteers were detailed for " particu- 
lar service; the senior officer," Col. George C. Burling, (Ith 
New Jersey Volunteers, " to report to Brig.-Gen. Averill, 
commanding cavalry brigade, at nine o'clock a.m., the 20th, 
for further instructions." Under these orders, Col. Bur- 
ling received instructions to have his force ready to move 
the next morning, the 30th, at seven o'clock. At the 
designated hour the detail left camp with three days' cooked 
rations in haversacks, sixty rounds of ammunition, etc., and 
uniting with a strong force of cavalry and artillery under 
Gen. Averill, moved on to Hartwood Church, where it 
halted for about an hour. Resuming the march, the force 
moved in a northwesterly direction until half-past eight 
o'clock p.M , when it filed off into the woods, — the cavalry 
being about a mile and a half in advance of the infantry, 
— threw out pickets, and bivouacked. 

At half-past five o'clock the next morning, the 31st, the 
march was resumed. Moving in a southwesterly direction, 
the force passed through " Morrisville," and on Jan. 1, 1863, 
arrived in camp at half-past one o'clock p.m., having ac- 
complished nothing except a march of about sixty miles 
and the loss of three stragglers taken prisoners. 

On the 11th (as before mentioned) Capt. Quackenbush, 
with his recruiting-party, rejoined the regiment and re- 
ported for duty. On the 16th orders were received to be 
ready to move early the next morning, with three days' ra- 
tions in haversacks, sixty rounds of ammunition in cartridge 
boxes, etc. ; but the movement was postponed from day to 
day until the morning of the 20th, when orders were re- 
ceived from Maj.-Gen. Burnside, commanding the Army of 
the Potomac, announcing to the troops that they were 
"about to meet the enemy once more." At this time the 
roads were, as they had been for several days, in excellent 
condition. During the forenoon troops of the centre grand 
division commenced to move. At about noon the 3d 
Brigade struck tents, and at half-past one o'clock p.m. 
united with its division and left camp, moving towards 
Falmouth ; but as the paymaster was busily engaged paying 
off the men of the 2d Regiment, but four companies 

thereof, which bad received their pay, accomplished it, 
under command ol Maj. Tibbits. The remaining six 
companies, under Col. Park, left camp at five o'clock p.m., 
and joined the brigade about ;i mile and a half out on the 
road. In about an boor from this time a cold, sleety rain 
commenced to fall, and the road being so occupied that 
there was no possibility of the 2d Division being able to 

move forward upon it before morning, it soon after re- 
turned to camp, the men being held in readiness to move 
at a moment's warning. 

The next morning, the 21st, the division left camp at 
eight o'clock, the rain still falling and the roads being con- 
siderably cut up. After moving to its position of the 

previous evening it baited for about tWO hours, and then 
marched some six miles up the river, the brigade halting 
at ball-past one o'clock P.M., in the woods near the point 
where it was intended to cross the river and attack the left 
flank of the enemy. By this time the rains and travel 
had brought the roads to an impassable condition for artil- 
lery, so the army was set to work corduroying them. At 
this work the 3d Brigade was employed during the after- 
noon of the 22d and the forenoon of the 23d. On the 
afternoon of the 23d, the Army of the Potomac, being 
effectually defeated by the mud, without ever having seen 
the enemy, commenced falling back to its old camping- 
ground. The 3d Brigade started at three o'clock and 
arrived in camp before dark. 

On the 26th, Lieut.-Col. Olmstead (as already mentioned), 
having been relieved from the command of the 115th 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, rejoined the 2d Regi- 
ment and reported for duty. On the same day, Maj.-Gen. 
Burnside was relieved, at his own request, from the com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, and Maj.-Gen. Joseph 
Hooker, by order of the President, assumed the command. 

On the morning of February 5th, at about eight o'clock, 
the 2d Division, Gen. Carr in command, left camp with 
three days' rations in haversacks, sixty rounds of ammuni- 
tion, ambulances, etc., marched towards Hartwood Church, 
and about noon joined a large force of cavalry. After a 
short halt the united forces moved on, passed the church, 
and marching about two and a half miles beyond it, halted 
in the woods and bivouacked. When the division started 
in the morning the snow was falling; this had gradually 
changed to a drizzling rain, which continued to fall during 
the afternoon and most of the night. At eight o'clock the 
next morning, the 6th, the march was resumed. Crossing 
Deep Run, the force arrived at Grove Church at about 
half-past eleven, when the cavalry, with a part of the in- 
fantry force, pushed on towards the river, leaving the re- 
mainder of the infantry, including the 2d Regiment, 
halted at and near the church. The infantry force which 
advanced with the cavalry was halted about three miles 
beyond the church, near Morrisville, while the cavalry ad- 
vanced to the Rappahannock and succeeded in destroying 
two bridges, one over the river and the other over a creek 
in its vicinity. At seven o'clock p.m. the cavalry and 
advanced infantry returned to Grove Church, and the 
whole force commenced its inarch for camp. At eleven 
o'clock, having arrived within about a mile of Hartwood 
Church, the division halted in the woods and bivouacked. 



At half-past eight o'clock the next morning, the Tib. the 
division resumed the march, and arrived in camp at about 
three o'clock p.m., the men being much exhausted by tlio 
heavj march through the mud. On the 17th daily drills 
were recommenced bj the several regiments of the brigade. 

April 17th that sin* precursor of a move, the pay- 
master, made his appearance, and paid the regiment for the 
four months' service ending February 28th. ( >l' the amount 
ived at this payment, over twelve thousand dollars was 
at once sent home by the men of the regiment. On the 
28th of April the brigade formed line, and marched 
to the left down the river until one o'clock the next morn- 
ing, the 29th, when it halted and bivouacked. On the 
HHih. at hall-past six o'clock a.m.. firing was heard, a por- 
ticin of our forces being engaged with the enemy at the 
river to our left front. During the forenoon the brigade 
moved a short distance farther to the left, and bivouacked 
in the woods about a mile above where the "left wing" 
crossed the river under Burnaide the previous December. 

On the 30th cheering orders were read to the men, 
announcing that our forces had succeeded in crossing the 
Rappahannock tbove Fredericksburg, at the United States 
Ford, and in turning the enemy's left. Towards this cross- 
ing the brigade at one o'clock p. jr. commenced its march, 
which was continued until about half-past twelve that 
night, when it halted and bivouacked. Rain having fallen 
all the previous night, this march was excessively severe 
on the men. 

The next forcuoon, May 1st, the brigade crossed the 
toon-bridge at the ford, and in the afternoon was placed 
on picket, its lines extending from the junction of the 
Rapidan with the Rappahannock, along the former to 
beyond the old gold mines, thence across the country par- 
allel with the Rappahannock to beyond the road running 
ii;. fironi near the ford. Towards dark the next after- 
noon, the 2d, a heavy engagement being in progress at the 
front, the brigade^ was withdrawn from picket, and at half- 
eight o'clock in the evening marched towards the 
enemy. Al about twelve o'clock heavy musketry firing 
i. which gradually subsided into irregular picket 

firing. Following the road, the brigade emerged from the 
wood.- at the Chancellorsville Bouse, turned to the right, 

and passing up the plank road beyond tl arth works and 

batteries on its left, at one o'clock a m. of the 3d turned 

to the left, formed in close column of regiments faring the 

I and bivouacked within musket shot of the pi 

The fat < that ovi r two years had elapsed since th list- 

ment of the nun and the organization of the regiment, 
that had been received fixing a tine- for its 

tun 'T its mil-!' 1 OUt, and that many 

of the t* nts bad utterly refused to do duty 

longer aid had laid down their arm-, had such an influi nee 
on the miieN— and IcgB— of some fifty men of the i 
in. nt that they had since the 28lh of April, as opportunity 
offered, lefl the ranks, and were then absent therefrom. 

M ' thei nmanding the 

1st B thich lay on the right of the plank-road), his 

t thi 2d New Y ■ ■ ■■■■ u d not fight ' 1 1 
licving this, but naturally anxious old regiment, 

Gen. Carr, at break of day of the 3d, rode over to the 2d 
Regiment . which was massed in division columns at his re- 
quest, ami addressed a few remarks to the officers and men, 
manifesting his entire confidence in both. Col. Park also 
expressed to the regiment his entire confidence in the 
courage and readiness to fight of all then on duty, and 
remarked that he would rather return to Troy on one leg 
than have the good name of the regiment tarnished in the 
coming engagement. 

Soon after this the brigade changed its position, the 
115th Pennsylvania and 6th, 7th, and Sth New Jersey 
Regiments crossing a small stream or ditch, and advancing 
in two lines to near the edge of the woods in front, which 
were occupied by the enemy, while the 5th New Jersey and 
2d New York remained in reserve, in column of divisions, 
alongside the plank-road and facing the front, but soon 
advanced on the left and front to near the ditch. About this 
time, the firing along the front became quite general. A 
portion of the 1st Division, including the brigade com- 
manded by Col. Collis of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
which had been in position towards the left, gave way 
and poured back in mass, passing between the advanced 
and reserved regiments of the 3d Brigade. The advanced 
regiments were now deployed along an old fence at the edge 
of the woods, and the reserved regiments deployed and 
formed line obliquely to the left and front, — the 2d Regi- 
ment being on the left and near our earthworks and flat- 
teries. In this position several men of the regiment were 
killed and wounded by musketry from the front. In a short 
time the reserved regiments moved towards the front, crossed 
the ditch, and. after again forming line, obeyed lien. Mod's 
order to "lie down and keep close." thereby obtaining par- 
tial shelter from a slight rise of ground in front. Here 
Capt. McConihe received a severe wound in the breast, 
and went, or was taken, to the rear. But a short time 
passed before the 5th New Jersey was moved forward to 
the woods, and formed line with the advanced regiments of 
the brigade, and soon after this the 2d New York received 
orders to advance to the front line. Col. Park, many of the 
line-officers, and Color-Serg. Farrell tit once threw themselves 
in advance of the line, which was then moved to the front 
at a quick pace. After moving a short distance, Col. Park- 
fell, severely wounded in the leg; but rising on one knee, 

1 rdcred the men forward, and, declining assistance, the 

regimental line passed over him without an officer or man 
lea\ in", hi- position therein, 

\i about this time Gen. Berry, commanding 2d Division) 
was killed, and lien. Molt -,, severely wounded in the arm 

that he lefl the field. With slight assistance from a 
wounded soldier of his regiment Col. Park reached the 

road, and was a taken back to the division hospital in 

the w Is near the Chancellorsville House, where his leg 

"a- at oi amputated. 

Under Liieut.-Col. Olmstead, who assumed command on 
the fall of Col. Park, the 2d New York changed its front 
to the right, advanced to the plank-road and occupied the 
ditch along its south side (being at right angles to .and 

com ting iis lefl with the other regiments of the bi igadc i, 

and opened on oblique fire to the left on i! ncmy, who 

occupied the opposite side of the road in front of the 1st 



Brigade, which was nol as for advanced as the 3d, Here 
the brigade romained until about half-past nine o'clock, 
when, the ammunition being almost exhausted, ii was re- 
moved ic the rear. The 2d New York, moving by its 
right flunk, crossed the road, moved down alongside of it 
towards the Chancellorsville House, then recrossed the road, 
and funned in rear of our line of batteries. At aboul iliis 
time Lieut.-Col. Oluistead, who hud gone a short distance 
from the regiment to obtain ammunition, received infor- 
mation that the brigade had been ordered back to United 
Slates Ford, and started towards that point to rejoin it. 
The whole division had been ordered back to the ford by 

Brig.-Gen. Revere, who hail assumed em and thereof 

on the death of Gen. Kerry, and the 2d Brigade had 
started towards it, lint Gen. Carr, in command of the 1st 
Brigade, refused to recognize the order, and reported the 
receipt thereof to Gen. Sickles, who at once placed Gen. 
Revere in arrest, and Gen. Carr in command of the 

On arriving near the ford Lieut.-Col. Oluistead found an 
unorganized mass of men from the .several regiments of 
the brigade, which he gathered together and with which 
he started, at four o'clock P.M., for the front, where he re- 
joined and resumed command of the 2d Regiment. Soon 
after Lieut.-Col. Oluistead leaving the regiment (the com- 
mand of which devolved on Maj. Tibbits), Gen. Sickles 
and his chief-of-staff came riding on the field, and the 
whole line was speedily reformed. In this reformation 
Capts. Egolf and Ilagen and other officers of the 2d Regi- 
ment succeeded in rallying many straggling men of other 
regiments into lino with their own. In a short time the 
enemy made an attack on the left flank of this position, 
but was firmly met by the 3d Brigade, which not only re- 
pulsed them but advanced and drove them back beyond 
their own earthworks, which were held possession of ami 
used as a shelter for our men. After fighting in this posi- 
tion for some time, the enemy advanced upon it in heavy 
force, but the men of the 2d Regiment were kept well 
under cover until the enemy had advanced to the proper 
position, and then opened a severe flanking fire on them, 
whereby many were driven within the lines of the brigade, 
the other regiments of which succeeded in capturing some 
seven or eight colors and hundreds of prisoners. The 
enemy soon massed a large force in front, again advanced 
upon our lines, and, after a short but stubborn resistance, 
succeeded in driving our force from its position back upon 
our second line, which had been formed while the 3d 
Brigade had been fighting at the front on the enemy's own 
ground. Here the enemy was brought to a stand-still, 
and the fighting for the day soon ceased. 

The brigade remained near this position, the 2d New 
York being in the woods and near the plank-road, where it 
bivouacked and threw up earthworks (there being but lit- 
tle fighting) during the 4th and until about four o'clock on 
the morning of the 5th, when it joined in the retreat of 
the army, which had commenced at about dark the previous 
afternoon, in a rain-storm ; and through mud almost knee- 
deep (caused by a heavy rain, which had fallen on the 
night of the 3d) the brigade moved to United States Ford, 
where it crossed the pontoon-bridge, and, with its division, 

formed line along the bank of the ri i to ;uard the en 

ing. Here it remai I until the whole army wa tl >ver, 

when it started for its old ,: Camp, near Falmouth,' where 

it arrived about lour o'clock p. «., aid ag icamp I 

The aggregate loss of the 2d Regiment in thi en agc- 
menl was 50, viz. : 

Killed, enlistc I men 3 

Wounded, officer!!, severely, :'. j slightly, 2 

enlisted men, mortally, '.' . Beverely, 12; 

slightly, 26 '. ." W 

Wounded and t;ik'-n prisoner, enlist* d m< o I 

Taken prisoner, enlisted men I 


On the 7th orders were received from "Headquarters 

Army of the Potomac," that three days' rations be kept on 
hand ready to be cooked at short notice; that losl knap- 
sacks be replaced and supplies obtained to till them ; that 
arms and equipments be put in order, a full supply of am- 
munition obtained, and everything prepared to at once re- 
sume active operations; but these requirements proved 
unnecessary so far as the 2d New York was concerned : for, 
on the morning of the 11th, special orders were received 
from Gen. Sickles, commanding the 3d Corps, directing the 
regiment to move that day and proceed to Troy, N. Y., to 
be there mustered out of the service of the United States. 
After further directing that the " three years' men" in the 
regiment be transferred to the 70th New York Volunteers, 
and making provision for the turning in of the arms and 
accoutrements of the men after the regiment should have 
readied its " home," the order concluded as follows : 

" In parting with the 2d New York Volunteers, the ma- 
jor-general commanding acknowledges, with satisfaction, the 
valuable service it has rendered the government during its 
term of enlistment. Joining the Army of the Potomac dur- 
ing its advance on the Peninsula, the regiment shared with 
Hooker's veteran division the honors and perils of the cam- 
paign before Richmond. It served with credit under Gen. 
Pope in front of Richmond, and with increased distinction 
under Gen. Hooker in the recent operations on the Rap- 

" Fair Oaks, Glendale, Malvern Hill, Bristoe, Manassas, 
and Chancellorsville should be borne on the regimental 
colors, and ever remembered by the officers and soldiers of 
the regiment." 

The regiment was soon paraded, the three years' men — 
numbering one hundred and twenty — transferred, and the 
remainder started for home. 

It arrived at the Jersey City depot in the afternoon of the 
13th, where it was met by a committee of the citizens of 
Troy, accompanied by Boring's Band, by which it was 
taken in charge, and, after crossing the ferry to New York, 
marched through the streets to and on board of the steam- 
boat " C. Vanderbilt," which left the dock at a little past 
six o'clock. The regiment arrived at Troy at about seven 
o'clock, Mayl4th, where it was received with a salute of 
artillery and the heartfelt cheers of crowds, which had 
gathered to welcome home the men who, at the first call 
to arms, left their homes and peaceful occupations, and 
went forth to defend with their lives the unity and life of 
the nation; the men who now, fresh from the battle-field, 
returned with bronzed features and well-worn uniforms, 



but with li«. nor; the men, the veteran soldiers, of that 
fir.-i of Troy's war-offerings — the ' I I 5 ind." 

ght o'clock the regiment loft the boat, and at about 
nine, escorted bj the Common Council, the 24th Regiment, 
the Fire Department, and the Young Men's and Moulders' 
Associations, marched through the streets, which wcregnyly 
i with flags and banners, and crowded with citizens 
anxious to honor this, the Brsl regiment which had returned 
from the war to this section of the State. The rcgimeni was 
welcomed home by the mayor of the city, Hon. William L. 
Van Alstyne, in a speech tracing the history of the rcgimeni 
and expressing (he iuterest and pride ever fell by the citi- 
:'.irr and achievements. Lieut. -Col. Olmstead 
brii By responded, thanking the city and citizen.- for the mag- 
nificent reception extended to the regiment, which would evi r 
be t I by its officers and men with pride and grali- 

V tin nclusion of Lieut.-Col. Olmstcad's remarks 
the ■ agaiu moved, and continued the march until 

'clock, when ii was dismissed, and the 2d R J 
■ • marched to the armory of the 24th Regiment, New 
Y rk National Guard, where the anus and accoutrements 
i. and tho men dismissed until t lie 19th, then 
to assemble for the purpose of being mustered out of the 
Unil - vice, those residing in the city being 

all ■■■ to their respective homes, while non-residents 

vided fur at the hotels. On the 19th the men 
igain dismissed until further orders. 
Owing to the fact that most of the regimental and coni- 

pany r rds had been lost or destroyed, the muster-out 

not completed until the 26th, when the regiment 
i met, and at one o'clock in the afternoon, headed by 
I 1 ag's Band, made its farewell parade through the stn ets 
of the city, after which the regiment, numbering thirty-six 
officers and four hundred and thirty-seven enlisted men. 
returned to the armory and was there mustered out of the 
Dnil • 'II Corning, captain 17th In- 

fantry U.S.A. 

11 the 28th the flag received by the regiment on the 
rture in 1861 was presented by (lie officers 

of the rcgi nl to the Common Council of the city of Troy, 

in whose keeping il remained until Sept. 1!'. 1865, when, 
by unanin ii was deposited in the State Bureau of 

M I; ird. 

On the 29lh, Paymaster William Richardson commenced 
ig '.fT the men of the regiment, completing the paj ment 
During the term ol I the rcgimeni aid was af 

forded to the finni i, both by appropria- 

iry .ami by a Volunteer Relief \ 
, n, which raised ii- funds bj subscription from citizens 

to the amount imated, of % 15, 

from the city I 18,000, and from the associa- 

The r. ■ ■•i.l- of the : tidlturc ol 

.".7171 thereby l"r the n and • luipmcnl of the 

if the gains and lot 
Zd Infantry Regiment, New York Volui mult 

in llv • of the lime ; 




Belonging to regiment May 14,1862 35 

Appointed from civil life 3 

'• enlisted mon of regiment IS 21 

Promoted out of regiment 4 

Qonoroblj I by War Department on ac- 

of disability caused by wounds received 

inaction 2 


Died of wounds received in action 

norably dismissed from the United States ser- 
vice by order "i the War Department 

Mustered out of United States service with ri-^i- 
iii «iit 


Belonging t" regiment May II. 1862 

Enlisted by recruiting-parties in Now York Statu... 

Appointc l commissioned officors <>f regiment 

rred bach t" 2d Regiment Maine Volunteers 52 
Transferred lo 7"ili Now V"rk Volunteers, May 11. 

threo years' men) 120 

Discharged — Appointed commissioned officer in 3d 

New V'.rk Volunteers 1 

" enlisted in rcgulararmy -1 

11 expiratii f" sorvice I 

for physical disability caused by 

wounds 17 

" for physical disability caused by dis- 


" by sentence of court-martial 2 

Hied — killed and diet! of wounds received in action "I 

" " accidentally 1 

" of disease 1-1 


ted "ii mustcr-oul roll as killed, but was taken 
prisoner [three year-' men) 

Mustered out of United State- service by order, July 
22, 1802 (band) .'. 

Musi rod "lit of United States service with regi- 
ment. May 26, 1803 I."7 


— 58 




1 12 




9 1 ,i 

The following is a summary of the casualties sustained 
by the 2d Regiment from the enemy while on duty. 
St raiders and absentees without leave Dot being includedj, not 
taken |ins. 


;.-".,!.-. \., . June - 
"I . .Inn.. 30, IMS'.!. 

" BrliMoc station, v., . 


" Clinni rllonjvlllc, v.,,. M.,% .;. 

Tak'-n pris- 

■z ~ 

■- s 

- ~ 






SkfrmUh if it \. u Mtrk-'i bi 






Sh rmish >i Fall Onkn, \ ;t . Juno 21, 




















" Bull I. 

" < lie, \ .i ., >l ■> 3 

Hll'l I 
















The urgent call of the government for i >• men was at 

dure answered by the loyal people of Troy sending the 
12.">ih Regiment into the field on the 30th of August, 
1862. The war committee of Rensselaer County placed 
in command of the regiment George L. Willard, a regular 
jtrniy officer, who soon had it in excellent drill. 

The field and line of the regiment were: George L. 
Willard, Colonel ; Levin Crandell, Lieutenant-Colonel ■ 
James ('. Bush, Major; Elias P. Sheldon, Adjutant; Ji. 
Chandler Ball, Quartermaster; Rev. Joseph L. Barlow, 
Chaplain; W. S. Cooper, M.D., Surgeon ; II. E. Benedict 
nod Washington Akin. M.D.'s, Assistant Surgeons. 

Company A. — ('apt. 1). E. Cornell, 1st Lieut. E. A. 
Hartshorn, 2d Lieut. YV. E. Hakes. 

Company B. — Cant. A. B. Myers, First Lieut. Charles 
II. Taylor, 2d Lieut. John Quay. 

Company C. — Capt. F. S. Esmond, 1st Lieut. W. II. 
Plumb, Jr., 2d Lieut. David Comiskey. 

Company I>. — Captain S. C. Armstrong, 1st Lieut. T. 
F. Sheldon, 2d Lieut. P. Carden. 

Company E. — Capt. William Dimond, 1st Lieut. Calvin 
Bush, 2d Lieut. Egbert Jolls. 

Company F. — Capt. Nelson Penfield, First Lieut. Frank 
Chamberlin, 2,1 Lieut. YV. D. Taylor. 

Company G. — Captain George F. Lemon, 1st Lieut. 
YV. K. Newcomb, 2d Lieut. L. H. Stevens. 

( 'ompany II — Capt. Ephraim YVoods, 1st Lieut. Joseph 
Hyde, 2d Lieut. D. Hagadorn. 

Company I. — Capt. E. P. Jones, 1st Lieut. A. Bu- 
chanan, Jr., 2d Lieut. E. Fink. 

Company K. — Capt. J. V. YV. Vandenburgh, 1st Lieut. 
Charles A. Pickett, 2d Lieut. McG. Steele. 

On the 18th of September, 1SIJ2, this regiment was sur- 
rendered by Col. Miles, at Harper's Ferry, to the Con- 
federate Army, but was paroled. The winter of 1SG2- 
63 was spent in camp at Chicago ; in the spring, how- 
ever, the regiment again took the field, taking part in 
the battle of Chancellorsville; then followed Lee, until it 
confronted the enemy's forces at Gettysburg. In the 
memorable conflict of that three days' battle, the regiment 
fought heroically and lost many of its brave men. In the 
Mine Run campaign it took a conspicuous part. In the 
successive battles, begun at the YVilderness and ending at 
Burkesville Station, the regiment reaped many honors for 
its effectiveness and heroism. The regiment took part in 
fighting twenty-one battles. At the close of its service, it 
was welcomed home with an enthusiastic ovation. Having 
arrived by boat at Albany, the regiment marched from 
there to Troy, reaching the city in the afternoon of July 
8, 1805, with two hundred and fourteen men and twenty 
officers. The reception ceremonies took place in Wash- 
ington Square, which were opened with prayer by the Rev. 
George C. Baldwin, D.D., followed by an address of wel- 
come by the Hon. John A. Griswold. Col. Hyde re- 
in the absence of a fuller account promised, but which failed to 
come to hand in time For publication, the above synopsis of the record 
of this gallant regiment has been prepared. 

sponded, after which the regiment was escorted to Harmony 
Ball, where a collation was spread and was partaken of by 

the 1 e,| veterans. 

The returning officers were Col Joseph Hyde Maj. W. 
II. II. Brainard, Adjt. James II. Batch, Surg. W. S. 
Cooper, M.D, A.ssist.-Surg. Washington Akin. Mil, 
Chap. Ezra D. Simons, Quarterns ter '''<" ;i W Jen 

None missioned staff, Sergt.-Maj. M. V. I!. Mattison, 

Quartermaster-Sergt. William C. Lincoln, Com.-Scrgt. Jo- 
siah Green, Hosp. Steward W. I>. Durkin, Leaders of 
Musicians, George L. Wallace ami R. G. Padley. 

Company .1. — Lieut. II. M. Clum, Sergts. Samuel Rus- 
sell, C. H. Maine, C. E. Agan. 

Company B. — Capt. E. C. Jackson, 2d Lieut. W. II. 

Evans, Sergts. Thomas N ting, W. YVeaver, A. Feathers, 

S. S. Ripley. 

Company C. — 1st Lieut. Francis Clarkson, Sergts. 
Chauneey Frear, D. C. Hoover, A. l'ayden. 

Company D. — Capt. W . II. Babeock, Sergt. James 

Company E. — Capt. James L. Tilley, 1st Lieut. Charles 
E. Sweet, Sergts. J. S. Harris, II. Bills, II. C. Simmons. 

Company F. — Capt. William Ilalon, Sergts. H. Her- 
ring, II. Bennett. 

Company G. — Sergts. YY r . Schemmcrhorn, B. H. Peck- 
ham, John Hammond. 

Company //.—Capt. G. YV. Pettit, Sergt. II. Howkirk. 

Company I. — 1st Lieut. Charles Bates, 2d Lieut. John 
Kuester, Sergts. YV. Neylon, G. Pease, J. Nixon. 

('ompany K. — 1st Lieut. E. L. Shaw, 2d Lieut. Robert 
E. Myers, Sergt. Frank Kraus. 

N. Y. VOLS.t 

The history of the 169th Regiment of Infantry, New 
York State Volunteers, is that of a regiment distinguished 
for qualities which never become public fame, but which, 
nevertheless, are most effective iu accomplishing results. 
Its commanding officers were remarkable for that unfailing 
obedience to orders which characterizes the trained and dis- 
ciplined soldier, and under all circumstances they and the 
regiment were found steadfast to duty. How well that 
duty was performed can only be outlined in this brief record 
of events in which the command participated. It did its 
full share of hard work and bard fighting, and could truly 
say, in the words of St. Paul, that it had been "in journev- 
ings often, iu perils of waters, ... in perils by mine own 
countrymen, ... in perils of the sea, iu weariness and 
painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, . . . 
in cold and nakedness." Its casualty record shows how 
faithfully it served. It had soldiers who went down to 
their graves with all the fortitude of Christian martyrs, and 
who met death with an awful majesty which impresses its 
witness with its thrill of power, eveu though many long 
years have passed since he beheld it. Brave, gallant, and 
true were they who were left behind on the field. Of the 
nine hundred and fifteen men enlisted and on the rolls at 
the first muster, less than one hundred and twenty returned 

f Prepared by Col. Colvin. 



home with the regiment ;it the close of its term of service. 
Tin' ranks were tilled up several ti s, nnd yel these acces- 
sions were quickly disposed of by the events of war. To 

illustrate this ii is enough to mention thai in ■ fight the 

regiment lost one hundred nnd three officers and men, or 
fourth of its effective force reported present for duty on 
the day of the battle ; on another occasion seventy-four of 
one hundred and fifty men taken into action; and in one 
month, the brief period of thirty days beginning with June 
1. 1864, there were three hundred and sixty-four men and 
officers of the 169th Regiment killed or wounded. 


I69tli Regiment was the child of chance. One of 
those fortuitous events which lead to unexpected results 
brought about is- formation in Rensselaer County. Its 
nucli is, \ Company, or the First Company," was recruited 
by Capt. James A. Colvin, 1st Lieut. Jerome 11. Parmenter, 
and 2d Lieut. Bernard N. Smith, for the 125th Regiment, 
and as there were eleven companies, the war committee in 
making assignments did not give it a position. Col. Wil- 
lard. commanding t lie 125th, having announced his inten- 
tion of breaking up the company and using the men for the 
purpose of equalizing his own companies, an order was se- 
cured from the adjutant-general of the State directing the 
muster of the company into service, and giving its officers 
their rank. It was thus left unattached, becoming finally 
the - nior company in the 169th. 

Thus rendered supernumerary, the company remained 
in barracks at Batestown, near Troy, its official existence 
dating from Aug. 21, 1862. Recruiting had not been dis- 
continued, much enthusiasm prevailed, and the war com- 
mittee of Rensselaer County determined to organize another 
ment. On Aug. 29, L862, the field and some of the 
staff-officers of the new regiment were designated, and on 
■ 1-t Lieut.-Col. John McConihe assumed command 
..f the rendezvous, which had been vacated on the day pre- 
.- by the 125th Regiment. 1st Lieut. William E. Kis- 
l r— 1 1 entered at once upon his duties as adjutant, and 
M J .I, Knowlson took the position of surgeon. By 
- • ■ ml., r 20th the remaining nine companies had com- 
pleted their organiz ition, Clarence Buel assuming command 
I, and Alonzo Alden taking the position of major. 
three field-offi ervice, Col. Buel having 

.•n, d his rank of captain in the Harris Light Cavalry to 
t : ,k.- tie w regiment I. I Mc 

promoted from captain in the 1st Nebraska 
V,: -, 1 Mnj. Alden from Is) lieutenant and adju- 

■ in the 30th New Fork Volunto i I captain of 
t|,, mpany had also served as a private in the 

•j;,ih i: Militia, under the first 

call f.r troops in 1861. The senior first lieutenant ■ 

ible officer, who, although not having been in the 
an,, rent, and thorough in learning his 

new profession. The senior second lieutenant had served as 
private in the ttth New Yi - Volunteers, and had 
., grounded • 1 1 ' Hon during the mentor- 

s' fight All of the other offii 
l.t Lieut G G new to the Bervicc. 

Xh. • men having been recruited by 

September 20th, as stated, the companies received their 
designation by letter. The next thing to be accomplished 
was the mustering of the regiment into the United States 
Bervice. On Sept. 25, 1SG2, Companies A and E were 
mustered in by Capt. Hagcr, U. S. A. The difficulty of 
keeping the men together prevented the mustering of the 
other companies. It was hard to enforce strict discipline, 
and too strong a pressure on the new recruits was likely to 
result in depleting the ranks of men who, although willing 
to serve, bad not as yet acquired a perfect sense of their 
position as soldiers, and were ready to assert their inde- 
pendence. It was accordingly determined to order the 
regiment to New York, where, it was thought, the allure- 
ments of home and the fears and pleadings of friends might 
be less effective. 


On the evening of Sept. 25, 1S62, the IGOth Regiment 
took up the route and made its first movement towards the 
scene of war. Taking the cars at Batestown, it reached 
New York early on the ensuing day, and went into 
quarters at the Park barracks. Notwithstanding the most 
strenuous exertions of the officers, the men took the freedom 
of the city, and it was decided to seek a " change of base." 
After three days' delay, and by order of Brig.-Gen. Van 
Veehten, who had made every effort to befriend the regi- 
ment, marching orders were published on the evening of 
September 2Sth, the objective point being New Dorp, on 
Slaten Island, where the regiment was to go into barracks 
and complete its muster-in. Landing on Staten Island, 
the regiment marched seven miles to its camp, where it 
remained for sixteen days, during which time the ranks 
filled up, the men who had been absent from their com- 
panies returning by squads to the command. The com- 
panies not previously mustered were mustered into the 
United States service on October Gth, the following being 
the officers' roster of the regiment after the organization 
had been perfected : 

Col. Clarence Buel (captain II. L. Cavalry Aug. 14, 
1861); commissioned Oct. 11, 18G2; mustered Oct. 8, 

Lieut.-Col. John McConihe (captain 1st Nebraska Vol- 

i is June 30, 1861); commissioned Sept. 17, 1862; 

mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Maj. Alonzo Alden (2d lieutenant dune 1. 1861, and 
1st lieutenant and adjutant May 28, 1862, 30th Regiment 
New Jfork Volunteers); commissioned Sept. 2o, 1862; 
mustered < let. 6, 1862. 

Adjt. Wm. E. Kisselburgh ; commissioned Sept, 1, 1862 j 
mustered Sept. 1 . 1 862. 

Quartermaster Sidney N.Kinney; commissioned Sept. 
1. 1862; mustered Sept. 2, 1862. 

John Kimwlsiui : commissioned Sept. 3, l^il'J; 
mustered Si pt •'.. 1 862. 

3urg. .los. T. Skinner; commissioned Sept. 
1- L862; mustered Sept. [9, 1862. 

i Assist Surg. Porter L, I' Reynolds; commis- 
sioned Sept. 22, 1862; mustered Sept 22, 1862. 

Chaplain Joel W. Baton; commissioned Sept. 23, 1862; 
mustered Oct 6, 1- 



Cnpt. James A. Colvin, A ; commissioned Aug. 21, 1S62 ; 
mustered Sept. 25, 1862. 

First Lieut. Jerome B. Parmenter, A; commissioned 
Aug. 21, 1862; mustered Sept. 25, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Bernard N. Smith, A ; commissioned Aug. 
21, 1862; mustered Sept. '_'.">, l>»i-. 

Capt. Natlianiol Wood, I? ; commissioned Sept. 13, 1**12 ; 
mustered Oct. (1, 1862. 

First Lieut. David P. Benson, B ; commissioned Sept. 
13, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Michael Holmes, B; commissioned Sept. 
13, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1S62. 

Capt. Joseph H. Allen, C; commissioned Sept. 16, 1862. 
mustered Oct. (i, 1862. 

First Lieut. Frank \V. Tarbell, C; commissioned Sept. 
16, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1S62. 

Second Lieut. Chas. E. Morey, C ; commissioned Sept. 

16, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

('apt. Warren B. Coleman, D; commissioned Sept. 17, 
1862; mustered Oct, 6, 1862. 

First Lieut. Robert O'Connor, D; commissioned Sept. 

17, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Second Lieut, John II. Hughes, D; commissioned Sept. 
17, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Capt. L M. Wright, E; commissioned Sept. 17, 1862; 
mustered Sept, 25, 1S62. 

First Lieut, John F. Croft, E; commissioned Sept. 17,. 
1862 ; mustered Sept. 25, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Chas. H. Palmer, E ; commissioned Sept. 
17, 1862; mustered Sept. 25, 1862. 

Capt. Augustus D. Vaughn, F; commissioned Oct. 11, 
1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

First Lieut. James F. Thompson, F ; commissioned Sept. 
25, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Thomas D. Jellico, F ; commissioned Sept. 
23, 1862 ; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Capt. John T. MeCoun, G; commissioned Sept. 20, 
1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

First Lieut, George II. Gager, G; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Thomas B. Eaton, G ; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Capt. Wm. H. Wiekes, H ; commissioned Sept. 20, 
1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

First Lieut. Wm. S. Hartshorn, H ; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Win. II. Lyon, H; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1S62; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Capt, Michael Murnane, I ; commissioned Sept. 20, 1862 ; 
mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

First Lieut. Spencer W. Snyder, I; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Second Lieut, Patrick Connors, I ; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

Capt. Daniel Ferguson, K ; commissioned Sept. 20, 
1862; mustered Oct, 6, 1862. 

First Lieut. Daniel J. Carey, K ; commissioned Sept. 20, 
1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1S62. 

Second Lieut. Edwin R. Smith, K ; commissioned Sept. 
20, 1862; mustered Oct. 6, 1862. 

On Oct. 15, 1862, the 169th Regiment, Cully organized, 
and armed with Vincennes rides, started for Washington, 
reaching the capital on the afternoon of October 18th. It 
was quartered at the Soldiers' Rest, adjoining the depot of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On the succeeding day, 
October 19th, the regiment moved up through Washington 
and Georgetown to the chain-bridge, crossing over the Po- 
tomac River into Virginia and going into bivouac near Port 
Lilian Allen. Four days later the regiment moved hack 
nearer to chain-bridge, and then went into camp. This, its 
first experience in regular camp, was preliminary to settling 
down to all the duties of military life. The camp was called 
" Abercrombie," in recognition of the general commanding 
the post and division. Col. Buel, a thorough disciplinarian 
and soldier, at once enforced that discipline and initiated 
that system of drill which is so necessary for the perfection 
of a soldier. 


Having now reached a position where the strict routine 
of soldier-life became imperative, the 169th Regiment went 
through a regular course of company and battalion drills, 
guard-mounting, camp and picket duty, parades, reviews, 
etc. The officers were kept hard at work improving the 
efficiency of the command, and it was not long ere the regi- 
ment began to show the salutary effect, from a military 
point of view, of the drill and discipline it was subjected 
to. It was not all easy work, however, and there were fre- 
quent opportunities for curbing the fractious spirit of men 
hitherto unaccustomed to restraint. But improvement 
came with each succeeding day, and in time the principle 
of subordination and strict obedience to command became 
well understood and acted upon. Perhaps this lesson was 
more quickly impressed by the vigor and determination of 
the officer to whom was committed the task of trying cases 
and awarding punishment for infraction of duty. This 
officer was Major Alden, who, in compliance with orders 
from the Secretary of War, was appointed by the colonel 
as regimental referee, with jurisdiction co-extensive with 
that of a regimental court-martial. The referee's court su- 
perseded the regimental court-martial, by virtue of section 
7, act of Congress, approved July 17, 1862. The major, 
having already seen sixteen months' service in the 30th 
Regiment New York Volunteers, was familiar with all the 
details of discipline, and earnestly and vigorously set him- 
self at work to administer proper punishment to all offenders 
against military law. This involved a stern exercise of au- 
thority, which was exact in its dealings with offenders, and 
brought down on the major the denunciation of all who 
had occasion to appear before him for trial, their partisans 
uniting with them in their promises of what would be done 
to " get square" should the opportunity arise. These 
threatenings never took effect, however, and in later days, 
and under the trying circumstances of active field-life, 
turned into acquiescence in the decisions of one whose 
bearing commanded the respect of all who served with and 
under him. 

In November, 1862, Lieut. -Col. John MeConihe was 
obliged to avail himself of a leave of absence in conse- 
quence of the breaking out afresh of an old wound received 



;it Shiloh. About the same time Maj. Alden was detailed 
G ii- Abercrombie as a member of n general 
court-martial for the of Ool. Doubleday, of the lib 
Boavy Artillery. After this court had been in session about 
three weeks another curt was convened witli Col. Clarence 
Buel as president, the old court having been dissolved. 
Maj. Alden assumed command of the regiment. At this 
time the officers of the regiment organized the regimental 
band, which afterwards became such a feature in enhancing 
the efficiency of the regiment. This band was made up by 

ils from the several companies, the officers purchasing 
the necessary instruments. In (lie latter part of December 
Gen. Abercrombie assumed command of the district, and 
moved his headquarters to Arlington House. Col. Buel 

relieved IV the "court and t""k command of the bri- 

gadt i of the 118th, 152d, and 169th New York 

Volo ["hereupon Adj. Kisselburgh was assigned to 

! f. and Lieut. Jerome 1>. Parmenter was assigned 
tn the duties of adjutant By a contribution among the 
officers an extensive supp r of chickens and oysters was 
prepared fur the regiment on Christmas-day, and various 
sports were inaugurated, which caused the day to be spent 
very pleasantly. Col. Buel prepared an excellent dinner 
fur tlio officers "f tin- regiment. Miij.-Gcn. James A. Gar- 
field the gn ats. Thus the time passed off pleas- 
antly and quietly, nothing doing but the usual jiicket and 
fatigue duty and camp duties. Just before the close of the 
year the regiment was re armed, the Springfield rifle taking 
tin- place of tin- heavy and cumbersome Vinccnucs rifle. 


Feb. 12, 1863, tlif brigade commanded by Col. Buel 
w.i- broken up. the 169th Elcgimenl being detached ami 
ordered t" Washington, where it reported t" Gen. Martin- 
dale, military governor, fur "provost-guard duty," ami en- 
camped for a brief period at " Camp Crescent," so named 
it w.i- crescent-shaped. By direction of Gen. 
Martindale excellent barracks wit.' constructed mar "Tin' 

Circle," between Washington ami Q ■getowu, which, in 

honor of tin- general, were called Martindale Barracks. 
Int. i tin-.' tin- 169th moved about March 1. I 363 About 

this time I.iiiit.-t'iil. McConihc rcjoi 1 the regi nt, and 

Col. Buel wa- put mi a military commission at tin. Old 
■••I prison, with ('apt. Jerome I!. Parmenter as judge 
advo - on after the regiment reported in Washington 

1 t.i tin- command of the I'i 
n, ami continued his command until tin. regi- 
ment l'ft tin 1 district for more perilous duties. Tin- 169th 
for itself Bomo renown with the military governor 

ami other officials on a nut of its propriety of conduct 

and fidelity in tin' discharge of duty, ami when the Bicse 

Liongstreet madi v fur 

tin- Secretary of ^ I 'In- 169th, with other troops, 

M utindale m 

ryof War t.. have the 1 69th New Ynrk Vol- 

uoti a in Washington. While in Washington, 

. ]•■ in ill'' appi on f 

tin uniform being made '•• conform with 

that of the regular army. In this uniform, with glittering 

- ami win- the men bore themselves 

proudly, and paid great attention to their duty. The effect 

wis <ho\vn in the details from the regiment for guards to 
the public offices, Company A supplying the regular guard 
at the Treasury Department, Gen. Halleck's headquarters, 
and nt her prominent positions, from which the captain 
commanding the company found extreme difficulty in 
relieving his men when the time came for the regiment to 
enter the field. The exigencies of the service seemed to 
require that the regiment should be sent to the front, and, 
despite th ■ effort to detain it in Washington, it departed 
for Suffolk, Va., on April 15, 1SG3. Henceforth the work 
-I' the 169th was to be done in the field, in the trenches, 
and upon the march, in the midst of all the trials and 
vicissitudes of war and the sorrows of battle. 


Arriving at Suffolk, Col. Buel reported to Maj. -Gen. 
Peck, by whom the regiment was assigned to the brigade 
commanded by Col. Robert S. Foster, of the 13th Indiana 
Regiment, who was soon after commissioned as brigadier- 
general. This brigade was included in the division com- 
manded by Brig.-Gen. Michael Corcoran. 

On April 24th, Gen. Corcoran was assigned to the duty! 
of feeling the position of the enemy on the Edenton mail. 
and ascertaining their strength. About three thousafl 
troops, infantry and artillery, followed the Edenton roai 
all. ml live miles from the breastworks, and found the enem 
in considerable force and strongly intrenched. The artiller 
opened, hut with no other effect than to draw the enemy': 
lire, and, with the aid of a little musketry, forced thi 
cnemv's skirmishers behind their strung breastworks. 

Four companies of the 169th, under command of Lieut. 
Col. John McConihe, supported three pieces of Foiled 
Battery mi the right of the road, ami six companies undo 
command of Maj. Alden. supported the other three pi© 
on the left of the road, both Supports being under the go 

oral supervision of Col. Buel. Alter c siderablc cannon 1 

ading it was found necessary to pass up through the wooi 
intervening to a position in sight of the enemy's intrencl 
ments. The three pieces of artillery with Maj. Alden's 

command were ordered to take that position, which was 
.lulu' under a heavy artillery fire from the enemy. Col. 
Buel accompanied Maj. Alden, but had no sooner reaches 
the place designated than he was severely wounded in the 

hand and left the field. Col. Bucl's conduct was 

terized by remarkable coolness and indifference to danger, 
and he proved himself t" he a brave officer. The position 
was maintained for about one hour, when the battery and 
it- infantry support withdrew in th.' position of the other 

forces. Maj. Alden's command Inst one killed an. I -i v- 

eral wounded, the major himself having been wounded mi 
th.- left thigh by a shell, and having his horse shot throng! 

the nccl bj a fragment of shell. Tims terminated the lirst 

iiieiit of the 169th with the enemy, and its condufl 
mi the occasion was highly complimented in general orders 
from the brigade commander. Col. Buel was so si 
wounded that he went to his home in Troy and did not 
return to the regiment under three months. Maj. Alden 
made the following report to the regimental commander of 
the pari taken by his command : 



"It is with pleasure and pride thai I am able to bear 
record of the bravery and gallantry thai characterized the 
conduct uf both nhVcrs and men under my command 
while facing the continuous and unabating shower of shell, 
erape, and canister from the well directed fire of the enemy. 
Every order was cheerfully and promptly obeyed, however 
imminent the danger iuvoh ed 

Thr following congratulatory order was received from the 
brigade commander, Col. J. C. Drake, 112th New STork 
Volunteers : 

I" II i: tin., i tin i i:s 2d Provisional Brigade, 
"Suffolk, V v., April 25, L863. 
rial Order. 
" The colonel commanding the 2d Provisional Brigade desires to 
present lii- thanks to the lO'Jth [leginicnt New York Volunteers for 
their good behavior in the action ol yestorday, and lii^ sympathy to 

those who attained injuries. By - imaud of 

"J. C. Drake, 
'■ i !ol. Commanding LM ' Prov, Brigade. 1 " 

On the 3d of May an attempt was made to penetrate and 
break the enemy's lines on the Providence Church road. 
Alter severe fighting the enemy evacuated their entire 
works, raised the siege of Suffolk, and commenced a retreat 
towards Petersburg and Blackwater River. During the 
night of the 3d the 169th guarded the bridge over the 
Nansemond River. Early on the morning of the 4th, 
infantry and cavalry pursued the retreating enemy and cap- 
tured many stragglers. Frequently, after the siege was 
raised, the llJDth joined in expeditions to the Blackwater, 
where the enemy had made a lodgment and tore up about 
thirty miles of railroad track. During these forays there 
were frequent collisions with the enemy, and Zuni and the 
Blackwater Ford were added to the list of engagements in 
which the regiment participated. 


The enemy having retired from Suffolk, it became neces- 
sary to send the troops to some other point, and accordingly 
the 169th with other regiments was transferred to a com- 
mand where it was supposed it would do the most good. 
Gen. Lee at this time was making his memorable march 
into Pennsylvania, which culminated with the battle of 
Gettysburg. The troops available from Suffolk and other 
points within easy reach of Fortress Monroe were gathered 
under Gen. Dix, then commanding that department, and 
sent to operate on Lee's communications with Richmond. 
On June 27, 1SG3, an expedition was started under com- 
mand of Gen. Getty towards Hanover Junction. This 
force, including the 169th Regiment, went on transports 
to ^ hitehouse Landing, on the Pamunkey River, and 
marching thence by way of King William Court-House, 
reached Hanover Court-House on the afternoon of July 
4th. The march was rapid, and uuder a glowing sun, 
told severely upon the men. The troops hurried on to the 
South Anna River and attempted the destruction of the 
bridge at that point. The force was too small and the 
enemy were too strongly intrenched to permit of anything 
more than a demonstration, and no assault was made ex- 
cept on the smoke-houses along the road. The most 
menu nable incidents on the night of July 4th, within the 
recollection of the writer, were the capture of a ham and 

a Bleep of brief duration in a mod puddle, — the nighl being 
rainy, — wiib slumbers disturbed by the occasional explo- 
sion of shells, with which the enemy were trying the | 
linn as well as tempers of the tired and hungry soldiers, 
who, as it appeared, bad only marched up there to march 
down again. The regiment withdrew that night, falling 
back to Taylor's Farm, where ii rested. The march was 
finally taken up down the Peninsula, the regiment leaving 
Whitehouse, whither it bad returned to awail transporta- 
tion, to "hoof it" down towards Fortress Monroe, in the 
midst of a storm which swelled the streams, and compelled 

the men to wade at some points up tn their hips in water. 

carrying their amis and ammunition above their beads. 
This march was very severe. It took the regiment through 

the Chiekahominy swamps, over corduroy-roads built by 
Gen. McClellan the year previous, and through all sorts 
of fatiguing discomforts. But this expedition bail a frown- 
ing glory from which it derived a name. The Peninsula, 
and indeed the whole country through which the troops 
passed, was grown up with blackberry-vines, on which the 
luscious fruit hung in such profusion that it more than 
taxed the powers of the soldiers to gather it. It levied it~ 
tribute also, and put an injunction upon the bowels of the 
men, so that the medical staff was spared an immense quan- 
tity of opium and other saving medicaments, the event 
causing general remark. The concurrent voice gave to 
this expedition, therefore, the name of the " Blackberry 
Raid," and well it deserved its name. We came, we saw, 
we conquered, and were overcome in turn by one of the 
simplest dispensations of nature. The conclusion of this 
expedition brought the lO'Jth Regiment to Bowers' Hill, 
near Portsmouth, Va., on July 14, 1S63. Here the regi- 
ment did picket duty towards Suffolk, which had been 
occupied by the enemy. Tbe troops were reviewed while 
at Bowers' Hill by Maj.-Gen. John G. Foster, and then, as 
was always to be expected after a special review, something 
" turned up." 


Experience verified expectation, and on July 27, 1863, 
the regiment was ordered to Portsmouth, Va., whence it 
was to embark for Folly Island, South Carolina. This 
island is one of those fringing the South Carolina coast, 
and lies next south to Morris Island, which is the first 
piece of land or sand-strip southerly and on the left of the 
entrance to Charleston harbor. These two islands are 
separated by a narrow inlet. The regiment remained at 
Portsmouth quartered at the court-house until August 2d, 
when it went on board of the propeller " Nelly Pcntz." 
This was the first experience of the regiment at sea. and it 
was discomforting in every sense. The vessel was destined 
for Stono Inlet, by which it was to proceed up the Folly 
River, as the narrow strip of water intervening between 
the island and tbe adjacent country was called. The 
weather became unpropitious, a storm arising in time to 
make serious trouble in reaching the destination. Dark- 
ness came on and the entrance to the river had not been 
found. The captain of the vessel became excited and 
Seemed to have lost bis head. The situation was serious 

i tgh, and tbe uncertainty was not relieved wdien the 

captain of the boat rushed along the deck saying. " I 



would not give a penny for our lives!" Some of the pas- 
sengers began to make ready to swim, while others pre- 
pared to drown; but all suggestions of this character were 
lost sight of when the vessel reached Stono Inlet, and, 
guided by the light of a flaming bonfire on the shore, 
rounded the point of Folly Island and passed safely into 
the river. This was on the evening of August 5th, and 
mi the succeeding day the steamer went up to Pawnee 
Landing, where the regiment disembarked, and marched 
across the narrow island to the sea, and thence, under 
orders from Israel Vogdes, it went two miles 
down the beach to where the remainder of Poster's brigade 
w i- encamped. For six mouths the regiment kept this 
Bl ition. Its camp laid out just in rear of a sand-bluff, 
against which the waters of the Atlantic beat at their 
highest tide. The routine of duty was, of course, that 
incident to the soldier's life, diversified, however, by excur- 
sions every day to Morris Island, where the regiment sent 
details for duty in the parallels and took part in the siege 
operations against Charleston and Fort Wagner. There 
was a good deal of sameness in this experience. Regular 
picket duty was done along the inner shore of Folly Island. 
The holding of the works, which were nightly pushed for- 
ward towards the grand objective point of Charleston, was 
not an enviable position, for when thus engaged the regi- 
ment was under constant fire. The shells from Forts 
John-. .n and Sumter, and the ' : whisking" shots from Fort 
Wagner, required that the men should be constantly alert 
to avoid danger. Sharpshooting by day and mortar and 
heavy-gun practice by uight kept all sharply alive to the 
peril- (hat brset them. Yet they soon got accustomed to 
tin- sound, and laid on their arms and slept while their 
pickets kept watch against sudden attack. " Johnson, 

rl" or "Sumter, cover!" were damnable reiterations in 
the ears of the regiment in those clays. They meant that 
a shell had been seen to rise from one or the other of the 
rebel forts, and that it behooved the men to care for their 

v by seeking the bomb-proofs or some other position 
where thy were likely to be remote from danger. The 
cry at these times was given by the lookouts designated to 

ii for mortar-shells as they soared skyward before com- 
ing down with a rush and explosion. The difference iu 
the signals arose from the fact that Sumter being mar the 
oi of the troops, and Johnson more remote, it became 
:i in it r - -r of celerity to escape the .-hots from Sumter, while 
those from .1 ihnson might be more leisurely avoided. 

The 1 69th formed a part of the force ordered up to take 
advantage of any chance (bran active forward movement 
on the day that the batteries on Morris Island and the 
iron-clads stationed at the entrance to Charleston harbor 
levelled I loir o'in* on Fort Sumter. The ion was re- 
duoed to ■ crumbling ma-- of ruin-, hut no attempt was 
made to cross the intervening stretch of water and assault 
it. On this occasion, Maj. Alden and Capt, Colvin came 
near L'":tii>L' iuto Berious trouble for their first and only 
infraiti f orders during their connection with the regi- 
ment B th ol 'i> officers had been for court 
martial duty, hut on learning that th-' regiment was i" share 
in the movement against Sumter they neglected their detail 
and wont with thoir command. ,\- [uence, the 

court was prevented from sitting, and a reprimand from 
Gen. Vogdes followed. They were threatened with court- 
martial themselves if they persisted iu absenting themselves 
from the court, even if their regiment was to go into action ; 
but, under the circumstances, the general condoned their 
fault. The details of Maj. -Gen. Gillmore's operations at 
this point, with the capture of Fort Wagner and the whole 
of Morris Island, are too well known to warrant repetition. 
The regiment shared in all the labor which brought about 
the reduction of Fort Wagner, occupying the trenches 
close up to and in front of the fort on the night preceding 
the morning of its evacuation and capture. 

In the early days of the regiment's stay on Folly Island, 
Col. Buel returned to the command, having recovered from 
his wound. In all of the operations from April 24th to 
this time Lieut.-Col. McConihe commanded the regiment. 
Maj. Alden had been assigned to command the station at 
Pawnee Landing, with its fortifications, and Adj. W. E. 
Kisselburgh was detailed as aid-de-camp on the staff of 
Gen. Vogdes, by whom his personal qualities and ability 
were highly esteemed. This position Lieut. Kisselburgh 
retained until he left the service in March, 1SG5, when he 
accepted a position, with the rank of major, in the Quarter- 
master's Department of the State of New York. 

In November, 1S63, Col. Buel was taken sick with 
fever and returned to his home at Troy, resigning his com- 
mission on Feb. 13, 1S64. 

The mortality from disease among the troops in front of 
Charleston was very great, the 169th losing less man per- 
haps than any other regiment. This was due to the care 
and skill of its medical staff, Surg. Knowlson devoting 
his best efforts to the physical welfare of the command with 
a fidelity which distinguished him during his entire period 
of service. The casualties for six months, during which 
the regiment was engaged in the siege of Charleston, were 
comparatively small, only a few men being killed or wounded. 

On Dec. 20, 18G3, Lieut.-Col. McConihe went north 
with a recruiting detail, and Maj. Alden was relieved from 
his post at Pawnee Landing to take charge of the regi- 
ment. The monotonous routine of siege duty continued 
until Feb. S, 1864, when the 169th was included in a 
force sent to make a demonstration towards the flank and 
rear of the defenses of Charleston. This movement was 
intended as a diversion to co-operale with Gen. Truman 
Seymour's expedition to Florida. The regiment was crossed 
over to Scabright Island, and thence forded the EdistO 
River to John's Island. A demonstration was made at 
Rantoul Bridge after some preliminary skirmishing, and 
with this brief ongagement a diversion was mad" of suffi- 
cient importance to retain and hold in check a rebel force 
which would otherwise have been sent to oppose Gen. Sey- 
mour's movements. The defeat at Olustec sent Gen. Sey* 
mour back to Jacksonville, on the St. John's lliver, where 
he fortified and called lor reinforcements. 


In response to this d itnan 1 troops were Bent forward. 
The 169th was included, and started in light marching 
order, leaving tents and baggage behind. On February 
23d the regiment took a transport, which carried it down 



tlie coa3t and up the St. John's River to Jacksonville, 
where it arrived on February 24th. This city showed 
proofs of the devastating influences of war, many of the 
buildings having been burned down. The regiment formed 
line of battle on the verge of the town, and, with other 
troops, constructed extensive earthworks. Upon the com- 
pletion of these the regiment was shifted across a creek 
emptying into the St. John's below the town, and went 
into camp in a grove of oaks, — a deserted planter's house 
making excellent regimental headquarters. The location 
was delightful, overlooking the beautiful St. John's River. 
These were the brief halcyon days of the regiment. It 
had never had a better selection of ground for an encamp- 
ment. The picket-line, distant less than two miles, was 
easily reached, and the luxuriant vegetation and balmy 
weather of the Southern midwinter excited a feeling of 
contentment and repose quite novel to the soldiers. Tactics 
were taken up theoretically and practically, and the pomp 
of war was put on with all the fullness required by the 
regulations compatible with the equipment of the com- 
mand. Frequent expeditions were made upon the river. 
The orange-groves, loaded with fruit and blossoms, enhanced 
the luxury of the hour. But this was short-lived. The 
enemy were known to be somewhere within reach, and an 
effort, was to be made to meet them. A force was there- 
fore sent out, the l(19th being called upon to take a hand 
in the movement. On April 1st the rebels were met on 
the King's road, about two miles out from Jacksonville. 
The skirmishing began, and, after some short, sharp work, 
it was decided not to attempt an uncertain battle, as the 
enemy were intrenched on the other side of Cedar Creek, 
where the depth of water and the overflowed land prevented 
operations with any hope of success. The troops returned 
to Jacksonville. On April 11 th, Lieut. -Col. McConihe re- 
joined the command with a number of recruits. He also 
brought his own commission as colonel, and the commissions 
as lieutenant-colonel and major of Maj. Alden and Capt. 
James A. Colvin respectively. Under these commissions, 
on April 12th, these officers were mustered in, the field- 
roster then comprising the names of Col. John McConihe, 
Lieut.-Col. Alonzo Alden, and Maj. James A. Colvin. It 
was found necessary at this time to re-equip the regiment 
with tents, knapsacks, clothing, etc., as the steamer " Maple- 
Leaf," which had been used for transporting the stores left 
behind on Folly Island, was blown up by a torpedo on the 
St. John's River, and sank to the bottom, carrying down 
all of the baggage and stores. Another change in the 
position of the regiment was then to come. 


The regiment left Jacksonville for Fortress Monroe, Va., 
April 2(1, 1SG4, reaching Hilton Head, S. O, on the 22d. 
It was there paid off, and then proceeded to Fortress Mon- 
roe, arriving on the 26th. At this point Lieut.-Col. Alden 
went home on a twenty days' leave of absence. The regi- 
ment received orders to proceed to Gloucester Point and 
there disembark, which was accomplished on the evening 
of the same day. Gen. Butler was in command of all the 
forces, and Gens. Vogdes and Foster were under him. On 
the first day of May, 1864, all the troops at this point were 

reviewed by Gen. Butler, and orders were issued to com- 
mence drills, — company, battalion, and skirmish. On May 
•lth some of the troops proceeded on transports to \Y. i 
Point, to divert the attention of tin: enemy from another 
movement. In the mean time most of the troops, including 
the 169th Regiment, went down the York River, up the 
James River, and quickly and quietly disembarked at Ber- 
muda Hundred, and proceeded immediately about seven 
miles towards Petersburg, to a point known as Foster's 
Plantation, where they constructed rifle pits. Other works 
were added in the course of operations at this point until a 
strongly-fortified line was established. A scries of move- 
ments towards and upon the rebel lines of communication 
between Richmond and Petersburg was then initiated, the 
fortified position mentioned forming the base from which 
they were conducted. On May 7th the troops moved out 
upon a road parallel with the Richmond and Petersburg 
turnpike, and towards the railway and near to what was 
called Walthall Junction. Tiie enemy was found to be 
quite strongly posted, and the movement turned out to be 
more of a reconnoissance in force, preparing the way to sub- 
sequent encounters. Considerable loss ensued to both sides, 
as a briskly-conducted fight was the outcome of this move- 
ment. The lG9th lost a few men in this action. The troops 
then returned to Hatcher's Run. On May 8th Lieut.-Col. 
Alden returned to the regiment, his leave having only half 
expired. Early on the morning of May 10th the lG9th 
marched out to near Chester Station, on the railway between 
Richmond and Petersburg, forming line of battle on each 
side of the Richmond and Petersburg turnpike facing to- 
wards Richmond, and supporting two pieces of the 1st New 
Jersey Battery which were stationed on the turnpike-road. 
The regiment, with some other troops, was temporarily 
brigaded under the command of Col. Voorhes, of the 67th 
Ohio, and the position thus taken was on the right flank of 
Gen. Gillmore's main force, which was working down towards 
Petersburg tearing up and destroying the railway and cut- 
ting this line of communication between Richmond and 
Petersburg. The 13th Indiana was to the left of the 
169th, holding a country road running parallel to the turn- 
pike, and supporting a section of Elder's regular batter} - . 
The ground intervening between the two roads was well 
wooded, and the connection between the regiments was 
broken by dense masses of underbrush and young timber. 
These troops were to guard against any surprise or sudden 
advance of the enemy from Richmond. 

This movement, not unexpected, therefore, soon began. 
The rebels massed in front and began manoeuvring to turn the 
position. Brisk firing ensued between the batteries men- 
tioned and the rebel guns. A stubborn contest on the skir- 
mish-line soon satisfied the Confederates that things were not 
so easy as they had expected. They formed their line of battle, 
and, deploying a brigade on the right flank of the 169th, 
charged for the purpose of breaking its centre and turning 
its right. The regiment was greatly overmatched, and the 
masses of the enemy excited remark as they came down, 
the exclamation " Good God ! major, see how thick they 
are !" coming from the lips of Capt. Ferguson, of K com- 
pany, to Major Colvin, who held four companies of the left 
wing in the woods, on the left-hand side of the turnpike. 



The right wing of the regiment, under Lieut.-Col. Alden.nnd 
the two remaining companies of the left wing occupied the 
woods "ii the right-hand side of the road, the right wing 
being posted partially in the woods and partially in open 
ground jusl outside and in front of them. The attempted 
flanking movement on the right \v;is mel by Lieut. Col. 
Alden witb a change of front, and the enemy were repulsed 
ac that point, tho engagement becoming very hot. Fresh 
troops on the rebel side were thrown forward, overlapping 
the right wing of the regiment, which as steadily swung 
around its flank to prevent the rebels from getting in its 
rear ; and ii was not until outnumbered, and when the enemy 
had surrounded and captured a portion of Company A. 
that the right wing slowly retired, yielding the ground 
stubbornly. While the right was thus engaged the left 
win.', posted on the turnpike, was having its share of the 
conflict. The rebels charged in double formation, or four 
deep. The steady fire of the 1 69th did not prevent their 
advance, and they kept their formation splendidly and 
• d forward. Major Colvin, in response to the request 
of the lieutenant commanding the section of the 1st New 
y Battery, stationed on the road, swung back tho right 
of his tour companies, so as to permit the gun to be fired 
across his front and obliquely to the turnpike. This gun 
handsomely served, and was discharged twice with a 
full grist of canister, piling up the rebels in front. But 
the attacking force was too strong; it had already begun to 
lap over the left of the regiment, and to avoid being flanked 
Col. McConihe ordered the men to fall back. The artillery- 
men in charge of the limber had driven furiously away, 
leaving the gun on the left of the road behind. Its fellow 
on the right bad been withdrawn. .Major Colvin called for 
men to help run the gun off and stooped to loosen the trail- 
when the bur-ting of a shell alongside and the close 
proximity of the enemy warned him that there was no time, 
and the gun was left to its fate. One of the capturing 
■ immediately jumped upon the piece and crowed like 
a' rooster. The regiment fell back a lew rods to a cross- 
i. where it found reinforcements coming up. A charge 
was made upon the enemy, and the gun was recaptured. 
Tho rebels made a counter-charge, and the position previ- 

:npied by the 169th 1 ainc debatable ground, 

neither side holding it. In ibis action the regiment lost 

fifty-eight men. killed, wounded, and missing. Col. Mc- 

ihc, who was on the turnpike near the centre of the 

mi nt, was cool 1 collected, and bad his horse shot 

under him. The undergrowth caught fire during this con- 
flict, anl tl who were Beverely wounded were unable to 

them perishing in the flames. After- 
wards a burying detail, under Bag of truce, was Bent out 
from each side. Tho 169th behaved splendidly in this 
nff.iir, falling back only at the lost moment, and gained 
nt for its Stl idincSS and bravery. LieuL-Col. Aid. n - 

skillful handling of the right wing Baved tho gn iter part 
of ilie regiment from capture. 

On Ma) 1 lib the 169th, with other troops, numbering 
about two thousand, under command of Bi 
was the left flank of the army then operating 

Dst Dairy's Bluff, on th River. On this i 

it the oth of the Ii 

having been transferred from the right to the left flank. 
It was stationed on the line of the railroad at and across 
the Richmond and Petersburg turnpike, with pickets 
thrown out on high ground overlooking the latter city, 
and lacing in just the contrary direction from the position 
of May 10th. On the 15th most of the troops composing 
Ames' command were ordered to join the forces operating 
against. Fort Darling, and only the 169th New York and 
the 13th Indiana, with Sanger's regular battery of light 
artillery and a regiment of colored cavalry, remained. 
Maj. Colvin as division officer of the day had beeti left in 
charge of the picket-line in front of the works at Foster's 
Plantation, and included in his command were one hundred 
men of the 169th. Late on the evening of the 15th he 
was ordered to bring these men to the front, and, relieving 
this detachment from the picket, they rejoined the regiment 
without waiting to send the knapsacks back to the works. 
From this little event arose an interesting episode in the 
history of the regiment which will be given farther on. 
The morning of May ICth opened with ever}' prospect of 
a bright and pleasant day. An extremely dense fog over- 
hung the land early in the morning, but it was of that kind 
which rises to meet the sun and bears promise of something 
livelier and more cheerful behind it. In this instance it 
had something of a lively surprise in store. The air was 
pleasant, the sun lighting up the fog ; the camp-fires sent 
up their curling smoke from where the regiment lay lazily 
enjoying the opening day on the slope of the hill which 
rose gently from the cut through which the railroad ran; 
the pickets were well out and alert, cavalry videttes being 
posted on the front and flank of the forces, and everything 
seemed secure. But as " things are not what they seem," 
so it proved in this ease. Just as the breakfast had been 
served to the field-officers, and before they had a chance to 
taste of it, a hurried rush of horses, the sharp challenge of 
the picket, and an instant alarm brought every one to his 
feet and the regiment quickly into line. The picket along 
the railway was reinforced, and Col. McConihe was told 
that the enemy bad driven in the cavalry and were close 
ai hand. Sharp firing soon began, ah hough as yet the en- 
emy were invisible, but as if it needed only this to start tho 
tremulous mist, the curtain slowly rose to a scene of excit- 
ing warfare. The rebel skirmish-line occupied one side of 
the railroad, and the 169th picket, deployed, held the other, 
while on the rise of ground beyond the railroad the rebel 
line of battle was advancing. Sanger's Lattery, in position 
on the crest to the rear of the 169th, opened fire, and was 
■ quickly answered from the other side. Forced back by su- 
perior numbers, the outpost retired slowly. Here Lieut. 
\V. S. Birdsall, a young and promising officer, was killed. 
The entire regiment was then deployed in skirmishing or- 
der, and, being haul pressed, fell back, facing the enemy 
and preserving its line, across a ravine and up an adjoining 
sl<.pe. where ii halted. The needed reinforcements by this 
time coming up, the line was advanced to rcoccupy iis for- 
mer position. The rebel line was steadily driven back to 
the railroad, and the camp of the morning was regained, 
but the breakfast was gone, the shelter-tents were missing, 
and the knapsacks belonging to the men brought up the 
night before had disappeared. These knapsacks, however, 



have still another part to bear in this history. The less of 
the regiment in this action was thirty-six officers and men, 
killed, wounded, and missing. 

The fortifications on the Bermuda Hundred front, pre- 
viously referred to, had been made very strong, and ex- 
tended from the James River to the Appomattox. The 
position was strategic, and consequently a source of annoy- 
ance and discomfort to the enemy. On May ISth an efforl 
was made in the vicinity of Hatcher's Run to break the 
line and dislodge the Union forces from their intrench- 
ments. The picket-line was strongly attacked and forced at 
one or two points, but the enemy were vigorously met, and 
the artillery prevented any further advance. This attempt 
was renewed on the 20th, and again on the 22d, but with- 
out success, the rebels being repulsed in every attack. In 
these engagements the lG9th lost twenty-seven men. 


Maj.-Gen. W. F. Smith, commanding the 18th Corps, 
having been ordered with his command to report to Gen. 
Grant, then engaged in his celebrated movement by the left 
flank, was reinforced with the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 10th 
Army Corps, Col. J. C. Drake commanding. This brigade 
comprised the 169th and 112th New York, the 13th In- 
diana, the 9th Maine, and 4th New Hampshire Volunteers, 
and was assigned to the 3d Division of the 18th Corps, 
commanded by Gen. Charles Devens. Embarking on May 
27th, the regiment went to West Point, whence it marched 
to White House, Va., the entire division reaching there on 
May 30th. On the afternoon of May 31st the troops 
moved out to a point distant about ten miles from White 
House, and on the morning of June 1st started to effect a 
junction with Gen. Grant. They reached Cold Harbor 
about five o'clock p.m. Gen. Devens' division formed line 
of battle under fire on the outer edge of a piece of woods, 
which skirted a road by which the troops had come into 
position, and which, at the point where the 169th was 
posted, ran parallel to the formation. The brief moments 
before the charge was ordered gave no time for rest. The 
men had been marching all day, and went into the action 
fully equipped, with knapsacks slung. Between the Hue of 
battle and the rebel forces was a large field or stretch of 
open ground half a mile wide, on the further verge of 
which was a thickly-wooded ridge or hill, sloping upwards 
from the intervening plain. At the foot of this slope and 
at the edge of the timber the rebel skirmish-line was posted 
in small pits, and the ridge was crowned with a strong rifle- 
pit, flanked and supported by the rebel batteries. The guns 
enfiladed the ground over which the charge was to be made. 
There was little time for thought, for soon the order came 
to "forward." The 169th advanced with its division, the 
long line of battle moving steadily from the woods, pre- 
ceded by its skirmish-line, and the order " double-quick, 
march" being given, the men started forward with a cheer 
and dash. They were met with volleys of musketry in 
front, with shot and shell, shrapnel and canister in their 
face and from the flank. It was a trying task to cross that 
field through its bell of flame and death ; but still they 
pressed onward. The knapsacks became irksome, and the 
men unslung them right and left, as still they charged 

onward. Comrades fell last, the ranks were broken, the 
dead and wounded were not few but many, and still the 
charge was sustained until reaching the edge of the woods, 
at the font of the enemy's position, the line paused and 

closed up the ranks. The leaden bail poured fast, the bill 
was yet to be surmounted, and the rebi 1 work- were to be 

At ibis moment Col. John McConihe I'll, giving up his 
life for the flag he loved so well, one bullet piercing bis 

body and another bis heart. Col. Drake, Commanding (lie 
brigade, received a mortal wound. Lieut.-Col. \ldc mi, as- 
suming command of the 169th, ordered the charge to be 
resumed, and gallantly did the regiment respond. Up the 
bill, — up to where the line of earthworks vomited forth its 
flame, — onward, still onward pressed the regiment, until 
at length the line was won, and, pouring over the intrench- 
luents, the 169th and its brave associates held the ground 
for which they fought. But it had cost them dear! — one 
hundred and three officers and men of the 169th having 
bought victory with their blood. 

Lieut.-Col. Alden was wounded in the head when, seizing 
the regimental color from its bearer, who had fallen, he had 
driven its staff" into the parapet of the rebel works. He was 
carried from the field by rebel prisoners, who at his com- 
mand did duty in bearing off the killed and wounded of the 
regiment. Col. Alden's wound was pronounced mortal by 
the surgeons, but he still lives, ('apt. Allen was shot 
through the arm, and also left the field. The morning re- 
port of the regiment on the day of the battle of < 'old Harbor 
showed an effective force of four hundred and ten men. 
Maj. Colvin was left in command. After the close of the 
fight the troops held the ground they had taken. The 
regiment captured a number of prisoners, and with them 
some of the knapsacks lettered Co. F, 169th New Y T ork 
Volunteers, before referred to as having been lost on the 
day of the Drury's Bluff fight. The regiment remained at 
Cold Harbor for several days, during which the Army of 
the Potomac continued its movement by the left flank, 
until at length the 18th Corps, being then on the right 
flank of that army, was called on in turn to follow out Gen. 

Grant's pli f operations. On June 13th the 18th Corps, 

with the 169th, under command of Maj. Colvin, was with- 
drawn to the rear, and left Cold Harbor, marching to White 
House. The regiment again took transports and was carried 
back to Bermuda Hundred, and crossing the Appomattox at 
Point of Rocks participated in the advance on Petersburg. 

This movement was made with celerity, and early on the 
afternoon of June loth line of battle was formed facing 
Petersburg Heights. Shortly before dusk the order was 
given to charge, and the line of battle swept forward, pre- 
ceded by its skirmishers. There was a short but ineffective 
resistance by the defenders of the rebel works, and the long 
line of rifle-pits and redoubts was quickly captured, with a 
number of pieces of artillery. On this occasion the regi- 
ment met with very slight loss. At dark the regiment was 
moved to the left of where it was resting, and was directed 
to reverse the rebel rifle-pit in front of its position. This 
work was undertaken. Maj. Colvin was ordered by Col. 
Curtis, then commanding the brigade, to scud out a picket 
detail under command ol'a captain to mako, connection with 

*< : 5lJ0 

J A 


iii>T(ii;v ok i;i:nssi:i,aer county, new york. 

the pickets to the right and left of the regiment This 

was done. The picket was throw it towards Petersburg, 

and Capt Turbell, commanding the detail, rec< oitered 

the ground in front Returning to the line of works, he 
reported to Maj. Colvin that he had gone to some distance 

in advance of the picket and had found pposing force, 

and :i>ki >1 why the i ps were not pressed forward. Maj. 

Colvin went with Capt. Tnrbell beyond the line some dis- 
tance towards Petersburg, and confirmed the luttcr's report 
Returning, he sought Col. Curtis, liis brigade commander, 
whom he found conferring with Gen. Smith. He imme- 
diately reported the facts ju-t stated, and was ordered by 
Gen. Smith to return to his regiment. 1 1 « - complied. It 

was underst 1 thnt the -'1 Corps, under Gen. Bancock, 

pursuing the left-flank movement, would relievo the l^th 

Corps that night. It < 1 i • 1 so, i ling up about two o'clock 

a m. on the 16lh. All night long the rattling of trains 
and the sound of locomotive-whistles indicated that Gen. 

is hurrying his troops to Petersburg to confront the 
danger that awaited him there. The morning of June lt!th 
dawned, and Lee was in front in force. The rebel lines con- 
fronted the I'liion army on the very ground which had 
been passed over the night preceding by Capt. Tarhell, and 
the long siegeof Petersburg had begun. On June 16th the 
2d Corps charged to gain the position over which the 18th 
Corps could have walked on the night before, and was re- 
pulsed with great loss. < In June 17th the regiment returned 
to Bermuda Hundred, where remaining only three days it 

at back t" Petersburg, arriving there on June 21st 

- at once put into the line of works, and went on 

picket duty. On Juno 30th the 2d Brigade of the division 

was ordered to charge the enemy's works, concealing its 

tent behind a piece of woods. The 3d Brigade, in- 
cluding the 169th, was ordered to make a demonstration to 
the left of the proposed assault, for the purpose of divert- 
ing attention from the main attack. It was an unfortunate 
diversion fur the regiment Col. Burton, commanding the 
I'd Brigade, did not assault as expected, and the 3d Brigade 
bore the brunt of the battle. The 169th, at first under the 
shelter of a hank rising from the edge of a small stream, 
Icred forward. The rebel defenses were very near 
to the Union line, — so close, in fact, that the men on either 

ild call out to the Other and handy Words. As the 

nVoni its sheltered position and attempted to 

ir was met with a withering fire, bo close, so hot in 

it there was do withstanding it. The men 

shot down in one tierce blast, falling in line like- a 

windrow of grain which is cut by the reaper. There • 

i the terribly-weakened line fell hack the rew- 
ind regained cover. The regiment 
illy depleted by the casualties occurring 
daring the month, Maj. Colvin was only able to take one 
hundred and fifty men into this fight He brought back 
ty-eu fit for duty, losing four in killed and 

wounded within the bricl -pee of a few minutes. This 
slaughl iment for June. | 86 I. 

In the hri. ' thirty day- beginning with thi 

i Harbor, on dune 1st, and ending with this fight 

• thro hun 
ind men in killed and wound, d. 

The regiment continued in the trenches, losing a daily 
average of throe men. but recovering some of its strength 
by the return of convalescents from hospitals, etc. On 
duly 30th it participated in the charge on the rebel lines 
which followed the explosion of the mine under one of the 
forts in front of (Vuieten Hill, which Gen. Grant was 
anxious to SCCUI'e. The details of this groat battle, although 
interesting, cannot be given. We can only review the ac- 
tion of the 169th. On the night before the morning of the 
explosion the regiment was moved hack from the trenches 
and sent to the roar, and left within easy distance of the point 
from which the charge was to be made. Early in the morn- 
ing of duly 30th the regiment was sent forward to the rear 
of the works, flouting the mine. The men were told to 
lie down and make no noise, no matter what happened. 
The day had dawned, the morning was bright and clear. 
Everything was ready, and every one was intent with ex- 
pectation. On cither hand were the siege batteries, with 
the artillerymen at their posts; the massive guns were 
loaded and trained, and the gunners stood ready to fire. 
There was a shaking of the earth, and as the rebel fort went 
high in the air. in a mixture of men, dirt, and timber, the 
iron-throated monsters belched forth their flame and smoke 
with a deafening roar. All along the line the guns opened. 
and it seemed as if the universe must split with the infer- 
nal din of hundreds of cannon. The troops jumped to their 
feet, and their resounding cheers added to the uproar. The 
sharp rattling of musketry and the rebel cry showed that 
the armies were engaged. The battle had begun ; its his- 
tory cannot be told here. The troops were hurried forward 
in support of those in advance. Gen. Turner, then com- 
manding the division to which the 169th was attached, 
formed his command in massed column of regiments, lefl 
in front, thus bringing the 169th at the head of the divis- 
ion. This was done just under cover of the advanced line 
of the Union works. Gen. Turner gave the commai 
forward, and the regiment dashed over the works and the 
.'round intervening between the lines. Reaching the rebel 
defenses, further progress was stopped by the masses of men 
in front, who had (barged and occupied the inside of the 
enemy's rifle-pits. The movement on Cemetery Hill was 
not successful, but the regiment held its position enfiladed 
by a lire from the rebel batteries to its right. Late in the 
day the regiment was withdrawn, the rebels coming down 

in force and regaining their intrenchments. The 169th 
fell hack only when the enemy had possession of the rifle- 
pits, and w.-re so .lose that opposing forces could have 
shaken hand- across the top of the earthwork. The colon 
bearer being wounded. Maj. Colvin brought off the regj] 
mental standard. Capt Vaughn, r company, was kille 
in this action, the total loss of the regiment being twenty- 


i in \u_- I. 1864, the regiment returned to Bermudl 

Hundred, and Lieut-Col. Aldcn resumed command, having 

i IV.. m his wound received at Cold Harbor. On 

i-i 10th the 169th was assigned to duty at Dutch Cap, 

on the James River, and supplied the picket detail and do- 

to tie- working parties engaged in digging the canal. 
The morning of August 13th was ushered in with the mar 



of cannon from the rebel gunboats and batteries, starting 
every man from his tent. A shot from one of the gun- 
boats passed over the plateau on which the regimen) was 
encamped, carrying down several of the shelter-touts and 

accelerating the movements of their inmates. On this a 

sion the regiment lost twenty two. Lieut. Crippen was killed, 
Asst. Surg. Mandeville was badhj wounded, and Lieut. 
Swartwout, acting adjutant, lost his left arm. The position 
was held and the work progressed. The brigade was re- 
joined on August 10th at Deep Bottom, where a conflict 
was raging. The regiment arrived late, and lost only 
slightly. In the morning the enemy retired, and the com- 
mand returned to the .lames River. On August 20th the 
169th went back to Bermuda Hundred, and on August 
25th to Petersburg, where it remained en siege-duty until 
September 28th. Karly in September, Lieut -Col. Alden 
went North to secure a detail of drafted men for the regi- 
ment, and rejoined at Chapin's Farm on October 1st. Sep- 
tember 2Dth was memorable for the fight at Chapin's Farm 
and the assault on Fort Gilmer, Maj. Colvin then com- 
manding the regiment. In the first charge the rebels were 
driven from their positions behind two successive lines of 
snake-fence and fell back on a run towards Richtnoud. 
The 169th pressed on after a rebel field-piece which had 
been annoying in its attentions, but failed to capture it. 
This charge was made across the fields to the right of the 
road extending towards Richmond and parallel with Fort 
Gilmer. It was a very pretty thing while it lasted, but 
was soon over, the regiment dashing ahead with a vigor 
which demoralized the opposing forces, who sought shelter 
under cover of their fortifications. This charge was no 
sooner ended than line was formed to charge Fort Gilmer. 
This work was a part of the defenses of Richmond, and was 
on the same line and series as Fort Harrison, captured the 
same day by the Union forces operating farther to the left. 
A hollow intervened between the road and the fort. The 
regiment charged down the slope and up the next hill to 
the very abatis around the fort, but, the brigade being un- 
supported, could do no more, and fell back to the road, still 
within range of Fort Gilmer's guns. In these actions the 
regiment lost thirty men in killed, wounded, and missing. 
Capt. Mulhall was severely wounded by a canister-shot 
passing through his thigh. Capt. B. N. Smith was dis- 
tinguished in the assault on the fort for his gallantry and 
daring. That night the regiment fell back, and a line of 
works was constructed. Lieut.-Col. Alden having returned 
was mustered as colonel, Maj. Colvin taking promotion as 
lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. J. II. Allen succeeding as 
major. On October 8th the enemy made their appearance 
on the Darbytown road, driving in the pickets, capturing 
Elder's battery, and charging on the extreme right, where 
they were met by the 1st Division, while the 2d Division, 
including the 169th, moved up in support. The rebels lost 
heavily and were repulsed, the casualties on the Union side 
being very small. 


On Dec. 7, 1864, the first Fort Fisher expedition started, 
under command of Gen. Butler. The 169th composed 
part of this expedition. December 8th the regiment em- 
barked at Bermuda Hundred on the steamer " Sedgwick," 

in which ii proceeded i" Hampton Roads. I' having been 
decided that the '■ Siluwiek" was nut seaworthj the troops 
». re transferred to the steamei "Baltio," which sailed on the 
12th, and reported at a point about twenty-five miles "If 
Fort Fisher, N. C, ami <m the 24th and 25th the fleet of 
gunboats, frigates, ami monitors opened a fuiious bombard- 
ment on the fort. At two o'clock p m. on the 24th a por- 
tion of the troops, iucluding tie- 169th, landed north of 
Fort Fisher, and captured two hundred and sixty of the 
enemy, and were preparing to make a charge on the fort, 

when orders were received iVom Gen. Butler to re-embark 
without delay. The re-embarkment continued all night. 

'I'h.' 169th were, however, aboard the " Baltic" early in the 
evening. Gen. Butler thought the fort could not In- taken 
by assault, and therefore ordered the expedition to return. 

The regiment returned to its camp at Chapin's Farm on 
December 31st, and three days later was again ordered, with 
other troops under command of Gen. A. 11. Terry, to re- 
turn to Fort Fisher. Taking tin' steamer " Thames'' on Jan- 
uary 4th, the 169th was landed on the morning of the 13th 
on the beach, about four miles north of Fort Fisher. The 
169th was the first regiment to land, and Lieut.-Col Colvin 
was the first on shore. The landing was effected near a 
redoubt, which was hastily evacuated by the Confederates, 
and taken possession of by Company I, Capt. Dunn com- 
manding. During the night of the loth the regiment 
moved down to within a mile of the fort. On the 14th, 
Col. Alden, being detailed as general officer of the day, 
made a careful reconnoissance of all the approaches to Fort 
Fisher, and with his reserve captured a boat loaded with 
provisions and ammunition at a dock on the Cape Fear 
River, near the fort. The troops were put into position 
during the morning of the 15th. A line of works, facing 
towards Wilmington, had been thrown up, and these were 
defended by the 3d Division of the 10th Corps, consisting 
of colored troops, and Abbott's brigade of the 1st Division 
of the 10th Corps. The 169th was included in Gen. 
Ames' or the 2d Division of the same corps, and it may be 
here remarked that this division, or portions of it, had served 
at times with the 18th Corps, and had become so inter- 
changeable that it was in the habit of wearing the badges 
of both the 10th and 18th Corps. 

The 2d Division having been selected to assault Fort 
Fisher, its brigades were formed in three lines of battle, in 
the following order: 1st Brigade, Col. N. M. Curtis; 2d 
Brigade, Col. Galusha Pennypacker; 3d Brigade, Col. 
Alonzo Alden. The 3d Brigade included the 169th Regi- 
ment, under command of Lieut.-Col. James A. Colvin, 
Col. Alden having been called to take charge of the brigade, 
as Col. Bell, its regular commander, had been assigned to 
other duty. The charge was made at three o'clock p.m. 
This record does not permit of an account of the efforts 
and deeds of the other brigades or regiments. The charge 
was led by the 1st Brigade, followed closely by the 2d. 
Col. Alden, who was a few rods in advance of his brigade, 
had sent word back to Lieut.-Col. Colvin to be ready to 
charge, and at the proper moment raised bis hand and 
beckoned the regiment on. Lieut.-Col. Colvin, drawing bis 
salne, gave the command, " Forward, double-quick, march," 
and with one impulse all the officers of the regiment sprang 



to tin- front, and as their swords swung high in the air and 
flashed in 1 1» •- sunlight the men gave a ringing cheer and 
bounded forward. Never did the regiment go into a fighl 
in better spirits or with greater vigor. 

Under the heavy fire from the fori and from the rebel 
gunboat on the Cape Pear River, which poured in its shol 
from the flank, the regiment pressed forward, rapidly re- 
ducing the distance to the coveted works. A strung timber 

palisade protected the land fa< i which the troops were 

advancing. A fearful shower of grape poured over and 
around them, but still they pressed onward until, seeing an 
irtunity for entering the fort by the sally-port, they 
made a movement by the right Hank, crossinga little bridge 
over a small inlet or stream, and dashed along the roadway 
into the fort As the regiment entered, Gen. Ames di- 
rected Lieut-Col. Colvin to take it around to the rear of 
the works and push the men in as far as possible. Tliis 
was done, and the rebel garrison met them only a few feet 
ilistant. Determined to hold the ground, the men advanced 
until the stubborn resistance of the enemy made further 
progress only a matter of dogged, persistent fighting. The 
big Armstrong pin [.resented to the Confederates by Brit- 
ish admirer- was wheeled inward and discharged at the 
Union troops. A private in the 169th, who had served in 
the Russian army, seized a rebel field-piece and, aided by 
of lii- comrades, fired it with good effect. Col. Alden 
in the top of the fort, directing the brigade and fight- 
ing with bis men from traverse to traverse. — almost hand 
to band. — capturing one gun-platform after another. Each 
traverse was thus an independent work, and bad to be 
charged and taken in turn. 

Just before dark a dingy white cloth was waved from 
one of the entrauces to the subways under the platforms 
and traverses. As the 169th was then in the rear of the 
fort, which was not inclosed, and on the ground-level of 
the fort, this cloth was Been by Lieut. -Col. Colvin, who, 
waving his handkerchief in reply and calling on his men 
firing, went forward with six men of bis regiment. 
A j art of the garrison was anxious to surrender, and one 
hundred and Bcventy prisoners were passed out in charge 

of the squad. Night cai n, and .-till the lighting was 

kept up. Gaining ground steadily, the troops pressed the 
rebels back, and the opposing fore.- were bo close together 
thai the Bhells from the Union gunboats fell with fatal 
effect among our own men. At half-past ten o'clock r m. 
I ii.-r of the 169th called out " They are running," and 
with a wild hurrah the men followed in pursuit. This 
. nded a conflict which may fairly be called one of the best 
achi of the war. The fori was garrisoned by 

four hundred men. It had tWO side- or 

nting up the tongi f land formed by the 

' ! r River and the Atlantic Ocean. 

Tbi ig and heavy palisade of 

firmly bolted and braced together. The -■ 
(ended down the coast for nearly a mile. The point of 

bind where 'I eean and the river met was fortified with 

what 'I I Batter] on tl liter side, and 

by B i in on the inner. The fort was an 

'.work, with ■ gun platforms, elevated 

the surface-level, were pro- 

tected and separated by traverses vising perhaps fifteen feet 
higher. A small bastion occupied the angle or end of the 
land-face on the river side, and another bastion about forty 
feel high held the angle at the junction of the land- and 
sea-faces. Torpedoes were planted along the front. These 
fortunately were not exploded, as a monitor-shell had cut 
the electric wins intended for that purpose. The attacking 
force numbered less than three thousand five hundred men, 
who achieved a victory of which they had just reason to 
be proud. Gen. Ames, commanding the division, is enti- 
tled to the highest, honors for bis successful management 
of the attack and capture. The assault, was entirely under 
bis control after it was started, and to bis persistence, cour- 
age, and skill, the efforts of his staff, and the heroic daring 
of bis command, the glorious result was due. lie entered 
the fort with his troops, and fought them thereuntil the 
end of the struggle. After the evacuation the rebels fled 
down to the point, about a mile distant, followed up by 
Abbott's brigade, which had been sent at the last moment 
by lien. Terry to make a final charge, but was not called 
upon to engage in the fight. Gen. Whiting and Col. 
Lamb, the rebel commanding officers, were wounded, and 
surrendered with their forces to' Col. Henry C. Lock wood, 
of Gen. Ames' staff. 

The 169th lost in this assault a smaller number of men 
than could have been expected. Lieut. Ryan, a promising 
young officer, was killed, aud the total killed and wounded 
was about fifty, Maj. Allen being among the latter. But 
the regiment was to be the victim of a greater calamity. 
It had been ordered with its brigade to take charge of the 
fort, and had bivouacked about one hundred feet from 
and in a line with the large magazine. This magazine 
was blown up early on the morning of the 10th, and a large 
portion of the regiment was covered with the earth and 
dibris, Capt. Ferguson and Lieuts. Cipperley and Mo- 
1 - -or were killed, the regiment losing eighty men by this 
explosion. Col. Alden, who, as commander of the brigade, 
was anxious to familiarize himself with the works, ai 
early on the 16th, and while surveying the fort was caught 
in the explosion. He was struck by heavy timbers and 
covered with sand and terribly injured. He was at first 
supposed to be dead, but finally rallied and remained for six 
weeks totally am scious. 

The regiment, under command of Lieut. -Col. Colvin, 
remained in garrison at the fort until February 11th. The 
following statement as to the Fori Kisber light, together 
with the regimental reports made thereon, was published in 
iln Troj Timet shortly after the action : 

"] mi Fism u, X. i'.. .Ian. 20, lsi',:,. 
" In I lie boliof tli ai ic « - r i the t69th "ill be s . ■ 1 1 ir 1 • t after, I am 

anxiout i mmunicatc it through v..iir column,", li will be n 

lected that the r.„'i nl [in ipntcd in the first expedition In this 

point. Wo returned t r old camp near Richmond nl i December 

Alter rcmi days, we were again ordered away, and 

after lOTOml 'lav- :il BCn :irn IT "lir former point 

.a dobai kfl 

"The I'.'.'ih was Hie first regiment to land, and the writer ■ 

I. Alden in charge "I the lir-i Coinpnn) Ml 
tir-t ashore an. I immediately deployed n« skirmishers, and in aft* 
miio,. . in plight skirmish-firing with the enemy. 

Company 1 (Nail-Factor; Company . commanded by I'.ipt. .lamci 
II. Dunn, landed shortly after an up the bench. I 

■ and captured a thirty-two-poundcr columbiad and 



i quantity of ammunition. The gun was spiked, bul was soon pul in 
working order by I>. F. Winters, a member of the band. It waa 
turned on the enemy. A skirmishing-pnrty from Company I cap- 
tured eighty four head of uattle. The day waa occupied in Landing 
troops and stoics. 

"On the morning of the 15th the command was ordered towards 
Fort Fisher. It soou became i'\ tdenl thai work was to be dono. The 
,11,11 moved in fine spirits, and never evinced better morale. The 
lino of battle waa formed but a short distance from the fort, the navy 
keeping up a furious bombardment and greatly protecting the dispo- 
sition of the troops. Finally the chnrge was ordered, an i one of the 
fiercest assaults ni" tin- wai Ik-hii. Tin- I > t lit i^ole led, tin- 2d fol- 
lowed, ami then our own (the 3d). The rear of the fori waa reached 
through a storm of bullets and grape. The contest was desperate. 
The fort was to be taken or we were all gone. There was do such 
thing as getting away from it in case of failure. The men knew it, 
and with almost unparalleled gallantry stood up to the work. Tin 
P.M. found the fort in our possession, the enemy doing their best to 
get away. The forces engaged captured many prisoners, — almost 
man for man. The enemy suffered terribly. While the fight was 
progressing, our line in the rear, which was defended by the colored 
troops and the 2d Brigade of the l.-t Division, was attacked. Capt. 
E. It. Smith was in command of the picket-line at that point, ami 
held his own until compelled t<» lull back under oovcr of the gun- 
boats. This demonstration effected nothing, as our troops were not 
to lie driven back. Capt. Smith re-established his line at dusk. The 
accounts ami dispatches already published "ill furnish a better idea 
of our victory than 1 can give. It. is impossible to describe the 
exteut and magnitude of this, tin- -l t ungest earthwork and one of tho 
must powerful defenses in the world. An unfortunate casualty mai red 
our triumph. Our brigade had been placed in charge of the fort after 
its rapture. Early the next morning a magazine exploded directly 
in front of and but, a few rods from the brigade. The 169th was 
immediately opposite, and many valuable officers and men were 
buried and lost. About one hundred of the regiment were mingled 
in the ruins and covered by the debris. Col. Alden, who had been 
prominent for his coolness and gallantry in the assault of the preced- 
ing day, was dangerously if not fatally wounded. Capt. Daniel 
Ferguson and Lieuts. Cipperly and .Mctiregor were killed and others 
wounded. The cause of the explosion is a matter of doubt. Some 
say that a sailor carried a lighted candle into the magazine, while 
others attribute the disaster to the rebels. A wire was afterwards 
found leading from the magazine to the river, and supposed to run 
across to a rebel battery immediately opposite. Appended is the 
report of the lieutenant-colonel upon the operations of the regiment 
in the assault, together with a full list of casualties. 

*' Yours, C." 

" Headqu \imi i;s 169th New York Vols., 
Fort Fisher, N.-C., Jan. 17, 1805. 
" C \it. G. VV. Hi ik i\s, A. A. A. G. — The undersigned has thehouor 
to report that upon the opt ning of the engagement of the 15th instant. 
Col. Alonzo Alden was in command of the brigade. The undersigned 
took command of the regiment. It would seem almost invidious to 
make any special mention of officers and men, when all did their duty 
with unparalleled gallantry and zeal. The undersigned can bear testi- 
mony that every officer led his men, and the men vied with each other 
to attain the front. Col. Alonzo Alden was distinguished for his ac- 
customed coolnees and bravery. Major J. H. Allen was shot through 
the arm and leg, but persisted in remaining with the command. 
Oapts. Daniel Ferguson, das. II. Dunn, Chas. D. Merrill, J. II. War- 
ren, and E. W. Church were distinguished for their coolness and gal- 
lantry. Lieut. J. II. Straight, wounded, Michael Ryan, killed. 
Michael Russell, wounded, all in command of companies, were the 
right men in the right place. After the death of Lieut. Ryan, Lieut. 
J. R. Foote assumed command of his company, and led it gallantly. 
Lieut. E. Van Santvoord deserves mention. Lieut. E. R. Mosber 
was hit by a spent ball on the 13th. He went into the fight on tho 
loth, being obliged to use a cane. He hopped into the fight, leading 
bis men. Other officers distinguished themselves, ami, indeed, all de- 
serve mention. The undersigned has mentioned such as came par- 
ticularly under bis notice. Accompanying will be found a list of en- 
listed men who distinguished themselves, also a full report of losses 

in actions. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
"J. A. Colvin, Lieut.-Col. Commanding IQ'Jth X. Y. V." 

11 Hi wqi ibtei Z, Vols., 

I ori I.-iu i:, V C., Jan. 17, 1 
■• c \ it. Geo. W. Huckins, A. A. \ . ' '• . I havi tin bonoi 

the following names ol enlisted □ i having d I ngui bed them 

Bolves for gallant ry in the assault on the 15th P rival John I inlay, 
Co. A, wounded; 1st Sergt. John Fleming, Coloi Bi arer Corp. Peter 
ii terhout, wounded ; Corp. Jno, VIcGolrick, privati I b i Madden B 

private Win. 11. Freeman, B, who rolun! I to i ai i j tin bi ■ 

Hag after the bearer was wounded j Corp. Patrick Hoi ley, D j Bi 

L. R. W Icock, wounded; private Patrick Murphy, E, killed; ' 

Jno. McLoughlin, T. .1. Congdon, privates John Jimjack, Patrick 

Curley, F; 1st Sergt. Charles II. NoyCS, wounded; Corp. I.. 0. Dell, 

II, killed; 1st Sergt. Patrick Uymer, Sergt, Benj. G. Walker, pri- 
vate Jas Lester, G ; 1st Sergt. Goo. Campbell, Sergts. Jas. F. Smith, 

Rob' I Rainsbury, woundeJ, I ; and specially i imende 1 for bravery, 

in the presence of the commanding officers, Corp. Cho ' in, I: 
1st Sergt. dos. White, K; Sergt. Maj. T. II. Gardner. The com- 
manding officer desires especially to mention Fredcricl Close, o 1 Co, 
P, who was conspicuous for his gallantry and bravery in getting a 

field-piece into position and firing upon the enemy aftei bi go do 

of the works. Many of the officers report that their men did so well 

that the} could make no special mention, and the ooi anding officer 

is constrained to base his report chiefly upon circumstances within his 

own observation. 

u y,. rv respectfully, 

"Jas. A. Colvin, Lieut.- Col. commanding 169th X. )'. \ ." 

The succeeding operations were directed against Wil- 
mington, N. C. A movement was made towards Mason- 

boro' Sound, with the intention of moving on the flank of 
Gen. Bragg and compelling the surrender of Wilmington. 

At this time Lieut.-Col. Colvin was relieved from the 
command of the 169th by Gen. Ames, and ordered to the 
command of the 2d Brigade of the division. This command 
he held until after the capture of Wilmington and until the 
regiment was detached for special service. Capt. James II. 
Dunn then took command of the regiment. On February 
1 8th the regiment crossed Cape Fear River with other troops? 
and made a cUtour to the rear of Fort Anderson, for the pur- 
pose of cutting off the retreat of the enemy, but the enemy 
had about one hour the start and evacuated their stronghold. 
Many guns and much ammunition were captured. 

On the 20th the regiment crossed the river and joined in 
the attack on the enemy's lines defending Wilmington, 
causing the enemy to evacuate their works and the city. 
The IGOlh was the first regiment in the city of Wilming- 
ton, and was temporarily placed on provost duty until re- 
lieved by a regiment of the 25th Corps. The 169th oc- 
cupied Wilmington on the 22d, on the 2-tth marched 
to North East and took charge of the exchanged prisoners, 
of which there were about fifteen thousand, until March 1st, 
then returned to Wilmington and did picket duty until 
March 13th. 

Lieut.-Col. Colvin then resumed command, and the regi- 
ment remained in the vicinity of Wilmington until the first 
week in April, when it was ordered to rejoin the brigade 
at Magnolia. After three days' march, it reached that 
point, and reported to Col. Granger, 9th Maine Volunteers, 
then commanding the brigade. The regiment remained at 
Magnolia until April 9th, when the march was resumed to 
join Gen. Terry at Faison's Station, twenty-seven miles dis- 
tant. Here the regiment reunited with the division from 
which it had been separated so long. Maj. Allen also re- 
turned at this time, having recovered from his wounds re- 
ceived in the assault at Fort Fisher. On the 11th the 
regiment marched to Bcntousville, where Gen. Sherman had 


HISTORS OF kknsski.aki; county, new york. 

•bt a battle. On the 12th news of Lee's surrender to 
G cived by the troops. Tlio enthusiasm was in 

loose; bands were playing, men were cheering, carrying 
their hats on I ind singing patriotic songs. There 

were no bound* to the joy exhibited. At this point Gens. 
Schoficld and Terry made a junction. It was arranged 
thai Sell i 1 Sherman's armies were t" 

make .i junction at Raleigh. Hence, on the 13th, the 
march was resumed to Raleigh, a distance of twenty-two 
miles. • 'n the 1 lib the 169th encamped just outside of 

1: eigh, and on the l>th moved i the city and com 

iii.n ■ .i doing provosl duty. All the troops were reviewed 
by Qcn. Sherman on the 19th. On the 25th Gen. Alden 
returned to the regiment, and being yet vcrj feeble from 
lii- Fort Fisher wounds, served a> president of a court-mar- 
tial and military commission, and assumed command of tin- 
nd |»ist of Raleigh, having received his commission 
as brevet brigadier-general, by recommendation of Gen. 
y, for gallant conduct nl Fori Fisher and distinguished 
■>■ .'it Cold Harbor. On July 6th orders from the 
War Department mustering out the 169th New York Voi- 
re, with other regimcuts, were received. 

I regiment was mustered out on July 19th, with the 
understanding that the muster-out would date on the day 
of final payment in Albany, whither it was ordered to pro- 

The following general orders from the division and brigade 
commanders wi re issued t" the regiment just before leaving 

•■Hi \imji> Sf.cosd Division, Ti-.stii Corps, 
- llALF.ion, X. C, July I-. 1865. 
•• Otmrral Ordti .Vo. 18. The brigadier-general commanding, on his 
own In-bulf and i itcful country, avails bimsclf of ibis most 

>a to ih. i iik tl fficcre an 1 m ftho 1691b Regiment, 

N. V. V., f..i th. dui ng tho past thrco years in sup- 

pressing & rcti r form! lablo in tic- nnnals "I" history. As 

nn " ii.i- been brilliant, and fr 

Iquarten if appears that you bavo purlicii 

in i" liftcrcnl engagements, and on >■•< i a Four 

ntj been unimpcachablo, but suet) e com- 

yoar eommanding generals. Your work is 

ud well d w you return to your bon . the 

which you bar* I, and to rojoiee in the 

ill part in the attninmi i 

■ il lii".' tin- gratitude of your country, — 

on h.-n ■!■ t" the ■ Knij. |i 1 !■ n | 

i '. i| Find a- -ill II 

Ion, 10th An By oi dot >i 

• I'll * i i I '■ i ■ i ■ . . Ge*. .1. S. I.itii i.i . 
ii. i:.,.i. 1 60'* .v. )•. V., I.I. t. a." 

lin isio.x, Timii V. C. 
mil ••! I: m i ■■■.it. N. C, July 19, Ii 

military icrvice 
foi Bnal payment 
iui final accounts 
with ' 'ho I '".'.Mli Rogt, \. i 


In its 
rank! an I - Ihrough which il . nml 

. will 

' lin« 

1 : nnd the 

.. hundred 

:in I sixty thrco officers and men. Since its organization there have 
been conncetod with tbo regiment eighty-seven commissioned officers. 
iuso of resignations, casualties in battle, and other causes, fifty- 
have boan dropped lr"in the roll. 

•'I'll.- 109th lias participated in twenty-eight separate and distinct 
■ I in -'•in.- of them has lost heavily: in all, without 
exception, it lias acquitted itself with honor, and received the compli- 
ments "t the commanding gcnorals. Wo are called upon to mourn 
tin- loss of many "f our brave comrades who have fallen in the storm 
of battle, tin the bloody Bold of fold Harbor our gallant Col. Mo- 
Conihe tell, lie know n i such thing as fear; be clearly comprehends 
ili.' purpose "I the commanding general, and with victory lor hi* 

watchword, with , Incss and deliberation he lod his command upffl 

i ible and. t-> him. fatal charge. Many of our brave i 
fell in this terrible conflict, which, with Petersburg. Gilmer, and 
Fori I'i-he . charges already renowned iii history, this command will 
have oocasion long t" remember. 

■' While we mourn with those who mourn and weep with those who 
weep |..i lie -<■ <»ur c<>iin!rv '.- martyrs, we also rejoice that their final 
and crowning efforts wore patriotic and Godly, in defense and tor the 
restoration of their insulted and bleeding country, and for the more 
effectual reopening and ro-cstahlishnictit of (l"d's vineyard for bis 
people. You are a! i to resume your peaceful avocations. Anx- 
iously and eagerly your families and friends wail to greet your return, 

and by all g I citizens will you he honored as the saviors of our 

intry. Lot the same zeal and fidelity characterize your conduct in 

civil pursuits as have Fecured your success in arms, and your civil 
career will he attended with prosperity and success. Bj "rder of 
"Col. am' Brkvet Brig.-Gex. Alon'zo Aims. 

■■ E. W. I'm in ii. Capl. nml A. A. '.'■ u." 

On the 20tli of July, 1805, the regiment started, home] 
ward bound, marching over the old stage-road to Peters- 
burg, and thence proceeding by mil to City Point, then? 
by steamer via Fortress Monroe to Baltimore, and by tail 9 
New York, where the regiment was received with distill 
guished honor, bountifully entertained al the soldiers' depot, 
."in ami 52 1 1 "\v:ir<l Street, and on the evening of (he 2-1 th 
timk a boat l'"i' Troy, where it arrived ;it six o'clock the next 

The following account of the reception of the 169th 
taken from the Tiny Times of July, 1865: 

■■ We have had a local Fourth of .July to-day in honor 
of the return of the 169th Regiment. They have had 

reception in Tt'oy such as was eminently due to their valor 
their services, and the lustre they have shed on our citf 
Although the ovation was quite impromptu in its char 
actcr, it was none the less successful on that account. The 

welcome was i that must have proved gratifying to Gen 

Alden's brave leys, -showing that while absent they bad 
not been Forgotten. 

"It was not known until yesterday that the lii'.ffh 
would arrive to-day. As soon as tie' tart was ascertained, 
Maj Stcenberg, commanding the 24th, ordered out thai 
regiment, ami the response was prompt and hearty. The 
firemen al-. resolved to do honor to their returning brothers, 
and the result was a very respectable procession at verj 
short notice. The local military and firemen formed on 
River Street, ami awaited the coming of the returning 
soldiers The reception line extended from Broadway U) 
the military being opposite the Troy Hou 

■■ Expectation was on tip-toe among the military and 
firemen ami tie- crowds of spectators in tin- streets a- the 
war-worn 169th filed from the transport, formed into line. 

and marched to the so i I' tin- reception. Aldermen 

ii ami Prentice, of the Common Cot il Commitl 

were burning to and fro on horseback. The capital pol 



feared away teams; officers were giving the words of 
command, and windows on the land were filled with lares. 
With steady tread the veterans marched along. Al their 
head rode Alden, with well ear 1 stars upon his shoul- 
ders; Dr. Kiihw1m.ii, the faithful surgeon, and Capt, Clark 
j Smith doing escort duty. This triumvirate cleared the 
way, and close to them was Colvin, the brave lieutenant- 
col I, while the efficient Maj. \llen brought up the rear 

and the adjutant and cither officers were scattered along the 
line. But the central figures in the picture were the men, 
— bronzed, travel-stained, and dusty, yet with the erect 
bearing and firm tramp of veterans. Within their lines were 
borne the colors, riddled with shut, and torn amid the 
fierce onset of the foe, — the same colors that McConihe, 
With his last breath, told his men to defend. It was a 
suggestive moment as tin' regiment passed into the streets 
of its home and once more became a part of the busy cur- 
rent of our daily life, — soldiers no longer, but citizens 
again. Appropriate it was that the fine regimental band 
' should play ' Home Again,' and that the flags should 
wave on every mast in honor of the soldiers' return. 

"Mr. George G. Arnold, the sutler of the regiment, who 
followed its fortunes through all the different campaigns in 
which it was engaged, had caused to be painted a banner 
of welcome to the returning heroes. The work has been 
done in the most artistic manner. The banner is suspended 
across River Street, from the Troy House to Starkweather, 
Norton & Co.'.s store, and has attracted great attention. It 
bears the names of fifteen of the engagements of the regi- 
ment, and also the names of Buel, McConihe, Alden, Col- 
vin, Allen, and Knowlson, and all of the officers who have 
been killed. On the reverse, the motto: 'Honor to the 
brave! Future generations will bless the preservers of the 
republic!' The whole design is appropriate and graceful. 

"After the full summary of the regiment's deeds pub- 
lished yesterday, no sketch of their organization, personnel, 
nor services is needed. Their heroic deeds seemed to rise 
bjfore every eye as the tattered flags and the veteran 
forms passed in review this morning along our city's streets. 
They could be seen defying the swamps of Charleston, 
manning the trenches of Petersburg, and righting from 
casemate to casemate at Fort Fisher; even the explosion 
that hurled them into mid air could be almost pictured on 
those torn ensigns. Gen. Alden at the head, receiving the 
plaudits of grateful fellow-citizens, seemed a type of the 
pitient valor that had brought the regiment home in tri- 
umph. — the same indomitable spirit that had wound up 
the Rebellion. Five hundred strong, they returned to-day. 

"At Washington Square, the formal reception of the 
regiment took place. A large crowd had assembled, and 
the procession formed a triangle around the square. The 
exercises commenced with a fervent prayer by Rev. Dr. 
Baldwin. We have rarely heard a more impressive invo- 

"Alderman Smart introduced Hon. Johu A. Griswold, 
who said that while he appeared unexpectedly on this occa- 
sion, no one could appear with feelings of deeper gratitude. 
Mr. Griswold pictured the sudden call to arms. The noble 
response. The alacrity of Troy, Rensselaer, and Wash- 
ington Counties in responding to the cause of our country. 

We are mm welcoming them Kiel, one after another, lint 

as regiments, but as representatives of oi tt 

tions. 1 me of these did we feel more pride than in 

the lii'.tth. We know that I !h ul. ton Cold II irbor, 
Petersburg, Fori Fisher, and the war-scarred banners all 
tell of tin braver} and deeds of the regiment. And the 

obsequies of its tyred dead, from lime to line 

minded us of its services. Mr. Griswold paid a high trib- 
ute to the late Col. McConihe, and gave the regiment i 
renewed welcome to the community which would never for- 
■: i the brave soldiers of the second war of independence. 
Three cheers were given for Mr. Griswold and three for the 
'old flag.' Brig.-Gen. Alden bowed his acknowl 

moots, and Alderman Smart introduced Mr. William A. 
Merriam, of the New York Herald, and formerly a lieu- 
tenant in the regiment, who delivered a most eloquent and 
appropriate address, referring to the history of the regi- 
ment, its lamented dead, and its living heroes, with especial 
reference to Gen. Alden, which called forth three , 1,,.1- 
for the general. The regiment then marched to Harmony 
Hall, where a fine collation was in wailing. At night the 
line of march was taken up, and the regiment encamped 
near the barracks, about two miles from Albany, on the 
Troy and Albany road, and there remained until the 3d 
of August before it was paid off and the men sent home 
to their fathers and mothers, wives and sweethearts, to 
resume the duties of citizens." 

The following is a recapitulation of the engagements in 
which the lGDth participated: Eden ton Road, Carrsville, 
Blackwater Ford, Zuni, Providence Church, Nansemond, 
Hanover Junction, Fort Sumter, Fort Wagner, Rantoul 
Bridge, siege of Charleston, Cedar Creek, Walthall Junc- 
tion, Chester Station, Drury's Bluff, Hatcher's Run, Fos- 
ter's Plantation, No. 1, Foster's Plantation. No. 1', Cold 
Harbor, Petersburg Heights, June 15th, Petersburg, June 
30th, Petersburg Mine, July 30th, siege of Petersburg, 
Dutch Gap, Deep Bottom, Malvern Hill, Chapin's Farm, 
Fort Gilmer, Darbytown Road, siege of Richmond, 1st 
Fort Fisher, 2d Fort Fisher, Wilmington, North East, 

The roster of officers of the 109th Regiment New York 
Volunteers, taken from the muster-out rolls at the elos of 
the war, is as follows : 


Clarence Buell, com. Nov. 10, 1802; res. Feb. 13, 1801. 

Julm McConihe, com. Mm*. 2, 1SG4 ; killed in net ion nt Cold>. o, Ya., June 

1, 1864. 
Alonzo Alden (brevet brig.-gen. D. S. V ), cum. Juno IT, 1 se, 1 ; must, out with 

regt July 19, 181 5. 

John McConihe, com. Nov. 1*', 1862 ; pro. to col. March 2, 1861. 
Alonzo Alden, com. March 2,1864; pro. to cot. .tunc 17,1864, 
James A. Colvin [brevet col. N. V. V.), coin. June 17, 1864 ; must, out with regt. 

July 19, 1865. 

Alonzo Ahlcn (brevet licut.-col. U. S. V.), coin. Nov LO, 1862 ; pro. to liciit.-col. 

March 2, 1804. 
James A, Colvin, com. March 2, 1864; pro. to lieut.-col. June 17, 1864. 
Joseph II. Allen (brevet Heut.-col. X. V. V., brevet lieui -col. I s. \ , com. 

June 17, 1SG4; must, out with regt. July 19, 1865, 

William E. Kisselbiirgh (brevet maj. X. V. V.), c Nov. 10, IS62; rtisch. 

March 31, 1865. 

David A. Niven, c >m. April 29, 1864; must, -hi with ri I Jul] 19,181 5. 


BlSTor.Y or i;i:nssi:i,ai:i; coi/xty. new York. 

. i:im;ma-; 

-I R{ 
N V \ muil .'in with 

l-l-l \ • 1 
!. T SklPD ■ 

. I ■ I' ■ . I . 
II I i .1. 

■ I. 
ID, Vp || |0, 



■ July 10, 1865. 

I Ml klXS. 

■ I", 1862; pro. i.i m.ii March 2, 1804. 
il ISM: clinch, \ii_- 10, 1864. 

'■'''• - ,1804; nol mual u captain. 

J inc 8, 1803. 

: .l.'.-l I, 

N V V . in. 1I.iv in, 1-.. I ; |,.II-I. .nit With 

mnj. June 17, 1804. 
1801 : .1 tell. Aug. 2, I-. I 
10, 181 I: .11-. I.. Hnrcli 

! April 22,1865; must. Jul) 19, 1805. 

I li. 22,181 
'■ 1 '■ -. . , lulj i-, 1804. 

,1864; nol must, iu captain. 
,1864; mint out July 10, 1- 
J.ilin l |802. 

'■ V. V , Marc 1 23, 1803; illsch.O, i I, I8G4. 
1 '• f. 19, 1801 ; must out with rogt July 10, 1805, 

10, 1802; killed In action at Petersburg, Va., 

E" 1 *'" V. 1 ... ... In 22, 1-. I : ,,,,,- i will 

- Ii Morcli 7. : 

i. July 19, 1805. 

. 1804 

. i ontJulj 10 
i' |, 

i i ...i. 

10, I8C4 : must July 10 

■ ' v I'., by oi pi. 

ml July 19, 1 
B B 1 j„i, ]., 

riRSl MM il \ \vi- 

received In 


Hnrch 2t 


' i with 



li ..ill "illi 


Walter 8 lllnkall, Wollbill, Ya., May 

J»""< » !• ..... Mm.ii 


-iilM »i Dnti ' ■• ip, \ . . I 
ljaorj •■ 

•. com. Nov. 19, 1804 ; Mint, out July 19, 1805. 

■ Nov. 10, 1802 ; pro. to capt March 2, 1864. 
Th mm D J lllco, com. March 2, 1804 ; diwh. Juno 24, 1864. 
.1 .in. - II. Slrnlt, com. Not, 19, Ism ; must, ont July 19, 1805. 

in. Nov, 1". 1862; !-•■-. Jan. J, 180 1. 
Thomas 11. Bnton, com. Fob. 7, isr.;: ; pro, to capt July :', 181 I 
Willi, in M. Swarlwoui (brovol cupt. N.I \ . , com. July », 1804; disi b. Dec. 31, 

I Irion L. Knox, i !, 1805 ; must out July 19, 1865 

Willi;, in s. Unitahnrn, c N..\ lo, 1862; iliscb. Fob. 14, 1803 

William II. I.yi.n-, ciin. Mulch J :, isii.;; pr... t.. ,upt. May 10, 1864. 
Henry Mullinll, com. Nay 1", 1864 ; pro. Iu capt. Sopt. 16, 181 I. 

io \ ..'i 6 inn .1. i om. Si pt. II . 1864; pro, Iu capt. April 22, 18C5. 

Ml Tompkins, c , April 22, 1805; must, out July 10, 1805. 

W. Snydor, com. Nov. 10, 1862 ; pro. to capt Juno 10, 181 

Patrick Connors, c Jim roa. July 21, 1864. 

i'Ii .ii.-- mi in .c \, i. Aug. IS, 1864 ; tout July 10, 1805. 

li.,,, i. I .1. Cnrey, com. Nov. 1". 1862; pro. lo capt Dec. 16, 180-1. 

Edwin It Smith, i I '.■,-. 16, 1863; pro, lo enpt. Aug. 22, 1804. 

Rich ,il li. Vim Alstyne, com. Aug, 22, 1804 ; not t. us 1st lleut 

Richard J. Uurton, i m Uiu li 27, 1805; mint, out July 19, 1 I 
David II. Wells, i Feb. 23, 1803; must out July 10, 

Bernard N. Smith, mm. V > 10,1862; pr... to 1st lleut. Dec. 17, 1862. 
Walter S. Blnlsnll, com. Dec. 17, 1 mi 2; pro. t.. 1-t lleut Feb. 7,181 

1 in 1. Smitli, .■ Feb. 7. 1863 : pr,,. to l-i liout. Miiy 10, 1804. 

1- iy W. il h, com. May 1". 1864 ; pro. to Isi liout. Sopt. 16, 1804. 

I ilwnrd P, .1 icqucs, , mj -,., i i, ., i-,,i ; pro. ,,, i- ( |j,.„,. \,, v u, I804, 
Bernard McGuirr, com. Nov. 19, 1804 ; must out July 19, I8G5. 
EU ihnel irolmes, com. Nov. 10, 1862; resigned Jan. 21, 1 01 

Edgar M. Connor, c Feb. 7, 1803; must out Sopt 20, 

Michael Ryan com, Feb. 10, 1804; pro. lo l-i lleut Nov. 19, 1804. 

Samuel C. Cippcrly, com. Nov. 19, 1801; killed in actiou at Fori l'i-li. r, N. i 

Jan. 16, 1805., lis. . com. Feb. Is. isr,.-,. 
'•mi pe A. Willi-, com. April 22, 1865 : must, ont July 1", 1865, 

Charles E. Moroy, c Nov. 10, 1862 : pro. to l-i li in. Murch 23, 18G3. 

Juni - II. Dunn, com. March 23, 1863; pro. to l-i lleut July '.'. 1864. sher.i u Julj 1804; pro. to'lstlicut. Nov. 19, 1804. 

Michael Russell, , Sopt. 10, 1864 ; pr... In Isl lleut Nov. 19, 1804. 

Charles D I mi o, com. Nov, 10, I8G4; must out July 1". i 

.1. Henry Hughes, c Nov. 1". 18G2; pro. i,, 1st lleut. Feb. 7, 1803. 

Daniel D. Scrivcn, com. Feb. 7, 1803 ; resigned \ 

Alexander Hell, com Aug. 26, 1X03; pro. to lsl lleut Oct 7, 1803. 

I'um.ny, c Oct. 19, 1863; pro. lo l-i lleut. Aug. 13, 1864, 

•1 - II Strait, com. Sept. 10, 1864 ; pr... to 1st Mont. Nov. 10, 1804. 

Thomas II. D McGregor, com. Nov. 19, 1804; killed at K.rt Fisher, N.C., I 

expli uiu] Fun. 10, 1865. 

,,, r. b. Is, 1805; must onl July 19, I 

Henry Mnlhall, c Nov. 10, 1802; pr... to 1st liout. May 1, , 181 I. 

Jonas II v. n iu. m ., p, i-, i . ,,,,, ,,, ; sl i;,.,,t. Aug, i 

AH ...ii Tompkins, com. Nov. 19, 1864; pr... tu lsl Heat. April 23, i 
Thomas II. Gnrdnor, com. April 22, 1805; nol mustored. 

in. Nov. 10, 1862; pro. to 1st liout. March 2, 1864. 
Richard B. Vun Alslyne, com. March -', 1864 ; dl»ch. Dec. 1 1, 1804. 

I ill, in-, com Nov. 19, |s.,i ; must, onl July 19, I 
'II "- II I iton, N,,\. 16, 181 to lsl Kent I pb 7, 

1 I mi Feb. 7,181 i lient. Juno 6, 1804, 
John I .," 1 1 , com. Noi 19, 1864; must out July 19, i 

Will inn II. Lyon, com. Nov. Iu, 1802 ; pro tolstllont Match 23, 1863. 
Jul,- p. It, mi, in in, , ,,m March 23, 1803; .lis, h, Nov. 1863. 

ill M Swartwulit, com, Fob. 2, 1864 : pro. Io lsl lleut. July 9, l 

'II ii- J. Tillcy, ,,,iii . v . 19, 1804 it out July 10 

Connors, com. Nov. 10, 1862 ; pro. to 1st llent. June 10, 

Norman .1 Crlpi com. Jan. 10, 18671; pr... t.. 1-t lleut July 0, 181 I. 

i, com. July '.i. 1804 ; pro. i" i-i lleut Sept. 16, l- 1 i 

I Knox, , N.i. io, 1801 ; pro. lo l-i lleut. April 22, 1 

,,iii I mi. v.. i. com. April 22, 1865; must onl duly 10, 18 

Edwin It Smilh.c Nov. ID, 1862; pro, to Isl Rent Doc. 1 >, 1803, 

, Feb.8, 1804; pro. to 1st lleut. Sopt. 10, 1864. 
John B i N i 10, 1804; pro. to Isl liout April 22, 

in. Ma; 55; must out Julj 

HEN 01 MIIS ui.'.IMl n I 
I 1-t Ileal 
I'm. II d llent 

i: ' D M I ml . brotel 2d Rout 
.. bn vet J, I lb ut. 
, Shall*, urevel 2d liout 


son <>f [saac and Bannali Snow Aldcn, was born .Inly 
18, 1831, al Wadliam'e Mills, in the town of Westpotfji 





Esses Co., N. V., being the youngesl of eighl ohildren. 
His mother was the first white child born in the locality 
where Montpelier, \'t., now Btands, His father was of the 
good old Puritan stock, being a lineal descendant of the 
Illustrious John Alden, \\ ho cauie over in i he " Ma\ flower," 
and was for many years lieutenant-governor of Plymouth 
Bolony. Isaac Alden did active service in the war of 1812, 
bid afterwards engaged in farming, lumbering, etc. In 

1831) lie purchased a well wooded farm and a saw-mill in 

the town of Lewis, on the Boquel River, three miles north 
of Wailham's Mills. With lumbering, managing a saw 
mill, making charcoal, and farming he kepi his boys steadily 
at work, with the exception of about three months, when 
he accorded them the privilege of attending the district 
school. At the age of thirteen Alonzo was required in do 

a man's work. He could burn coal-jiits as skillfully as any 
Backwoodsman, cut ami pile two cords of hard wood daily ; 
and when his day's work was over he would ruilk a half- 
dozen cows, and then be in excellent trim for a vigorous 
game of "hide-and-seek" among the wood-piles with the 
Neighbors' hoys. Thus was laid the foundation of that iron 
constitution which, in after-years, proved of invaluable 
service to him, until it was shattered by wounds received 
while fighting fir the Union in the war of the Rebellion. 

At the age of seventeen, in the year 1851, he entered 
the academy at Kcescville, where he^pursued his studies 
till the autumn of 1853. lie was enabled to meet his own 
expenses at the academy by teaching school in the winter 
time. During the last year of his academical course his 
chum and intimate friend was the celebrated Joseph Cook, 
now of Boston, Mass. The Presbyterian Church of Keese- 
ville was at that time blessed with the ministrations of that 
eloquent divine, the Rev. John Mattocks. Through his 
influence, Joseph Cook, Alonzo Alden, and several other 
students united with the church at the same time upon pro- 
fession of their faith. The subject of our sketch always 
declares that this was the most important event of bis life. 
In the winter of 1853-54 he taught a private school in 
Westport, and in the fall of 1854 entered the Collegiate 
Institute at Sand Lake, Rensselaer Co., living with his 
brother, Joseph J. Alden, who was one of the proprietors 
of the Sand Lake Warp-Mills, in that village. 

The fall of 1855 witnessed his matriculation at Williams 
College, Massachusetts. 

His vacations and portions of term time were occupied 
with teaching in public and academic schools, and yet by 
"burning the midnight oil'' he was able to keep pace with 
his class, graduating with honor in August, 18511. After 
leaving college he began the study of law iu the office of 
Gale & Alden, in Troy, and continued there till the spring 
of 1861. He was admitted to the bar and entered the 
volunteer army about the same time. Those who knew him 
well as a law student recognized in him abilities of a high 
order. Had he remained at home and followed the profes- 
sion of law, undoubtedly he would have taken a high posi- 
tion among the lawyers of the Empire State. 

At the outbreak of the civil war, in 1861, Alonzo 
Alden was among the first to respond to the call of his 
country for men to come to her defense. Forsaking his 
chosen profession and putting aside all the bright hopes of 

earlj mini 1. on April 18, 1861, ho enlisted as a pir 

in a company being formed by Capt. John M. London. 
Be rendered cffectivi ervice in filling up the company by 
visiting different towns in the county, making i bes, 

and securing recruits. Upon the completion of the organ- 

ization of the company he was mustered into tie- service, 

May II, 1861, in Company [, oi the -Oil, N. V. Volun- 
teers, lie was elected, by vote of tl ompany, I'd lieu ten- 
ant, with rank from May 1 1th. The regiment, in com- 
mand of Col. Frisby, went to Washington) encamped for a 

seasi t Brightwood, in a grove at the junction of Seventh 

and Fourteenth Streets, then went into winter quart 
across the Potomac. Lieut. Alden was with his company 
in all its trying experiences of outpost duty, long marches, 
severe drills ami discipline during the spring and summer 
of 18t>2, participating with the company, in connection with 
McDowell's corps, in the first capture and occupation of 
Falmouth and Fredericksburg. 

When not on duty with his company he devoted himself 
with great assiduity to the study of military tactics and the 
art and science of war. He was regarded in the regiment 
as good authority on all points pertaining to company and 
regimental evolutions. 

On the 10th of June. 18(12, he was mile adjutant of 
the regiment, which position he filled with gri til accepta- 
bility until he was prostrated by typhoid fever at Falmouth, 
Va., and was sent to a hospital in Washington. Here his 
brother, Charles L. (of the law firm of Gale & Alden), met 
him, having been summoned thither by telegraph. The 
Rev. Dr. John C. Smith and wile, of Washington, secured 
his removal to more comfortable quarters at a private house, 
where for three weeks he was tenderly nursed by his brother 
and Mrs. Smith. For several days his life was despaired 
of; but convalescing, he was taken to his home at Troy. 
Sept. 25, lSu"2, the lG9th Regiment New Fork Volunteers 
having been organized by the war committee of Rensselaer 
County, Adjutant Alden was commissioned by Governor 
Morgan as major of this new regiment. 

The lessons learned iu his first sixteen months of service 
iu the 30th Regiment were invaluable in fitting him fur 
the higher position which he was called to fill in the 169th. 
With this regiment, the principal events of his brilliant 
military career are associated. His tactical knowledge was 
at once brought into play, and in this and his discipline he 
was recognized as an officer who knew his duty, and know- 
ing it, was ready and eager to perform. 

When the regiment reached Saginaw, in compliance with 
a general order from the War Department. Maj. Alden 
was at once designated as the regimental referee, with all 
the jurisdiction of regimental court-martial. His strict 
administration of the office and his rigid enforcement of 
discipline soon satisfied the command that war was a reality 
and that army regulations meant something beyond words. 
Of course he met with the prejudices of those who came 
under his censure, and was regarded with disfavor by those 
who had not learned the importance of discipline. 

In November, 18G2, Maj. Alden assumed command of the 
regiment, Col. Buel being in command of the brigade, and 
Lieut. -Col. MeConihe being disabled from the effects of an 
old wound. The regiment was ordered to Washington iu 



I binary, 1863, and Maj. Alder was detached to «;iko 

mand of ilio district of G rn, a po-iiion which 

he held until the regiment was ordered to Suffolk, Va, 

Wliilo :>i Suffolk he was a participant in the different 

id expeditions in which the 169th was engaged, 

and ially distinguished li>r the i 1 and vigilant 

support which, with six companies under his immediate 

mand, ho gave t" one of the batteries engaged in :i 
made upon the Eden ton Road. <>n this 

sion he was wounded by a fragment of a shell knock- 
ing liim from his horse, and hi- horse was shot through the 
neck £ • |uent operations carried the regiment to Han- 
over Court-H ' tsmouth, Va., and to South Caro- 
lina, where it participated in the siege of Charleston. In 

j movement Major Alden was notably prompt to dis- 
charge his duty. 

During this time Col. Buel had resigned, and Lien 
McConihe had gone North with a recruiting detail ; thus 
Major Alden was left in charge of the regiment, assuming 
command Di c. '-'". 1 363. 

On April 12, 1864, having received his commission as 
lieutenant-colonel, Major Alden was mustered into his new April 20th the regimenl was ordered to Virginia, 
wh< r i engaged in various battles on the line of t lie 

turnpike and railway between Richmond and Petersburg. 
(in every occasion Licut.-Col. Alden displayed the Bame 
f tactical skill and cool determination for which 
he had gained repute. On one occasion (Chester Station, 
M j Huh . while in charge of the right wing of the regi- 

t, by Bkillful, strategic manoeuvres and successive im- 

pctuous charges, he repulsed an entire brigade of the enemy 

ami saved the Union forces from being flanked and captured. 

ries of engagements on tins front the command 

d i" Gen. Grant, reaching the Army of the Po- 

• ■ in time to engage in the battle of Cold Harbor. June 
1. 1864 Hen Lieut.-Col. Alden again distinguished him- 

leading his men into action and taking command upon 
the death of Col. McConihe, who was killed early in the 
fight Tie- tr. 1 and captured the rebel works, and 

1 Alden. while planting the regimental color ' which he 
hail snatched from its wounded bearer) upon the parapet, 

Bhol in the head, and carried from the field. The 
colonel -i ill carries in his body the leaden relic of that brave 
charge. The wound then received kept him from duty 
until August 1st, when he rejoined his regiment The 
command was then sent t" Dutch Gap, where Col. Alden 

put in charge of the troops intrusted with the defense 
of tie' working-parties 'I d in the on of 

the ■ nt The colonel shoveled the first spade- 

ful of earth for the Dutch Gap Canal. 

In September, 1864, he was mustered in as colonel, 

Omqtcd with rank to date from June I -t. and 

I with In- r. gimcnl in the li: 
Fi-i Col. Alden commanding tho 3d Brigade 

luring thi k. After its 

ind of the fort 
•I." morning of Jan. 16th, whili I 
view pturcd w. ■ neiiiv. by means "t clec- 

tricii i be 

•I, an thirty fe< t and • with the 

falling debris of the wrecked magazine. When taken out 
he was found to he terribly mangled and apparently dead. 
Rut even in this extremity the tenacious spirit for which he 
was remarkable stood by him and brought him hack to life. 
II wasconveyed to the officers' hospital at Bedloe's Island, 
New York Harbor, and continued unconscious lor six weeks. 
He was reported killed, and his friends at home for a week 
supposed he was dead. At the hospital bis brother t'harles 
remained with him for live weeks. During all this period, 
in his delirium he was constantly on duly, issuing his orders 
and watching every point in bis command. I'pon his re- 
turn to consciousness he was permitted to read his own 
obituaries published in the papers at that time. He suf- 
fered from a comminuted fracture of his right thigh and 
partial paralysis of his right side, from which he never re- 
covered. Gen. ferry, after the capture of Fort Fisher, 
made a special report to President Lincoln, recommending 
Col. Alden (among others for promotion to be brigadier- 
general, and tie President at once appointed him brigadier- 
general by brevet. The Xew York Legislature of 1865 
passed a joint resolution thanking Col. Alden and other 
officers by name for their gallantry at Fort Fisher, li 
than three months from the date of his injuries received at 
the Fort Fisher explosion, he rejoined his regiment, on 

crutches, ready again for aggressive service. The , mand 

was then stationed auRaleigh, N. C.,and Col. Alden having 
now received his well-earned -'stars,'' with the brevet rank 
of brigadier-general, '■ for gallantry and meritorious con- 
duct at Fort Fisher," took command of the brigade, and 
of the post of Raleigh. He also served as president of a 
military commission for the examination of officers for the 
standing army. With the muster out of the troops on 
duly 19, 1865, he returned to civil life. Thus ended a 
brilliant war record. There was not a braver or more faith- 
ful soldier in the army. He never sought position; he 
never shrank from duty. He was conscientious to the last 
degree in the discharge of every obligation; always at his 
post when not hind, red by honorable wounds ; in every 
emergency and to the last he proved himself to be a model 

I'] his return to the duties of civil life, by rcas f 

the Buffering resulting from his wounds, Gen. Alden 
unable to resume the profession of law. Tt was a si 
trial thus to be cut off from his chosen profession, but be 
submitted to it under the strict orders of his physician. 
In the fall of 1865 he was offered a position in the naval 
office, New York, which he tilled till his appointment by 
President Johnson to the pnstmnstcrship of Troy, dune I, 
1866, which position he held for eight years. On the "ltli 
of April. 1866, Gen. Alden was married to Chariot 
daughter of E N Dauchy, formerly of Troy, V Y. 
Three children have been the fruit of this marriage, — Jo- 
seph Dauchy. bom duie 16, 1868; Frederick Alonzo, born 
Marian, born Aug. 24, 1879. Gen. Aides 
was appointed brigadier-general of the 10th Brigade, HI 
tional Guard, State ol New York, in 1866, and after eleven 
-• rvice he resigned. In closing this .-ketch, the per- 
ristics of ton. Alden are ..pen to comment 
II is a man ol positive opinions, honest intention, clear 
judgment, and vigorous execution. 

Till', BENCH Wli BAB 


Characteristics like these qualify him for the duties of a 
soldier, ami ycl are not incompatible with the duties of a 
civilian. His military career as above outlined proved him 
in be not only a bravo soldier, but also a Qrst-class tactician, 
cool ami clear-headed in action, rigid in discipline, ami un- 
lelenting in his opposition to wrong doing. Men of his 
stamp always command respect. Prompt to obey his 
superior officers, he exacted the same measure from those 
under his command. In fine, lie was in every respect a 
good soldier, fitted to obey, in execute, ami to command, 
ami as such deserves the gratitude of every patriot, ami 
honorable remembrance in his country's history. Ai the 
organization of the Ninth Presbyterian Church, of Troy, 
in 1869, he became a member, ami was immediately elected 
to the office of ruling elder, which position he still holds. 
The same qualities which lilted him to be a good officer in 
the army fit him to he a good officer in the Christian 
Church. By all who know him he is to-day regarded as 
a faithful and outspoken Christian, a patriotic citizen, and 
a generous and true friend. 


who served during the war of the Rebellion, besides the 
regiments already mentioned, wore the respective companies 
of Capts. Landon, Scott, and Campbell, of the 30th Regi- 
ment, and Col. Morrison's " Black Horse Cavalry."* 



Out of the long list of lawyers who from time to time 
have graced the bar of Rensselaer County, we are able to 
give in this chapter biographical sketches of the following. 
A list of the members of the bar of the county concludes 
the chapter. 

the eminent statesman and diplomatist, and a man of world- 
wide fame, who for many years was a resident of Troy, ap- 
propriately heads the list of distinguished lawyers of Rens- 
selaer County. He was born in Southbridge, Mass., Dec. 
12,1786; graduated at Brown University in 1S08; set- 
tled in Troy, and followed the profession of the law. He 
served as an officer of volunteers during the war of 1812— 
M, capturing at St. Regis the first prisoners and the first 
flag taken on laud in the war. In 181 G he was recorder of 
Troy, and for a time conducted the anti-Federal organ, — 
the Troy Budget. In 1821 he was adjutant-general of 
New York; in 1823, comptroller ; a judge of the Supreme 
Court of the State in 182f); was subsequently chosen 
1 nited States Senator, and three times filled the office of 
Governor of New York. During the administration of 
President Van Burcn (1839) he was a commissioner to 
adjust the Mexican claims, and in 1815 he was selected as 
secretary of war in the cabinet of President Polk. He 
displayed great ability in the settlement of intricate diplo- 

W« wore promised accounts of these organizations, but thoy 
tailed to come to hand. 

matie questions growing out of tie Mexican war, which 

iMvui red during his ter f office. I n 1 85i) h 

Secretary of State by President Pierce, and "added to his 
already established reputation as a statesman of a high 
order. .Many of his state papei are masterly productions. 
This was the last office he held, retiring on the accession of 
Mr. Buchanan to the Presidency in L857.' , '| Mr. Marcy 

died at ISallston Spa. July I. L857. 


was horn ai Litchfield, Conn., on the 2d of S ptcmber, 
1807. He was the fifth son of Judge James Could. His 
genealogy shows an unbroken succession of educated 

lleinen, ill both the paternal and maternal branches; and in 
the former he stood in hut the third remove from his Kng- 

lish ancestors, whose descendants i of the junior branch ) are 

still extant in England. His great-grandfather, Dr. Wil- 
liam Gould, was horn in North Tawton, Devonshire, Eng- 
land, in lli'.l.'l. He emigrated to this country in 1720, and 
took up his residence in Branford, Conn. His grand fit her, 
Dr. William Gould, the younger, was horn in Branford, 
in 1827, and his father, Judge James Gould, was horn in 
Branford, in 1770. 

His father's sister, Elizabeth Gould, was the wife of the 
Hon. Roger Minott Sherman, and his mother i Sally Mc- 
Curdy Tracy) was the eldest of four sisters, who were seve- 
rally married to the Hon. James Gould, of the Supreme 
Court of Connecticut, the Hon. Samuel G. Hone, and the 
Hon. Theron Metcalf, judges of the Supreme Court of Mas- 
sachusetts, and the Hon. Silas W. Rohhins, judge of the 
Supreme Court of Kentucky, while his eldest brother be- 
came a judge in the State of Georgia, and he himself a judge 
of the Supreme Court of New York. 

On the maternal side his great-grandfather was Eliphalet 
Tracy, of Norwich, Conn., and his grandfather was Gen. 
Uriah Tracy, for ten years a senator of the United States, 
from Connecticut, who died at Washington, and was the 
first person interred in the Congressional burial-ground at 
the national capital. 

Judge Gould's father had few equals at the bar; and 
when he was associated in important cases with his justly- 
eminent brother-in-law, Roger Minott Sherman, and opposed 
by such men as David Daggett and Nathan Smith, the legal 
tournament is said, by those who were so fortunate as to 
witness it, to have exceeded in brilliancy anything ever wit- 
nessed in American courts. In view of these fact.- Judge 
George Gould may be said to have, as it were, inherited 
both education and law in a very unusual degree; and in 
respect of both he eminently upheld the family reputation. 
He was remarkable for the elegance of his person, and the 
combined dignity and grace of his manners, no less than for 
his almost unrivaled legal accomplishments, the purity of 
bis English, and the perfection of his elocution. 

Judge Gould entered Yale College in 1N23, at the age 
of seventeen, and was graduated with distinction in 1S27. 
lie immediately entered upon the study of the law, under 
the teaching of his father, at whose celebrated law school 
he was a student for two years. At the end of that period 
I i.e., in 1829 i he removed to Troy, and was admitted to the 

| Johnson's New Universal Cyclopedia, ]>. 295. 



bar in the f >ll.nvin _ In November, 1840, lie 

married .1 daughter of the Hon. George Vail, of Troy, and 
witli In>r enjoyed :i measure "t' domestic happiness rarely 
rded to any man. In writing of the character of •' adge 
1 a- a lawyer and a judge, wo copy the words of bis 
friend, Judge Harris : 

"There '-an be n<> doubl thai the good influences which 
Burroundcd him in his early life and the thorough training 
of lii- father's school contributed much towards the forma- 
tion of hi* character. Bui no arl could create, norcould 
any training bestow, the high moral qualities or the amiable 

disposition for which he was bo distinguished. IK n- 

tinued the practice of (lie law until 1855, when hi 

•■ i ,i judge of the Supreme Courl of New York. 
This distinguished position he held eight years. In lSiid, 
Judge Gould conferred a lasting favor upon the Bar by 
editing and adapting to the code of procedure hi* father's 

■ treatise on the ' Principles of Pleading.' This was 
an undertaking of no ordinary labor, as the copious ami 
well-considered notes of the learned editor can testify; hut 
it was a labor of love to a man justly proud of his father's 
fame ami with the warm feelings that always stirred the 

in of Judge Gould. How it must have brought hack 
the visions of his youth ami early manhood to prepare 

thos for tho press, the contents of which he had 

heard delivered from the lips of his father nearly forty 
years befon ' A- a lawyer, the great learning ami the 

■ moral excellence of Judge Gould made him an orna- 
ment of his profession. As a judge, he discharged the 
duties of his high office with distinguished ability and 
honorable success. In this, as in every other position in 
life. In' always proved himself equal to the occasion. His 
powers always rose in proportion to the demands made 
upon tli. 'in. 11- showed himself a thorough master of 

a which came before him. His knowledge of 
the ially of the common law, was very extensive, 

and. what is better yet, his mind was not only well filled, 
hut well packed. His learning never embarrassed him. 
lie did not i me do. iind.r his great weight of 

learning. He seemed always to have his acquirements, 

il and varied as tiny were, under his perfect control. 
II in i- no ostentations parade of his learning. His ac- 
quirements h n, | leterj a part of himself, mi 
thoroughly incorporated into his mental constitution, that 

rything In- -aid and did seemed simple ami natural, — so 

simple ami natural cely any eviden f the 

I ..r the industry it had cost him 

lo make 1 istcr of the subject. His bearing upon 

the ■ The winning courtesy ami 

tleoess, not numingled with dignity, with which he p T . . 

remarkabli II was never violent, never over- 

: ll. 
•■ While ■' ■ I wis always kind ami gentle ill his 

demeanor, he ■ nd inflexible in the dis- 

charge of duty. al» ui to hear ami ready to learn 

'lll-'-l the V. Ili. .11- 

the . .11. never flinched from an ex- 

if hi» own ,icl up.. n questions 

to truth ami 
i . v. n to severity. He saw 

the principles of law involved in a case almost with the 
quickness of intuition, and was always ready with the 
learning requisite for their illustration. Indeed, his admi- 
rable readiness in the application of legal principles, com- 
bined with a rare accuracy of memory exhibited in his 
prompt and easy reference to legal authority, was one of 
the most conspicuous traits of his character as a judge. 

"To a thorough knowledge of the elementary principle! 
of law Judge Gould added the graces of high literary 
culture. His judicial opinions were lucid ami concise, and 
often elegant. But the most prominent characteristic of 
Judge Gould — that for which he was most distinguished 
ami which heevineed on all occasions, as well when hold- 
ing the scales between contending parties as in the inter- 
course ami business of private and professional life — was his 
unbending integrity and strict impartiality. It was for this 
that he was so often selected by litigating parties in th 
important class of cases which are tried out of court 
determine their rights. 

" It is not too much to say that there never was a jud 
upon the bench of the Supreme Court for whom a mo 
profound respect was entertained, or who by his urbanity ai 
uniform kindness had endeared himself more generally to 
the legal profession. Few purer-minded or clearer-headed 
men ever occupied a judicial station, and so completely did 
his happy temper, his warm heart, and genial sympathies 
win and attach to him all who came in contact with him 
that even those against whom he was compelled to d :cidl 
were disarmed of all sense of injustice by the gentlenea 
and kindness with which the decision was pr unced. 

"The private character of Judge Gould was pre-eminently 
beautiful. He was pure in spirit aid blameless in life. He 
faithfully discharged all the duties of a husband, a father, 
and a friend. His eye always beamed with the same brigfl 
ami benignant expression. His whole countenance ».;* 
lighted up with refinement and intelligence. No excessd 

marred the daily beauty of his life. He died in the very 
-- of his powers, the glory of his manhood. He 
- -iieli a man might wish to die, before his sun had 

begun to decline, and while his mind was yet unclouded by 

any shadow of infirmity or touch of decay.' 

i iiaki is 1:1 SSELl lNHAl.l.s 

was burn at Greenwich, Washington Co., Slate of New 
York, on Sept. 1 I. 1819. lie read law in the office of his 
lather. . lodge Charles F. Infill-; was admitted t" practice 
as an attorney of the Supreme Court, and as solicitor of the 
Court of Chancery, in the year 1844, and in ls|7 vvaS ad- 
mitted as counselor of said courts. In 1853 he rcpn 
the First Assembly District of Washington County in the 
Assembly. He practiced law in Greenwich, in connection 
with his father ami brother, until 1800, when he formed I 
law partnership with the Hon. David L. Seymour, and re- 
moved to the citj of Troy. That relation continued until 
Jan. I. 1864, when he entered upon the duties of justiot 
of the Supreme Curl of said State, to which position he 

bad been elected the previous autumn. On the 1st of 
January. 1-7". as justice of the Supreme Court, he bee MM 
a member of the Court of Appeals of the State, and re- 
maned in that court until its reorganization. In 1871, ha 




judicial term of eight veins as justice of the Supreme 
Courl being ahoul to expire, he was nominated for the same 
position for the term el' fourteen years, by both the Demo- 
cratic ami Republican conventions, and was elected without 
opposition. In 1 S77 he was designated by Governor Rob- 
inson as a member el' the General Term of the Supreme 
Court of the First Department, consisting of the city of 
Mew Ynrk, in which capacity he is now acting. 

His paternal ancestors emigrated to this country from 
Lincolnshire, England, and wen' settled as farmers in Mas- 
sachusetts as early as 1629. The precise period of their 
arrival in this country lias net been ascertained. In the 
war of the Revolution four of his great-uncles were in the 
Continental army, of whom one was killed in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. His grandfather, Charles Ingalls, after 
graduating at Dartmouth College, went to Salem, Washing- 
ton Co., State of New York, and became the principal of 
the academy in that village. There he remained until 
1802, when, having in the mean time studied law, he re- 
moved to Greenwich, in the same county, where he estab- 
lished a law-office, the first opened at that place, and there 
practiced his profession successfully until his death, which 
occurred in 1812. Two sons survived him, — Charles F. 
Ingalls, the father of the subject of this sketch, and Thomas 
11. Ingalls. The former commenced the practice of the law 
in Greenwich, in the year 1818, and continued it until 
within a few years prior to his death, which occurred in 1870. 
He was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Washington 
County, district attorney of said county, and was elected a 
member of Assembly from that county in the year 1853. 
He was a thorough and able lawyer, a respected citizen, a 
kind friend, and honest man. Thomas 11. Ingalls graduated 
at the military academy at West Point in 1820, and after 
remaining in the army some years, serving as an officer in 
various capacities, he became president of Jefferson College 
in Louisiana, and occupied that position until 1840, when 
he resigned, and, after traveling in Europe two years, re- 
turned to this country, and made his home with his brother 
at Greenwich, where he remained, devoting his time to 
study, until bis death in 1864. He was an accomplished 
scholar and a Christian gentleman. 

The mother of Charles R. Ingalls, wdiose maiden name 
was Mary Rogers, was the daughter of Nathan Rogers, 
who was one of the earliest settlors of Greenwich, and who 
was an intellig int, enterprising, and influential citizen. 
Thomas Ingalls, the only brother of C. R. Ingalls, gradu- 
ated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in the year 1S52. 
He subsequently studied law in the office of his father and 
brother, and having been admitted to practice in the Su- 
preme Court, became their partner, and continued the prac- 
tice of his profession until his death, iu 1872. He left 
surviving him his widow, Julia A. Ingalls, who is the 
daughter of Seneca Gifford, of Easton, Washington Co. 
He was a gentleman of culture, of acknowledged legal abil- 
ity, aud was respected and beloved by all who knew him. 
Judge Iugalls, the subject of this sketch, has one sister, 
Mary Ingalls, who resides at the homestead in Greenwich, 
which has been occupied by the family for fifty years. 
Judge Ingalls married, in 1810, Miss Mary E. Mosher, the 
daughter of Dr. Charles R. Mosher, of Easton, Washington 

Co., N. V. She died in isis. |„ 1852 be ,„. i Mi 

Luanda Stevens, "I' the city of Troy, who died in 1872. 
In 1834, Judge Ingalls united with the Reformed ' Dub 
Church at Greenwich, which bis two grandfathers were in- 
strumental in establishing, and of which Ids father, mother, 
sister, and brother were also members. Alter he removed 
to Troy he united with the Second Street Pr< byterian 
Church, and is now one of its ruling eld 

Such are some of the main points in tic lib- of this dis- 
tinguished citizen, and in the history of the honored family 
tn which be belongs. Brought up in the very atmosphere 
of the law, lie imbibed in youth a love I'm' its study, and 
became in early manhood its careful practitioner in the 
courts, applying its varied principles with discretion, and 
developing with ease and skill the legal results which he 
desired to reach. In the preparation of bis cases for trial 
bis fidelity to his clients was always manifested by a careful 
collation of the testimony, and was further evinced in a 
thorough acquaintance with points both minute and prom- 
inent, and iu the arrangement, in logical sequence, of the 
circumstances involved. The same system was also evinced 
iu bis arguments before the court, and bis briefs were models 
of concise completeness. Although, as a lawyer, he was 
always thoroughly interested on behalf of bis client, yet be 
did not sink his capacity for judgment in that partisanship 
which is too apt to blind the advocate to the fact that there 
are always two sides to every question. And so it happened 
that, when the good sense of the people placed him on the 
bench of the Supreme Court of the State, he brought to the 
discharge of bis duties a mind whose wide experience iu 
many a legal conflict had left it furnished with manifold 
and varied information, but still in a condition of unpreju- 
diced fidelity to the force of facts and reason. Thus, for 
nearly sixteen years, has he maintained on the bench a 
character pure, upright, and unsullied in every particular, 
commanding for himself the universal admiration and love 
of the members of the bar for the intelligence and unswerv- 
ing impartiality of his judicial action, and the respect and 
confidence of his colleagues for the untiring assiduity and 
exhaustive study which are apparent in the results which 
he reaches, and in the concise opinions which he ex- 

As a citizen, his interest in the welfare of the community 
is pronounced, and he is always earnest and efficient in 
caring for the sick and destitute, in forwarding measures 
best adapted for the relief of the poor, in organizing plans 
for the extension to all of the system of the free reading of 
books and newspapers gathered in public repositories, and 
in originating and carrying on to successful completion 
undertakings which are commended to the sympathy of 
man by their intention to exalt humanity. His religion is 
of that nature which, while it thinketh no evil, is still 
vitalized by his endeavors to render his own life effective 
not only as a life of principle but as an example for others. 
Of a cheerful disposition, courteous in demeanor, sharing 
with equanimity the burdens and trials of others, and never 
failing to distinguish the varied acts of bis daily life by 
manifestations of the law of kindness, he emphasizes, with 
pronounced force, in his own career, the character of a 
Christian gentleman. 




was born in Shaftesbury, Yt . on Sept. 21. 1S09; fitted for 
college at the academy, at Williarastown, Mass., under the 
Rev. Ebenezer Canning, and graduated al Williams College 
as a member of the class of L835. He read law with A. 
il. Whittemore; continued his studies in tliis city after 

1836; was admitted to the liar in 1810. and thereu] 

formed a copartnership in the law business, in Troy, with 
his esteemed brother, Job Olin, who died, greatly lamented, 
in 1854. 

From 1^11 to 1848, Abraham B. Olin was recorder of 
the city, which position he filled with ability. He was dis- 
tinguished as an advocate; also for his legal acquirements, 
and for his devotion to the cause of the persecuted and 
distressed. On the arrival of Kossuth, on June 3, 1852, 
the hospitalities of the city were tendered him by Mr. Olin, 
in the court-house. Among the noted eases in which he 
. part as a lawyer was the ease of Mrs. Robinson (the 
veiled murderess), who was tried for murder in 1854. On 
that occasion Mr. Olin appeared, with other eminent law- 
yers, for the defendant. He was elected to Congress from 
this congressional district, which was then limited to Rens- 
selaer County, in the fall .1' 1 Sol!, and served in that position 
for 1 1 1 r. ■ terms, — from March, 1857, to March, 

1 S63. During the first two years of the Rebellion he ren- 
dered important services to his country as chairman of the 
house committee on military affairs. In 1863, on retiring 
from congressional service, he was appointed a judge of the 
Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, being one of 
the four judges designated to that position at the organiza- 
tion of the court. He received his appointment from 
I' sidenl Lincoln, and continued to serve in that position 
until a few months ago, when, af his own request, he was 
retired, on lull pay. In December, 1838, Judge Olin mar- 
ried Miss Mary Danforth, daughter of Keyes Danforth, 
Esq., of Williamstown. In L865, Williams College con- 
1 up. n him the degree of LL D. 

Abpnl three years ago Judge Olin was stricken with 
ysis, from which he never fully recovered. He died 
at Washington. I). (.'., in the year l.ST'.l. 


nn eminent lawyer of Rensselaer County, and conspicuous 
daring the las! generation in Stat.' and national politics, 
Was born in Wcthersficld, Conn. I 1 2 1803. His 

Its, Asllbel Seymour and Mary Lowrey, were d 

of families identified with the settlement and 

■li of the commonwealth, Tl riginal ai stor of 

the Seymours, Richard Seymour, of Essexshirc, came to 
Hartford from the Bay Colony in 1635, and was a promi- 
nent I with the pious and earni -i Hooker in the 
mcnl of the three towns — Hartford, Wethersfield, 
and Windsor— which for a period constituted a little State. 
hard are descended nearly all bearing the 
ii one in the United States,— a progeny including several 

and tubers "i i and a very large 

mm. 1 iii the v. o 

•■ . law, or i li. in... 

L ireful preparation in 

the . I Yale I .Hi- powers of 

application were exceptional, and his mental faculties well 
developed, even as a boy. One of his fellow-collegians, 
still living, in the session of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention of IStiT, during the proceedings suggested by the 
death of Mr. Seymour, alluded as follows to the youthful 
promise of the deceased : " It was well understood that, so far 
as David L. Seymour was concerned, in his class he stood 
pre-eminent as a mathematician, and equal in all other re- 
spects in learning with his associates. It was then pre- 
dicted of him, and talked of among the faculty and students, 
that, life and health being spared to him, his mark would 
be undoubtedly made in the world." 

At the graduation of the class in 1S26, the prediction 
of professors and classmates was already vindicated in anti- 
cipation. Seymour being given the salutatory 7 , — the second 
h ir at commencement. For a considerable period ante- 
cedent to graduation in his academic course, young Seymour 
had selected the legal profession for his life's pursuit. Very 
soon after receiving his degree he entered upon his new 
studies as a member of the Yale Law School, which then, 
under the principal direction of Hons. David Daggett and 
Samuel J. Hitchcock, two of the most eminent jurists of 
Now England in that day, enjoyed a high reputation 
throughout the country. In 1S2S, while still pursuing 
his professional course, he was lion. .red bv an appointment 
as tutor from his alma mater, which he accepted, per- 
forming his duties for two collegiate years, besides attend- 
ing the lectures and joining in the forensic exercises of the 
law school. 

In 1830, having finished the law course and received 
the most cordial commendation of his instructors, he was 
admitted to the bar. after an exceptionally satisfactory ex- 
amination, and prepared to enter upon an active practice. 
At that time the comparatively fresh fields for New England 
enterprise and talent in Northern and Centra! New York 
were attracting general attention, many families having gone 
from the Connecticut River towns to the larger and richei 
territories of the Hudson and Mohawk. The rising village 
of Troy, then promising to control the head-waters of the 
I'.. nner river and monopolize the trade of the whole region 
as far as the St. Lawrence and the lakes, was especially 
favored in the regard of adventurous spirits, several of its 

spicuous citizens — and notably the dale,- and Buels— 

having originally come from Kill'mgworth and other old 
towns in the Connecticut Valley. Seymour, carefully weigh- 
ing the reports from various parts of the country, determined 

nine his professional career in Troy. In June, 

1830, he found himself started in business, entering the 
office of the I Ion. John P. Cushman, one of the most able 
and popular counsel of that day in the State. The first 
two years of his experience, though not altogether desolate 
so far as patronage was concerned, were especially valuable 
in the familiarity with the rules and modes of practice they 
taught, and the strength they imparted under association so 
favorable i.. a well-poised an 1 equipped intellectual tempera- 
ment. At the end of this period, Mr. Cushman, justly nppn - 
dating the honest aspirations and line parts of the young 
lawyer, and requiring a junior, offered him a partnership. • 

i I advantageous a proffer was gladly accepted, 
an 1 the linn of Cushman .V Seymour was for d. From 



this date Seymour's professional success was assured. The 
firm, as originally constituted, lasted for many years,- -until 
the death of the senior partner, in fact. 

The local bar at. this time comprised a large number of 
excellent lawyers, including such memorable names as David 
Buel, Jr., Isaac McConihe, Hiram I'. limit, Daniel Hall, 
Thomas Clowes, and Archibald Bull. Tn this brilliant coterie 
Seymour at once was accorded a rank unprecedented for 80 
youthful an advocate. His thorough knowledge of the old 
English law. of which he was an ardent and devoted lover, 
found him great favor with the scholars of the profession, 
while his cultivated oratory and clear, incisive rhetoric se- 
cured for him an unusual popularity on the rostrum or be- 
fore a jury. During the earlier years of their partnership 
the senior partner was charged with the presentation of all 
oases of intrinsic importance, but very soon after their asso- 
ciation that experienced advocate had made the discovery 
that for the preparation of a cause he could fully rely upon 
the excellent judgment, exact method, and ripe erudition 
of his younger brother. This was true to the degree that, 
after a short experience of his associate's thoroughness in 
all respects, Mr. Cushman, the leader of the Rensselaer bar, 
and surpassed by but few in the ranks of jurisprudence of 
the State, rarely looked at a cause before going into court, 
trusting fearlessly to its perfect preparation at the hands of 
his faithful and indefatigable junior. 

Besides and notwithstanding his devotion to his profes- 
sion, Mr. Seymour was greatly interested in the politics of 
the day. The breadth and largeness of his philosophy natu- 
rally predisposed him to a study of public questions, whether 
involving political or social economy. In sympathy, his 
conservative tone of mind allied him with the Democratic 
party of the period. Soou after his establishment in Troy 
his persuasive and logical eloquence in occasional addresses 
at public meetings enlisted the favor of the local politi- 
cians, and in 1835 he was urged to accept a nomination to 
the Assembly. His candidacy was successful, and his 
service, both on the floor and in committee, was so satisfac- 
tory to his constituents that a renomination was proffered 
the succeeding year. Declining a second election, he ac- 
cepted the office of master in chancery, thereupon proffered 
by the governor, and performed its duties for several years. 
In 1842 he was persuaded to re-enter the political field. 
The Democratic party of the district, desiriug to pit its 
most popular representative against a very strong candidate 
of the opposition, tendered to him the nomination for Con- 
gress. This nomination was, after careful consideration, 
accepted by Mr. Seymour, and he went into the cauvass. 
After a contest of unusual warmth, he was handsomely 

In December, 1843, at the age of forty, he took his seat 
as a member of the Twenty-eighth Congress. The tariff 
question was at that date the principal topic of agitation, 
and Mr. Seymour's position as a prominent member of the 
committee of ways and means, to which the bill was re- 
ferred, made imperative his declaration of policy. In this 
instance his essential integrity of sentiment and strong in- 
dividuality were demonstrated in a marked manner. Not 
satisfied with the views of his associates of either party on 
the committee, and unwilling to indorse the free trade dicta 

of the Democracy or the protective and almost prohibitory 
theories of the; Whigs, he made a distinct and independent 
report embodying his own views in favor of a discriminating 

system that would have encouraged industrial, while not 
crushing out the commercial, inten i 

During this session the annexation of Texas was like- 
wise a then f grave discussion. Mr. Seymour developed 

a kindred individuality in his treatment of this question) 

Opposing the measures contemplated by the joint, resolution 
of Congress as infringing upon constitutional reservations, 
but finally voting in favor of the amended bill as it came 
from the Senate. Mr. Seymour was chairman of the Com 

mittee on Revolutionary claims, and the author of the bill 
of January, 1844, extending the scope of the pension laws 
in a manner to embrace many meritorious cases previously 
unprovided for. 

In the fall of 1844, at the expiration of his first term, 
he was again the candidate of his party, but, through the 
action of the anti-rent faction, which threw its suffrages for 
his opponent, was defeated. A third nomination, however, 
in 1850, was successful, the agrarian agitation having been 
extinguished, and the district again returning him by a 
handsome majority. In this canvass not a few of his 
Whig friends and neighbors forgot their allegiance to their 
own party, giving their votes to Mr. Seymour in generous 
recognition of his support in Congress of the industrial 
progress of the country. In the Thirty-second Congress 
Mr. Seymour's influence was greatly felt on many questions 
of national importance. The majority of the House of 
Representatives acknowledged him as one of its wisest and 
most reliable leaders, and many measures of legislation lost 
their extreme partisan purpose through his essentially pa- 
triotic and constitutional prevision. The position of chair- 
man of the committee on commerce — numbering among 
its members Alexander H. Stephens, Andrew Johnson, 
and William Aiken — was a universally approved indorse- 
ment of his varied knowledge of affairs and his broad 
statesmanship. During the first session he again demon- 
strated his independence of party dogmatism by reporting 
a bill appropriating several millions of dollars for the 
improvement of rivers and harbors, which was signed by 
the President, thus adopting the liberal and fostering 
policy of the Whigs rather than the ultra-restrictiveness 
of the Democrats. In the second session, in response to a 
general demand from State Legislatures and boards of trade 
for a reciprocal system of free duties between the United 
States and the British provinces, his committee framed the 
original report which served as a basis for a subsequent 
treaty and laws for reciprocal trade. He was also mainly 
instrumental in securing the passage of the first enactment 
requiring a rigid inspection of steam-boilers and providing 
the guarantees of safety on shipboard since elaborated, 
under the title of " navigation laws," into a thorough system 
of protection against the dangers of travel upon water. 

Retiring from the active political field after his second 
term at Washington, he returned with increased zest to the 
pursuit of his much-loved profession. His partnership with 
Mr. Cushman having some time previously expired, he 
formed a new connection with Hon. George Van Saut- 
voord, with whom he was associated until 1SG0. Mr. Van 



SantviMinl at this time became the reoipient of official 
honors which interfered with the devotion of hia entire 
time i" the business of the partnership, and the linn was 
dissolved. Judge [ngalls was next associated with him in 
his law office, under the firm-name of Seymour & [ngalls, 
a connection which lasted until the junior member was 

called i" the bench, after which Mr. Seymour t iiiiu<->] 

with a younger member of the bar, Mr. Charles E. Patter- 

a partnership which lasted till hi- death. The law 

offiiv.- of which he was the head, after his retirement from 

rog the first in Northern New York for 

the of their business and the importance of their 

ind, under the tuition of the accomplished lawyers 

thus associated, wen- developed many of the ablest members 

of the profession now practicing in II n selaei and Albany 

Oountii 9. 

Mr. Seymour's professional career was a success beyond 
that of most men. ami he was often called upon to contend 
with the best and most powerful minds in the State, while 

many of the weight} causes in which he was engaged were 
of that superior prominence which will make them always 
stand as established precedents in the reports of his State. 
Among the noted causes in which he-was engaged stands 
prominent a suit involving rights under a patented inven- 
tion, ami known to all the bar of Northern New i'ork as 
the " Spike ease." For nearly thirty years this ease has 
occupied the attention of the courts, and for the last twenty 
years of his life did he. as their leading counsel, so well 
guard the interests in that case of his clients, Messrs. 
Corning, Winslow & Homer, that it is regarded among the 
prof, -.-ion that by his efforts they were saved from what 
seemed inevitable disaster and the payment of ruinous 

In 1 866, Mr. Seymour received the degree of LL.D. from 
Hamilton College. In April, 1 ^'>7. he was nominated as 
a delegate-at-large by the Democratic State Convention to 

the i vontion called to revise the State Constitution, 

and was elected in the canvass which followed a month 
His participation in the labors of the convention 
was marked by the same integrity of purpose and unpar- 
t i- in .-pirit that had distinguished his professional and 
legislative career. His very last public effort was an ex- 
haustive argument upon a question affecting the State 
Banal system, in which he dissented from the majority re- 
port of his commit!- 

In the latter pan of September he went to his country- 
seat al Lanesboro', Mass., proposing a few day.-' freedom 
from official and other efforts which had perceptibly worn 

down his general vitality. Shortly alter his arrival he was 
prostrated by B severe attack of B disease from which he 

bad previously suffered. His illness lasted for sixteen days, 

end of which period, having endured prolonged and 

extreme agonies, in a spirit of calm and trusting resignation, 

relief came in thai mortal slumber which to the Christian 

sufferer i- the prelude to immortal joys. Mr Seymour's 

• was the .i-ioii of universal gloom in the city of 

which he had been l"f so many year- a nc-i honored and 

; hut. Tic bar, th" pre--, the t imunity, with- 

sincerely mourned the loss of a citisen 
whose talent, integrity, unselfishness, and public -pirit had 

alike been unimpeachable. At a formal meeting of the 
legal profession eloquent addresses from the lips of his sur- 
viving brothers in jurisprudence commemorated in tearful 
encomium the virtues and the ability of the deceased. He 
was buried on the 15th of October from St. Paul's church. 
On the 12th of November, the Constitutional Convention 
reassembling after its recess, lion. Martin I. Townsend an- 
nounced the death of his colleague from Troy in an elabo- 
rate oration, and was followed by lions. Amasa J. Parker, 
Henry C. Murphy, .lames Brooks. Thomas .1. Alvord, John 
M. Francis, and other prominent members of that body. 
Well befitting his character are the words uttered on that 
occasion by the lion. Erastus Brooks: 

•• I can say, and all who knew him will bear witness to 
the truth of what I say, that he was in all respects a true 
Christian gentleman, and not only a member of the Church, 
but an ornament of the Church which he represented, and 
of which he was a member. He has left that behind him 
which is better than all the wealth which he left, and that 
is the reputation of an honest man and a faithful public 
servant. In the largest and highest sense he was what 
may be called a statesman, because he comprehended the 
necessities of the country, and that the duties of a public 
man are not merely to the constituents which he imme- 
diately represented, but to the State at large. He was a 
patriot, too, in its largest sense, as has been said, because he 
not only loved his country with sincerity, but served it with 
the highest devotion. He recalls to me these lines of Pope, 
in uttering which I will conclude the brief remarks I have 
to make : 

" 'Statesman, yet friend to truth ; of soul sincere; 
In action faithful, and in honor clear; 
Who broke no promise, -erred no private end. 
Who gained no title, and who lost no friend.'" 

Mr. Seymour married, in ISoT, Maria L. Curtiss, daughter 
of Sheldon Clarke Curtiss, an eminent lawyer of Derby, 
Conn. As the offspring of this marriage there survived 
him three daughters. — Mary L., wife of Titus E. Eddy, a 
manufacturer and merchant of New York City; Sara L., 
wife of S. Fisher Johnson, a banker of New York City ; 
and Fannie M., wife of Charles E. Patterson, a lawyer of 

was born at Ballston Spa, to which place his father, Miles 
Beach, had removed from Connecticut, in the year 1TS6. 
On the maternal side, bis lather was related to Judge Smith 
Thompson, of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 
1807 his father married Cynthia, a si-tor of Judge William 
I,. F. Warren, and a relative of Dr. Warren, of Bunker 
Hill memory. Ili> lather served during the Revolution in 

a Massachusetts militia company, holding a c mission 

bearing the bold signature of John Hancock. Zerah 
K ich, his grandfather, was one of the commissioners of 
the treaty of Wyoming, and was also in the Continental 
army, having passed the winter at, Valley Forge. Miles 
Beach removed with his family to Saratoga Springs in the 
year 1809. 

William A., during his boyhood, attended school at the 
Saratoga Springs Academy, and later Captain Partridge's 
military school, at MiddletoWn, Vt. He first studied law 

//-•///, > 



in Saratoga, with his uncle, .Indue Warren. He was 

admitted to the bar in August, 1833. His first legal part 

Dership was with Nicholas Hill, Jr. Subsequently lie 

formed partnerships successively with Sidney .). Cowen, 

Daniel Shepherd, and Augustus Bockes, his connection 
with the latter continuing until his removal to Troy. He 
received the appointment of district attorney in L843, hold- 
ing the same until 1847. 

*In April, 1851, lie removed to the city of Troy, where 
he formed a copartnership with Job PierBOn and Levi 
Smith, under the linn-name of Pierson, Beach & Smith. 
Mr. Pierson withdrew from the firm in 1851!, and it was 
continued under the firm-name of Beach & Smith until 
December, 1870. During all this long interval Mr. Beach 
was actively engaged in his profession. In addition to the 
lurge office business of his firm he had an extensive crim- 
inal business, and was engaged in most of the important 
litigations of the day, and was constantly brought in eon- 
tact with the most able New York lawyers, and always 
proved himself the equal of any of them, whenever an im- 
portant controversy arose. The first thing said by the 
friends of either side, by way of advice, was, " Employ 

I Beach." He was employed in the noted Albany bridge 
case, where the question involved was the right to bridge 
navigable streams emptying into the sea, where the tide 
ebbed and flowed, under State authority. Mr. Beach had 
opposed to him in this controversy William H. Seward, 
then a senator from the State of New York, Nicholas Hill, 
and John II. Reynolds, of the city of New York, all since 
dead, and he proved himself equal in argument and learning 
with these great men. The history of this case is worthy 
of a remark here. It was heard in the United States cir- 
cuit court for the northern district of New York, before 
Hon. Samuel Nelson, then a justice of the United States 
Supreme Court, ami Hon. Nathan K. Hull, district judge of 
New York, of the northern district of New York. These 
eminent judges were unable to agree, and made a certificate 
of disagreement to the United States Supreme Court, where 
the case was argued, — that court then consisted of but six 
members, — and the court there was also equally divided. 
The practice of the court in such case being that the case 
would be sent back to the circuit court, with directions that 
it be dismissed. This was done, leaving as the result, 
after years of earnest and expensive litigation, no actual 
decision either of fact or of law. 

Mr. Beach was employed by Horatio Seymour, then 
Governor of New York, to defend Colonel North and his 
officials, who were appointed commissioners to superintend 
the taking of the votes of soldiers in the field. The United 
States authorities claimed that their commissioners had 
been guilty of malfeasance in office, and ordered a military 
court to try them. This court sat in the city of Washing- 
ton, D. C., and it was here that Mr. Beach made one of 
his most able and brilliant efforts. At the close of his 
argument a rule of the court was taken, and it was unani- 
mous for acquittal, and the prisoners were discharged. The 
president of the court, a perfect stranger to Mr. Beach, 
after the acquittal came to Mr. Beach, gave him his hand, 

* Kindly contributed hy Mr. Smith. 

and CODgratulated him upon his masterly effort, and thanked 

him for the powerful aid he had rendered the court in arriv- 
ing at its conclusion. 

Ransom II. (idlett, then a resident of Washington, ami 
himself a lawyer of distinguished ability, who was present 
at this argument, writing to the Albany AtffUt shortly 
afterwards, said in substance that 1 1 < - had been for many 
years a resident ill Washington ; that he had known all 
these great men, — Webster, Clay, Calhoun, etc., — beard 
them both at the bar ami in the halls of Congress, ami 
that none of them had excelled Mr. Beach in brilliancy or 

'I'he defense of General Cole, charged with the murder 
of Senator lliscock, at Albany, is another noted professional 
triumph of Mr. Beach. General Cole met Senator lliscock 
at the Stanwix Hall, in Albany, and at sight shot, him dead. 
It was claimed on the part id' the defense, and some evi- 
dence was given in the trial tending in that direction, that 
Senator Hiscock bad trifled with the affections of the gen- 
eral's wife while he, the general, was at the front fighting 
for the cause of his country, and that the general on his 
return, hearing the facts, meeting the senator by accident, 
shot him on the spot. Mr. Beach in his argument charac- 
terized the ease as one of " emotional insanity,'' that 
although snne a moment before and sane a moment after 
the shot was fired, yet that when the fatal shot was fired, 
Cole was insane and wholly irresponsible for the act. The 
court and jury took this view of the case, and the jury 
promptly rendered a verdict of acquittal. 

These are but a few of the important cases in which he 
was engaged while living in Troy. In all of his eases he 
brought a careful preparation, and was always great in his 
presentation both to court and jury. 

The county of Rensselaer looked with pride upon him 
as one so long its resident and humble advocate. His suc- 
cess in the great metropolis has been equally marked. His 
lime is wholly taken up with the most important cases 
known to our courts of justice in the State and nation. 


for a little less than forty years a resident of the city of 
Troy, was a man of studious, somewhat retiring habits, a 
close observer of human nature, far-sighted in regard to 
business operations and political movements, a prominent 
public man, a Mason of high rank, and a gentleman of fine 
literary acquirements. He was born at Lancaster, N. H., 
Nov. 4, 1799, was the son of a clergyman, and a descendant 
of Maj. Simon Willard, who emigrated to this country from 
the county of Kent, England, in 1634, and was celebrated 
in the Indian wars. 

Judge Willard was educated at Dartmouth College, where 
he graduated at the early age of nineteen. He began the 
study of law in Chenango Co., N. Y., completed it in Troy 
with Judge McConihe, and was admitted to the bar in lSliti. 
He immediately opened an office in the city, where he bad 
already many warm friends. The next year he was ap- 
pointed surrogate of Rensselaer County by De Witt Clin- 
ton, but the ' : Bucktail" party in the Senate refused to con- 
firm him on political grounds. 

In 1834, Governor William L. Marcy appointed him 



judge of the oourt of Common Pleas, an office which he 
held for -ix year.-. 

In the moan time his business as a lawyer had been con- 
stantly increasing, and at 1 1 > « • dose of his judgeship lie 
determined t" devote himself entirely to bis profession, and 
refused all nominations for election to public office. 

Previous to this he had edited the Troy Sentinel forsev- years, having succeeded Orville L. Bolley, and from 
about L835 to 1848 he was secretary of a profitable corpo- 
ration, — the Troy Insurance Company. 

In 1829 he married Laura, daughter of Blakeslee Barnes, 
of Berlin, Conn. She was born May 13, 1808, and sur- 
vive- at the time of Writing this sketch. Finding his health 
railing him, in 1850, accompanied with his wife, he spent 
a little over a year abroad, visiting most of the countries of 
Europe, and in 1 855, with his son. again visited thai country, 
remaining some fifteen months, during which time he was 

an interesting corres] lent of one of the city papers. The 

degr f I.L.I'.. conferred by Dartmouth College and the 

Masonic University, was no empty honor. It was merited 
by this careful student, graceful writer, anil well-read lawyer. 
Judge Willard held the highest offices in one of the Ma- 
sonic l.odu'.'s of Troy, and also tilled the position of Grand 
Master of the State at the time of the memorable (roubles 

in the order, caused by the secession of some Mil. ordinal. 
bodies. With a Arm but temperate band he settled all these 
difficulties, and restored the harmony which is the support 
of all such institution-. 

In ls.")7 he was elected, as the Democratic candidate. 
State senator for the twelfth district, comprising the coun- 
ties of Rensselaer and Washington, and discharged his 
duties with acknowledged ability. He was a director in 
the Commercial Bank of Troy, and a member of various 
literary and scientific societies. He had a taste for literary 
pursuits, and found time amid the engrossing cares of a 
laborious profession to give much attention to general liter- 
ature. In public as in private life he was straightforward. 
upright, decided, and reliable. Although not a church mem- 
ber, he attended the services of the Presbyterian Church, 
and for several years was chairman of the board of trustees 
of the Second Presbyterian congregation in Troy. He was 
th.- efficient friend of all benevolent enterprises, and inter- 
ested in whatever coi rued the business interests of the 

..mity in which he lived. He die.l Oct. 9, 1864. 

He had two sons, — Henry, a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 

now a Congregationalisl minister in Minnesota, and 
Clarence, a Troy merchant .deceased). 


tnded from a wealthy .and honorable ancestry, 
which date, back to the settlement of New England . and 
civil and military records make prominent many of the 
members of the Huntington family in State and national 
ilation in the struggle for independence, and in the 
public offices of the country, wherever they have 
found Judge Huntington was the son of Rev. Enoch 
Huntington, of Middletown, Conn., and «a- born Maj 21, 
1 T-sJ Hi- father I it x*ale College in 1785 with 

high honor, receiving tfai Berkeley premium, as bis father 
before him had done J . Igi I luntington was also a nephew 

and namesake of Samuel Huntington, one of the signers of 
the Declaration ..!' Independence, p resident of the Colonial 
Congress, and who was afterwards governor of Connecticut 
for a number of years. 

I.ik. most of the youth of his native State, he received 
the rudiments of a thorough education in the excellent 

From photo, by Atkinson, Troy« 



common schools then and still liberally and carefully sus- 
tained by the able legislators of that State. After leaving 
the common school, he receive.! the preparatory education 
necessary to admission to a collegiate course with his father, 
and was admitted to Yale College, where he graduated with 
the honors of that ancient university in the year 1SII0. 
His rather thought him too young to commence the study 
of his profession, — the law, — and sent him to Shelter Island, 
where he was a teacher for two years. Returning home, 
he became a student in the law-office of his brother. Enoch 
Huntington. Jr., of his native town. He wa.- admitted DO 
p.raetiee at the bar of Middlesex County, where he com- 
menced business in connection with his brother. 

He selected the law for bis profession, and in making 
that eh. .ice he felt that the legal profession yielded to no 
other in dignity or importance. At that day. too, the greal 
lights of the bar and bench of his native State beckoned him 
onward in a course of honorable distinction in bis profession. 
Such men as ReeVi and Swift adorned the bench, while 
l'ierrcpont Edwards, Goddard. Daggotl. and Gould shone at 
the bar. 

In the ;■■ it 1 B06 hi removed to the State of New York, 

and settled in practice in the village of Waterford, Saratoga 
Co. Here he soon rose to eminence as a lawyer, and 
ranked among the ablest of the many distinguished men 
who have graced the bar of that county. He removed to 



Troy in the year 1825, where, during the remainder of his 
life, his professional business was among the largest and 
most lucrative. II is counsel was sought in the most im- 
portant cases, particularly in those relating to real estate. 
In this branch of the law he was a perfect master, as well 
from his intimate acquaintance with the decisions of the 
English courts as from the fact that the period of his prac- 
tice, reaching to upwards of half a century, embraced that 
space in the history of our country during which not only 
the system of our law of real estate, but in fact almost the 
entire body of American common law, has been formed. 
When he commenced practice there was no American com- 
mentator on the law, and the reported cases, cither in Con- 
necticut or New York, did not exceed half a dozen volumes. 
Under the administration of Governor Clinton he was ap- 
pointed to the office of judge of the court of Common Pleas 
of Rensselaer County, and discharged its duties with great 
ability and impartiality. His decisions always commanded 
respect, as they were felt to be the result of an honest con- 
viction of the right of the case, in a mind guided by patient 
research and stored with legal lore. 

In the death of Judge Huntington, July 5, 1854, his 
brethren of the bar mourned the loss of one in whose coun- 
sels they had often confided, whose legal acquirements did 
honor to their profession, whose professional relations to 
them all were kind, courteous, and honorable, and whose 
social intercourse so often helped to strip labor of its 
drudgery, relieve life of its tedium, and to strew our path- 
way with pleasant and harmless trifles and gay flowers. 

Judge Huntington was a man of very commanding per- 
sonal appearance. He had a large frame, a clear, florid 
complexion, and possessed very considerable beauty of 
feature. His bright and cheerful eye, when he was en- 
gaged in conversation, lit up with more than ordinary 
brightness. He possessed ready wit and a very keen sense 
of the humorous, and in his social hours he was a most 
charming companion. He should be ranked with the best- 
trained and most accomplished lawyers in the county and 

He married for his first wife Mary Johnston, of Middle- 
town, Conn., who died Nov. 23, 1823, leaving one daughter, 
now Mrs. John H. Whitlock, of Troy, N. Y., a lady of re- 
finement and rare natural artistic attainments. For Jlis 
second wife he married Mrs. Januette C. Cheever. 


of Troy, N. Y., is descended of ancestors who, for more 
than two centuries, have dwelt in this country. His primal 
progenitor in America was Martin Townsend, of Water- 
town, Mass., who was born in 1644, fourteen years after 
the settlement of Boston. In 1668 he married Abigail 
Train, and their youngest son, Jonathan, was born in 1687. 
Removing to Hebron, Conn., Jonathan married, and one of 
his children, who was named Martin, was born in 1727, 
and married Rhoda Ingham. Among the descendants of 
Martin and Rhoda was a Martin, who was born at Hebron 
in 1756, and who married Susannah Allen, of Hancock. 
This Martin had four wives besides Susannah, and eighteen 
children. One of these children was Nathaniel, who was 
born Sept. 4, 1781, and who died July 20, 1865. In 1805 

he married Cynthia Marsh, who was born March 5, 17-:: 
and who died April 2, 1S76. Of their four children three 
still survive, one of whom is Martin I. Town-rid, the Jub 

ject of this sketch, who was In. in at Hancock, in Berkshire 
Co., Mass., on the 6th day of February, L810. As has 
been already noted, be inherits on his lather's side the blood 
of the Inghams of Connecticut and of the Trains of Ma i 

chusetts. Through his mother he claims descent from Miles 

Standish, the citizen-soldier of the Pilgrim Fathers, and 

also from Henry Adams, of Braintroe. In 1816, Mr. 
Townsend removed to Williamstown, Mass., and was edu- 
cated at the common schools of that village, at the academy 
there situated, and at Williams College. At the latter in- 
stitution he was graduated in 1833 ; and at the commence- 
ment of his class, by reason of his scholarship, he received 
the second appointment in the literary exercises of that oc- 
casion. He took his master's degree in regular course, and 
was honored with the degree of EL.D. by his alma mater 
in 1866. After graduating, he read law for a few months 
in the office of David Dudley Field in New York City ; but, 
having removed to Troy, N. Y., on the 1st of December, 
1833, he immediately thereafter entered the office of Henry 
Z. Hayner as a law student, and so continued for a year 
and a half. In May, 1835, he became clerk in the office 
of his elder brother, Rufus M. Townsend, and in 1836 his 
partner in the practice of the law. The connection thus 
formed still continues. It was in 1836 also that he mar- 
ried Louisa B., the daughter of Oren Kellogg, of Williams- 
town, a lady who for more than forty years has aided in 
making his cheerful life still more cheerful, and who, by her 
noble presence and pleasing ways, like mellow sunlight, 
surrounds him with homelike happiness as he treads with 
unfailing step and buoyant mien the bright pathway of his 
autumnal days. 

In 1838, Mr. Townsend was a candidate for member of 
the Assembly when his party — which was then the Demo- 
cratic party — was in a minority of about one thousand in 
the city of Troy. In the canvass he ran far ahead of his 
ticket, but was defeated. He was the district attorney for 
the county of Rensselaer from 1842 to 1S45. He repre- 
sented the Eighth Ward of Troy in the Common Council of 
that city from May, 1842, to May, 1S43, and from March, 
1856, to March, 1858. He was a member for the State at 
large of the Constitutional Convention of the State of New 
York in 1S66-67. By a strict attention to his duties, 
and by his graphic and intelligent expositions of the sub- 
jects which were considered by that body, he won the 
esteem of his learned associates and maintained the honor 
of the district which he specially represented. In the year 
1869 he was nominated on the Republican State ticket, 
without his knowledge, for the position of attorney-general, 
but was defeated, with the other State candidates associated 
with him, by the machinations and overwhelming frauds — 
as they are now recognized to be — of Tammany Hall. In 
1872, Mr. Townsend was chairman of the New York Re- 
publican delegation in the convention at Philadelphia which 
renominated Grant for the Presidency. It will be remem- 
bered that Mr. Greeley was then the candidate of the oppo- 
sition. Mr. Townsend, in announcing the vote of New- 
York, spoke as follows: " The Empire State, by the unaui- 



mous voico of her delegates, has instructed me to casl her 
seventy votes for thai man of whom our distinguished 
fellow-citizen Horace Greeley has said. ■ He never has been 
beaten and lie never will be.' Ulysses S. Grant." He was 
■ h. —■■11 by the Legislature in 1873 a regenl of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York to till the vacancy occa- 
sioned by the death of the Bon. John A. Qriswold. In 
the fall of 1874 he was elected representative in the I Itli 

Congress for the 17th Congressional histriet, and was re- 

elected to the same position in the 45th Congress in the 
fall of 1876 

In his ohosen profession of the law Mr. Townsend early 

him, and all the aid which would naturally flow from a 
sympathizing humanity. He vigorously defended the only 
two slaves who in Rensselaer County appealed to the courts 
for protection during his connection with the bar. To one 
of these, Antonio Louis, who was arrested as a fugitive in 
1842, liberty was granted ; and to the other, Charles Nalle, 
freedom came on the 27th of April, 1860, he having been 
taken on that day by a mob from the custody of the United 
States marshal while Mr. Townsend and other gentlemen 
were waiting in the office of the late George Gould, justice 
of the Supreme Court, for the return of a writ of habeas 
fir/niK that had been issued on behalf of Nalle. 

I'roln photo. 1'V > in. in . 

yfLtCzd^ ^C^^~ opttyofaujL 

prominent position, which he nol only maintained 
while the men witli whom he began bis career surrounded 
him. but wbieb he still maintains as he encounters the 
yoni nd the fresh vigor of a new generation. 

While serving as district attorney of the county of Rens- 
r. he secured the conviction of Benry Q Green and 
1 1 iv Miller upon the charge of murder, and both of thi so 
offenden suffered the i itreme penalty of the law. Always 
believing thai a slave escaping into ■ free State must, under 
the Constitution, be returned by the federal government to 
his master. Mr. Townsend wa- most active in extending to 

the «lavp so escaping every light thai the law Could give 

He was associate counsel for the defense in the cele- 
brated trial of Henrietta Robinson for the murder of 
Timothy Lanagan. Mrs. Robinson was known as the 
•■ veiled murderess," from the fact that she persisted in 
wearing a veil wbieb concealed her face during the trial, 
and wbieb no threat nor inducement could lead her to 
remove, except for a few moments on two or three occa- 
sion.-. The trial commenced at Troy nn Monday, May 28, 
1854, and was concluded late in the evening of Saturday, 
on the -'7th of the same month, by the rendition of » 
verdict of guilty. Mr. Town-end's argument on this 
occasion was based upon the idea of the insanity of Wl 



prisoner at the time the alleged crime was committed, and 
was peculiarly eloquent, comprehensive, discriminating, and 
exhaustive. The eases adduced by him in support, ol' this 
theory were specially applicable, and the references to au- 
thorities in maintenance of his position demonstrated the 
research, investigation, and study which he had bestowed 
on the subject. Sentence of death was not passed upon 
the convicted woman until June 14, 1855, more than a 
year after the close of the trial. The execution was ap- 
pointed for Aug. 3, 1855, but on the 27th of July, a week 
previous to the fatal day, Governor Clark, in the exercise 
of the great prerogative of his office, commuted her sen 
tenee to that of imprisonment for life in the Sing Sing 
prison. There she was soon after taken, and there she 
remained until a few years ago, when she was placed in 
the asylum at Auburn for insane criminals. In the 
thoughtful mind the question arises whether the insanity 
which affected her in prison, and has now settled down 
on her permanently, as is probable, was not in 1853 the 
shadowing cloud that then obscured on her troubled nature 
the distinction between right and wrong, and, as her learned 
advocate claimed, produced in her an abnormal and irre- 
sponsible condition. 

Mr. Townsend has always held an advanced position in 
law reform, and was early a favorer of the measures lately 
adopted by this State, enabling husbands and wives to be 
witnesses for and against each other in civil actions, and 
allowing alleged criminals to testify in their own behalf. 
For more than forty years he has been connected with most 
of the important litigations in Rensselaer County, always 
maintaining the character of a zealous, indefatigable, and 
accomplished lawyer. In arguing a question of law to the 
court, the clearness with which he defines his position is 
specially noticeable. A statement of the principle supposed 
to be involved is followed by the application of that prin- 
ciple to the case in band, and then, by apt illustration and 
by subtle and cogent reasoning, the legal aspect of the case 
is developed, and the particular rule which should govern 
in its decision is evolved and proclaimed. But it is before 
a jury that the strong and salient powers of his mind are 
most apparent. His analysis of the subject in hand is 
searching, skillful, and exhaustive. Not a point that can 
make for his client is left, undisclosed, not a statement hurt- 
ful to him is adduced, but it is sifted with the most pene- 
trative scrutiny aud surrounded with all the doubts that 
can be raised as to its truthfulness. If he is engaged for 
the defense in a criminal case, and if it has been shown 
that his client possesses any trait of character that chal- 
lenges admiration, such possession is enlarged upon until it 
spreads out like a mautle of broadest charity, and is made 
to cover any inequalities of disposition, temper, or conduct 
that may have been developed to that client's disadvantage. 
Yet while his defense is obstinate and protective, bis attack 
is trenchant, aggressive, and pertinacious. The war is car- 
ried into the enemy's country with such dash and courage, 
and with such an appearance of belief in the strength of 
every position taken, that not unfrequently, in desperate 
cases even, "out of the nettle danger" he has plucked 
"the flower safety." 

As a politician, Mr. Townsend, during his whole career, 

has been true to his convictions; and those convictions have 
not sprung from a low standard of political ethics, but have 
been always referable to an elevated idea of the value and 
right of personal liberty. He was a Democrat until 1848, 
but was at all liino unhesitatingly and openly opposed to 

slavery, and when in that year the convention that nom- 
inated General Cass for President of the United States re- 
solved that it was proper that the Territories of the nation 
should become slave soil, he snapped the ties which bad 
bound him since manhood to a party that bad thus disre- 
garded its own traditions, aud addressed the first public 
meeting convened in the United States to protest against 
the pro-slavery action of the Democratic party. That 
meeting was held at Troy, on the .'id day of .June. ISIS, 
and for the consideration of those assembled on that occa- 
sion be prepared and presented a series of resolutions ad- 
vocating the principles of free soil, free speech, and free 
men, and these resolutions were then adopted. From that 
time forward he has always been the able and conscientious 
apostle and advocate of those principles and aspirations, 
which, lying at the foundation of the movements of the 
Barnburners of New York, who in 1S48 nominated Mar- 
tin Van Buren for the Presidency, became more clearly de- 
fined in the position of the Free-soil Democracy as taken 
by them in the nomination of John P. Hale for President 
in 1852, and which culminated in the formation of the 
Republican party, when it first presented itself as a national 
organization in 1856, and nominated John C. Fremont for 
the Presidency. 

During the Rebellion he was the earnest and outspoken 
upholder of the government in its efforts to maintain the 
integrity of the Union. So marked was his advocacy, and 
so unsparing was he in his denunciation of the traitors and 
treason, that during the draft-riots of July 15, 1863, the 
mob sacked his house in Troy, and either carried off or 
destroyed or injured nearly all articles of personal property 
that it contained. On becoming a member of the House 
of Representatives, he at once assumed the position of a 
careful observer of all that was passing about him, and was 
at all times ready to approve or condemn intelligently the 
various measures presented to him, in common with other 
members, for consideration. But it was not until the House 
entered upon the discussion of the Centennial Bill that all 
its members became aware of the mental energy, keen hu- 
mor, brilliant thought, and illustrative power embodied in 
the personality of Mr. Townsend. On the 20th of January, 
1876, in a speech favoring the appropriation named in that 
measure for securing the success of the centennial celebra- 
tion of the origin of the nation, he took occasion to display 
the inconsistencies of those who opposed the appropriation 
on the ground that it was contrary to the Constitution. 
During its delivery he received the marked attention of all 
present, and his effective sallies of wit and searching analyses 
of conduct, illumined with occasional pleasantries enunciated 
with clearness aud made completely impressive by the force 
of his own indomitable and peculiar oratory, raised him at 
once to the level of the most practiced debaters of the 
House. Commenting upon this speech, one who heard it 
wrote, '• No printed report can convey a sense of the im- 
pression produced on the delighted audience, nor show how 



deftly, in the midst of all the merri nt. the logical results 

of the war. the olemenoy of the Union, the worth of the 
nation (.1 all its oitisens, ami the wisdom nod righl of the 
United States to Bet forth evidence of it- advancement at 
Philadelphia were all stated with that power of suggestion 
which is often more potent than labored argument." 

The editor of ffarper't Weekly, introductory to an epit- 
ome of 1 1 * i —■ speech, said, " It was a perfect rebuke to the 
insolence of Mr. Hill. an. 1 it was a distinct announcement 
to that gentleman and his friends that, although they have 
■ come back to the Union to staj .' they have not come back 
to ml.-. The gayety of the speech, it- wholesome humor, 
and it- kindly and friendly spirit did not in the least con- 

<• the clear perception and the resolute < vietion and 

determination of the speaker. The undertone was one to 
which every generous and loyal American heart responds. 

Ind 1. there cannot well be found a more characteristic 

and admirable expression of the reeling and purpose of the 
domiuant party in this country than this Bpeech of Mr. 
Townsend's. There is no vindictiveness of feeling, no ran- 
cor, no desire to recall the war for the sake .of crimination, 
no feeling but a hearty wish for concord; but also no for- 
getfulness of the (acts of our history and of human nature, 
no doubt of the ahsolute justice of the cause of the Union 
in the war. no question of the infinite national dishonor 
and degradation wrought by the long ascendency of the 
Democratic party ; a profound contempt for the old- 
fashi 1 -lavc-holcling violence and the Northern subserv- 
ience to it which have reappeared in the Democratic House; 
and an equal scorn of the fine-spun i'|tiiddities of ' striet con- 
structionists.' " — Harper's Weekly, Feb. 19, 1876. 

Among his otherable speeches was his argument in favor 
of transferrin.' the Indian Bureau to the War Department, 
delivered April L'-\ 1876, his ol. -mat ions on the protection 
of the Texas frontier, presented on July 12 and 18, 1876, 
and his remarks relative to the settlement of the title of 
Governor Have- to the office of President of the United 
9, made on Jan. 26, Feb. 20 and 21, and March 2, 
L877. But not alone as a lawyer and politician is Mr. 
Town-end distinguished. A- a man of high culture and 
of attainments in the Geld of letters i- he also well and 

favorably known, lumong his miscellai us writings are 

several of a high order. Hi- easaj entitled "Saxon and 
Celt," being a brief argument designed to show the influence 
of the Bible ; his addrea daboi before the alumni of 

Williams College ; bis occasional paper- ami hi- speeches, as 
forth in the debates of the Constitutional Convention 

of the St v n fork, all evin ixtended reading, 

thorough research, and ■ full appreciation of the to] 
illy presented. 
Tlo extract foil. .win- i- from the a. I. he-- above alluded 
i ii who fellg the giant forest which for i 

has dominated the Boil, or turns the flowery sod upon the 
lie and commits t.. it- bosom the bread 

yielding corn, — that man wl moistened brow and stal- 

wart arm are bending over the ii that sparkle in 

i-r workshop as the earth-bon tali ar.- moulded (•. 

meet the million wants of life, -thai man wl 
toil brings Ion the hills and exalts the valleys, or who 
- in the bowels of mountains, old u the morning of 

creation, that he may prepare a highway for the commercial 
and social intercourse of man, — each of them is doing the 
will of God, and performing the work which he has for 
each of them to do. They are all ' dressing and keeping' 
Qfld's garden, and subduing the earth which they inhabit. 
From the hum of yonder spinning-wheels and factory-loonis 
there ri-es an anthem more sacred than choir of cloistered 
nuns ever hymned ; and that tireless mother, whose waking 
. yes prevent the watches of the night, as she plies her busy 
needle to clothe and feed her little ones, is offering to God 
a sacrifice sweeter than the Arabian incense which burns 
upon priestly altars. Let none who serve their race, their 
country, or their family by active labor, whether mental or 
physical, for a moment doubt that their work shall be ac- 
cepted l.y II im whose eye sees all. and whose rewards, the 
couse.|iiciices of well-doing, can no more fail than can the 
system which He has instituted and which He constantly 

Mr. Townsend now holds the office of United States 
district attorney for the Northern District of New York, 
to which office he was nominated on the 6th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1879, his Bixty-ninth birthday.* 


was born, Aug. 1, 1806, at Hancock, Berkshire Co., Mass. 
He was the son of Nathaniel Townsend and Cynthia Town- 
send. He was the grandson of Martin Townsend, who 
settled with his father Martin Townsend and wife in Han- 
cock aforesaid, in 1765. His grandfather was then nine 
years old, and he came with his parents and his younger 
brother from Cornwall Bridge, in the State of Connecticut 
This family had returned to Cornwall, and then moved to 
Hancock; most of the journey to Hancock was in the 
woods, and without roads or track. This family, consist- 
ing of father, mother, two sons, thus took up their abode 
and residence in the forest on the western border of what 
came to be the State of Massachusetts, and led the advance 
in the settlement of this State. His grandfather, by the 
early death of his father, was left with his mother and little 
brother to confront and overcome the dangers and hard- 
ships of this wilderness, and, ultimately, the sorrows of the 
American Revolution. Rut the native mind and practical 
character possessed by him enabled him ultimately to be- 
come possessed of large wealth, and to be greatly respected 
and revered by the inhabitants of all the country aiiiii.1 

Hi- ancestors were among the early settlers in Watertown, 
a little out of Boston, and were emigrant- from England, 
and they trace their blood to the Townscnds in Norfolk, OM 
of the eastern shire.- of England. This family resided ill 
Rainham Castle, in Norfolk County, where Charles Town 
i originated, ami all of hi- name in England. 

Bis grandfather had eighteen children and five wives; 

he had sixteen children by his first wife, and two by hi.« 

second wife. He lies buried in his family burying-ground, 
a l.w rods from where his father and he stopped and look 
up their homo iii the forest on arriving from Connection! 
in 1766. His mother was Cynthia Marsh, the daughter 
of Rufus Marsh, of Hinsdale, Mass., — and wife, who wa? 

mporarj Hiography of Now York." 






Marv Adams, cousin to John Quincj Adams; her mother 

w;is Mary Adams. 

Nathaniel Townsend lived mi the old homestead in San 
cuc-k until March, IS Hi, when lie moved with his family 
(wife and three suns. Rufus M. Townsend, Martin I. Town- 
send, and Randolph VV. Townsend) to Williamstown, .Mass., 
ami near Williams College, where he lived until Ins death, 
the 27th of July, 1840, aged eighty fouryears. Bis mother 

died at her old li e in Williamstown, 2d of April, 187(5, 

aged ninety two years. He had only one sister, who died in 
1829, twelve years old. 
He and Ins two brothers fitted for Williams College in 
' their father's house, under private teachers. He graduated 
at said college in 1S.">(), and then, after teaching one year a 
junior class, studied law in Troy, X. V.. three years with 
Hon. John P. Cushman and Hon. David L.Seymour; and 
at the end of three years he Commenced the practice of law 
in Troy, where he lias practiced ever since. There were at the 
Troy and Rensselaer County bar a number of eminent law- 
yers during all his early practice; there was Hon. John P. 
Cushman, Hiram P. Hunt, David Buel, Samuel G. Hunt- 
ington, among many other very able lawyers. As a jury 
lawyer Mr. Cusliman stood at the head of the profession in 
the central part of this State. His tact, skill, and resources 
in the trial of a cause were almost unparalleled. He was 
one of the most able and sharp examiners of witnesses on a 
trial of his time ; he was the perfection and ideal jury- 
lawyer of his time. From the office of John P. Cushman 
he went into practice in Troy, and has continued practice 
to the present time. 


Prominent among the long list of able men who, during 
the last half-century, have contributed so much to the ma- 
terial, industrial, social, educational, and religious interests 
of Troy, who have literally grown with its growth and 
strengthened with its strength, stands the name of Francis 
N. Maun. 

Judge Mann was born in the town of Milton, Saratoga 
Co., N. Y., on the 19th day of Juue, 1802. His father's 
name was Jeremiah Mann, who was a son of Joel Mann, 
one of the pioneer settlers of the town of Milton. His 
mother was Lydia Norton, a daughter of Francis Norton, 
of Hebron, Tolland Co., Conn. His grandfather, Joel 
Mann, removed from Hebron, Conn., about the year 1793, 
and settled on what has since been the homestead of the 
Mann family, in Milton, Saratoga Co.* 

Jeremiah Mann, the father of Francis N., was a farmer, 
and it was his earnest desire that Francis should follow the 
same occupation. But Francis had more ambitious views 
than his father, and, being naturally inclined to reading and 
study, early resolved to acquire the advantages of a liberal 
education. During his boyhood and until his eighteenth 
year he worked upon his father's farm, attending the dis- 
trict school of the neighborhood some three months in the 
winter season. But the meagre, although so far as they 
went excellent, facilities of the common schools of the time 
did not satisfy the eager and inquiring mind of young 

* See Sylvester's History of Saratoga County, p. 4S4. 


Francis, neither did they afford the oei an instruction 

required of a candidate for collegiate honors, To pui 
this course it was necessary for Francis to leavi home. 
To tins course bis father was strongly opposi d Hie father 
urged upon him the propriety of continuing hie occupation 
of a farmer, and insisted thai forthal purposi hi education 
was already sufficient. So strongly was bis father oppo 
to bis leaving home thai he utterly refused to afford Francis 

any pecuniary aid whatever in case be should do BO, but 
generously offered to give him a line farm should he remain. 

I!ut Francis had made up his mind otherwise, and, unaided 
and alone, the farmer boy look the incipient steps towards 
accomplishing his own destiny as the future leader in the 
affairs of an important city, then in its infancy. 

Some sixteen miles from the Maun homestead there re- 
sided, in the town of Charlton, Saratoga Co., a Presbyterian 
minister whose name was Joseph Sweetman. To Dr. Sweet- 
man Francis resolved to apply for admission into his family 
upon some terms whereby he could in return for his Ser- 
vices receive at the doctor's hands such instruction as 
should fit him to enter college. 

On foot and alone he went to the residence of Dr. Sweet- 
man, and the result of the interview was that Francis be- 
came a member of Dr. Sweetman's family for a period of 
two years. He then entered Lansingburgh Academy, then 
under the care of George A. Simmons as principal. Here 
he remained one year, and on the 24th of June, 1823, entered 
the junior class of Union College. He was graduated on 
the 24th day of July, 1825, and on the 4th day of Octo- 
ber of the same year he entered upon the study of the law 
in the office of Ashley Sampson and John Dickson, at Roch- 
ester, N. Y., supporting himself while there by acting as 

After leaving Rochester he continued his studies in the 
office of Daniel Cady, of Johnstown, for a while, and 
finally, coming to Troy, finished them in the office of Sam- 
uel G. Huntington, and was admitted to the bar as attorney 
and counselor of the Supreme Court at the August term, 
held at Utica in 1828. He immediately opened an office 
in Troy for the practice of his profession, which he has 
continued to the present day, — a period of over fifty years, 
— although for the last twenty years bis whole time and 
attention has been devoted to the care of his own large and 
increasing estate. 

As a lawyer Judge Mann never encouraged litigation, 
uniformly declining such cases as he deemed to be without 
merit. He was usually successful in the courts. 

His official career began in 1835, when he was elected to 
the office of supervisor of the Second Ward of the city of 
Troy. He also represented this ward as supervisor in 1857. 
He was alderman of the Second Ward from 1844 to 1847. 
For five years — from 1S40 to 1845 — he was one of the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas of Rensselaer County. 

In March, 1S47, he was chosen mayor of the city of 
Troy, to which office he was three times re-elected by in- 
creased and flattering majorities. 

Judge Mann, during bis long professional, official, and 
business career, has been distinguished for his integrity, his 
carefulness, painstaking, and vigilance as a business man. 

In early life Judge Mann became a communicant of the 



Protestant Episcopal Church. He was one of the rounders 
of St John's Church in Troy, in the year 1830 ; was a 
member of the Erst vestry, and lias continued a member of 
its vestry ever since. At all times he has taken a deep 
and active interest in matters of religion and charity. 

On the '-'"nil day of October, 1848, Judge Mom was 
married to Miss M try J. Hooker, daughter of Marquis de 
I. Payette Hooker, of Poultncy, Vt., a lineal descendant 
of tin- Rev. Thomas Hooker, who founded the city of 
Hartford, Conn., in the year 1636. Mrs. Mann died on 
tin- 28th of July, 1875. Three children were the fruil of 
tlii— union, — two boos, Francis N. Mann, Jr., Elias Plum 

Mann, and a daughter, Emma M. Mann. 

Francis N. Mann. Jr., was graduated at Yale College, 
: 1870, and al tin- Albany Law School in the year 
[872. He was admitted to the liar as attorney ami coun- 
selor-at-law in tin 1 year L872, was alderman of the Second 
Wan I of tin' city ••!' Troy from 1873 t" 1-77. and in the 
year 187J) isa member of Assembly from tin' First District 
i.t" Rensselaer County. Elias Plum Mann is a graduate of 
the R - tei Polytechnic Institute of Troy, class of 1872. 


was born in tin- town of Argyle, Washington Co.. N. Y., 
in the year 1815. His grandfather, William Robertson, 

Judge Robertson, after attending the common schools, pre- 
pared for college at the Cambridge Academy, of Cambridge. 
Washington Co.. X. Y.. ami at the academy in Herkimer, in 
th. county "I' Herkimer, in charge of Dr. Chanel, then a 
celebrated teacher. He entered Union College in 18°!:!. ami 
was graduated in 1837. After leaving college he tuughl 
school in Columbia County two years. In 1839 he entered 
the law-office of Messrs. ( 'ail v & Fa ire hi hi. ill Salem, and 
continued with them until November, 1841), when he came 
to Ttu\ anil entered the law-office of Messrs. Ilavilcr 
& Gould. lie was admitted in the bar in 1843, com- 
menced the practice of the law with the late Judge Mo- 
Conihe, and has continued the practice ever since. In 

1843 he was elected a trustee of the public sel Is, and 

continued on the board three years. While in the bcIiooI 
board, helm.' the present public-school system was ad 
Judge Robertson took great interest in the schools, <irigi- 
nateil many important reforms in the system, and mainly 
through his influence the amount of public money's appro- 
priated to schools was doubled. This greatly stimulated 
the interest in the schools of the city, and paved tie mi 
for tin. adoption of the present system. Judge Rol 
also took great interest in the Troy Young Men's Associl 
tion, ami held the important offices of president ami enrre- 
sp. Milling secretary therein. He was appointed by the Gov- 

phofo by Alton- i . 

Ar, (ItfLcaXtr* A 

'..•Mi in Scotland in 1752, emigrated to this country in 
177'J. married Mary Livingston, of Greenwich, in 177.~>; 
purchase*! a large tract of land in Washington County, and 

there in 1823. Ili- father was Gilbert Robertson 
of the preceding, ami hi* mother was Elisabeth How. who 
was Ix.rn in Bootlaod, and came to this country in 1802, 

• rm. r of the State a justice of the Justices' Court ofTroj 

in 1-17. In 1848, the office having becon Icctive,he 

eras elected to the same office, which he held for li^' 

and for four years of that time was also police justice. 

In 1851 he was elected recorder of the city of Tn 
the term of four years. By virtue of this office he was » 




iiilx'i' til' llie common council of Troy, ami took an active 

part in all important matters brought before thai body. 

In 1859 lie was elected county judge of Rensselaer 
County, and was re-elected in 1863. While holding the 
office of judge he was distinguished for his ability and his 
strict impartiality. Although an active party man, he 
never was known to allow Ins party feeling to influence liis 
judicial conduct. 

On the 29th of December, 1869, he was appointed 
United Slates assessor of internal revenue, for the Fifteenth 
District of New York, by President Grant. 

In 1ST.", he was appointed postmaster of Troy by Presi- 
dent Grant, ami was reappointed in 1877, — which office he 
still holds. 

During liis incumbency he has spared no pains to make 
the post -office acceptable to the people of Troy, introducing 
many improvements therein, and giving greatly-increased 
facilities to its patrons. Of a truth almost every business 
tirni and prominent citizen of Troy, irrespective of party, 
signed the petition for his reappointment, so great was the 
public confidence in him. 

Judge Robertson was originally a Whig, and on the 
formation of the Republican party ardently espoused its 
came. On the organization of the party, in 1856, he was 
elected chairman of the Republican county committee of 
Rensselaer County, and was continued in that position, with 
the exception of one year, for twenty years continuously. 
He was also a member of the State committee, and a 
member of its executive committee for three years. 

In politics Judge Robertson was born to rule. His influ- 
ence in his own party in Rensselaer County, it is not too 
much to say, has from the beginning of his political ca- 
reer been paramount. This commanding influence is also 
strongly felt in State political circles. 

Of Judge Robertson it can be said more emphatically 
than of most men that he has discharged the duties of 
every office and station he has held to the entire satisfaction 
of all concerned. In the year 1852, Judge Robertson 
married Miss Angeline, daughter of Dr. Joseph Daggett, 
of Troy. They have three children, — Gilbert Daggett, 
Mary Elizabeth, and John Livingston. 


was bom in Schodack, Dec. 28, 1826. He was the youngest 
son and fifth child of Dr. Samuel McClellan and Laura H. 
Cook, his wife. He was prepared for college at the academy 
al Nassau, principally under the tuition of Rev. Ward Bul- 
lard, A.M., and was admitted to the junior class of Union 
College upon examination. He was graduated at that insti- 
tution m 1845, receiving the honorary membership of the 
Phi Beta Kappa Society, as distinguishing his proficiency, 
and received the honorary degree of A.M. from the same 

Be pursued the study of medicine to a considerable 
extent in the office of his father, but abandoned it for the 
Study of the law under the tuition of his brother-in-law, 
Hon. Anson Bingham, of Nassau, and he was admitted to the 
''•" in IS 18. I„ 1849 he went to California as one of the 
pioneers, and while there voted for members of the conven- 
tion aud for the adoption of the constitution recommended 

by the convention. He earnestly combated the proposition 
to extend slaverj to thai Territory. On his return from 
California he commenced the practice of the law with Mr. 
Bingham, his preceptor, and in L852 married Mi Jean- 
nette E. Tobey, of Wesl Stockbridgi M i and removed 
to .Nassau. In 1 85 I he was elected supervisor of the town, 
ami in 1855 was re-elected without opposition, and al the 

fall election of that year lie was elected surrogate of the 

county as the candidate of the American party. At the 
close of his term of office, in 1860, he resumed the practice 
of Ins profession, In 1867 he associated with himself 
James Lansing, and their partnership still continues. 

While he was surrogate he began to prepare a book for a 
guide to executors, but did not complete it until 1862, 
when it was published and very highly commended. He 
prepared a new and very much enlarged edition, which was 
published in 1873. 

For some years he had been engaged in the preparation 
of an extended treatise on the practice in the Surrogate's 
Court, and the duties of executors, administrators, and 
guardians, and it was published in 1875. His experience 
as surrogate of the county, with its vast business interests, 
together with his large practice, made him master of his 
subject, and his books are standard authority. His topics 
are systematically and logically arranged, and his style is 
particularly clear and concise. 

He has been admitted to the District, Circuit, and Supreme 
Courts of the United States, it having been rendered neces- 
sary by the extended business of his firm. 

In 1877 the alumni of Union College elected him a 
trustee of that time-honored institution. 

In politics he was originally a Whig, and on the disso- 
lution of that party he joined the American party ; but on 
the breaking out of the Rebellion he sacrificed all his per- 
sonal and political prejudices to his patriotism, and has 
continued to act with the Republican party from that time. 

In his social intercourse he is genial, sympathetic, and 
kindly considerate. The cares and perplexities of a large 
and increasing practice have not dulled the fine points of 
his literary culture, nor lessened his love for classical 
studies, which he still pursues with delight ; and he is, 
consequently, a thorough classical scholar. 

Of an ardent and sanguine temperament, he does what 
he has to do with all his might, and he is characterized for 
bis absolute punctuality and fidelity in all his engagements. 
True to his ancestral predilections, and of strong religious 
convictions, he is a staunch Presbyterian, and, happy in his 
social and family relations, he enjoys the respect and confi- 
dence of the community in which he lives. 


was born in Pittstown, Rensselaer Co., N. Y., and is the 
eldest son of the late Dr. Azel F. Parraenter. His early 
life was spent on a farm working for wages. During the 
winter months he taught school, and thus was enabled to 
defray the expenses of his education ; and by the time he 
had attained his majority he was not only thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the various English branches, but also well 
versed in the natural sciences and in the classics. About 
the year 184U he took up his residence in Troy, and with- 



■ nit the assistant (' friends, and with no other encourage- 
ment than that afforded by his confidence in his own abili- 
ties, I in establishing himself in that city as a lawyer. 
II formed a partnership with the late Judge McConihe, 

and was - i in the enjoyment of a large and lucrative 

practice. He early adopted the plan of pleading his cases in 
the higher courts without employing assistant counsel, as 
w.i- usual with young lawyers. By this means he came in 

direct ilact with soi I' the al talent in the 

northern part of the State, and acquired :i valuable experi- 
ence, which was not without marked effect upon his subse- 
quent career; and in the celebrated case of the Corn Ex- 
change [nsurancc Company, against Babcock, argued by 
him in the Court of Appeals several years ago, that court 
paid him tlu> high compliment of adopting his points as the 
law governing the case, thus settling forever in this S 
the long-agitated and vexed question as to the legal liability 
of a married woman as indorser for her husband. 

Among the number of other caa - of local celebrity in the 

conduct hi" which the legal acumen of Mr. Parmenter was 

jpicuously displayed, we may mention the Troy Pahn 

involving a constitutional question of great importance ; 

the Banker case, brought to annul a marriage contract ; the 

I 3 official newspaper case, prosecuted through all the 

courts; the case of Can- vs. Breese, brought to set aside a 

voluntary settlement l>_v a husband upon his wife; and the 

fiercely-contested case of the Troy and Boston Railroad 

Company against tin- Huston. Iloosac Tunnel, ami Western 

road Company, brought to determine the ownership of 

a dismantled railroad fifteen miles in length, — which last 

two are stil! before the courts. 

During the recent civil war he was active in the support 
of the federal government, and subscribed largely from Ins 
private purse t.i aid the Union cause. He traveled exten- 
sively in the State during tliis period, making stirring 
speeches in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war 
and encouraging subscriptions and enlistments. He was 
one of the principal speakers at the great war-meeting held 
Park, Troy. 
In the spring of l s 71 he was appointed corporation 
attorney of the city of Troy. He found, on entering office, 

a large number of suits against the city, soi f which had 

1 n upon the calendar t"r years, and involving I 

inte of money. After three years of patient labor he 
i in disposing of this accumulation of litigation, 
and. iii recognition of his services, received the pu 

f Mayor Kemp a political opponent i 
and a unanimous vote of thanks from thi Common Council 

■ if Troy. II. e appointments he still holds the 

. attorney, having for a period of nine 

urinous dutii - to the •ni ir.< satisfiv 

rg of the city of Troy. 

In the fall of 1 873 he received the Democratic nomination 

to tl - from the 1 ■ iw Sixteenth i Senatorial 

I' rising the count f Ben let and Wash- 

itiog and I 

II n I V Baker, 
.Ir who was chosen the previous * i i » ■ ■ - by a majority of 
four tbotu by eight 

hundred While in the Senate he 

served as a member of the committees on canals, literature, 
and eii-rnssed bills, performing his various duties with an 
intelligence and energy which won the respect of his col- 
- and secured the warm approval of his constituents 
1 pon leaving the Senate in the spring of 1875 he publicly 
announced that he would under no circumstances accept i 
renominatioti tor a second senatorial term. He steadfastly 
adhered to that determination, ami one again devoted al! 
hi- energies in the practice of his profession, lie was en- 
gagi 1 in the trial and argument of nearly all the important 
legal controversies coming before the liar where he pra 
While not wanting in other essential requirements of a grail 
lawyer, he excelled chiefly in the cross-examination of wit- 
ni - - ami in discussing questions of fact before the jury. 
His ingenuity in prnvini: controlling facts without specially 
arousing the apprehensions of his adversary was the subject 
neral remark. 

Without losing sight of his profession, Mr. Parmenter 
entered upon the political canvass of 1S7G with great 
in favor of the Democratic party. Ilis speeches on 
stump were earnest, eloquent, and effective. During the 
campaign he was nominated for representative in Congress 
without any solicitations on his part. His opponent on 
Republican ticket was Hon. Martin I. Town- ml, one of the 
readiest stump-speakers of the State, who had alreai 
tered upon the canvass. Mr. Parmenter accepted tin nom- 
ination, and immediately challenged Mr. Townsend for joint 
discus-ions throughout the district. But the challeiif 
declined, to the great disappointment of the masses of both 
political parties, who had reasonably anticipated eloquent 
and brilliant discussions. The district was largely Republi- 
can, and while Mr. Parmenter carried Rensselaer County, 
in which both the candidates resided, he was unable t 
come the large Republican majority in the county of Wash- 
ington. As a public speaker Mr. Parmenter possi -- 
ability, and his services are always in demand by the State 
committee of his party, especially in great political 
gencies. His habits of mind are severely logical, and in 
disposing of questions of fact he has few equals in the 
State. His legal ability and acquirements are of the best 
order, ami in addition he possesses, in a remarkable degree, 
those oratorical qualities which never fail to produce a 
marked effect upon his hearers, whether on the bench, in 
the jury-box, or composing a vast political assemblage. 

Notwithstanding his immense practice for many 
do! excelled by that of any other member of the Tn 
he i- a diligent -indent of science and literature, and is 
noted for his extensive reading and the variety as well a* 
refinement of his mental acquirements. 

II was married, in 1855, to Miss Mary L. lb 
daughter of the late Parley Reynolds, of Petersbui 
Y. lb- has a family of three children, — namely, Al 

K . and f'|. -1 S. 


The Parmenter family is of Fn nch origin. They trace 
their descent from Jchan Parmentier, who was born at 
Deippe in 1 4 :' 1 . He was a distinguished navigator and 
author, being the first known discoverer of the Indies** 
far as Sumatra, where he died in 1530 at the early age of 





1 25 

thirty-six. Hi* works were published in black letter in 
Paris il"' year succeeding liis death. From him descended 
Jaques Parmentier, the celebrated painter, who in 1676 

illcd i" England to decorate Montague Bouse, after 
irardB the British Museum. 

Robert Parmenter, the founder of the American family, 
was born in England in 1621 ; came thence with liis wife 
Leah, and settled in Braintree, Mass., in 1648, as the 
oolonial records show, lie was the first lo anglicize the 
i l; , in.' by eliminating the " i." He died June 27 . 1695, 
his widow surviving till March 21, 170t>, when she died, 

eight) six vears. Their eldest child, Joseph Par- 
menter, born (let. 20, 1655, lived to the age of eighty two; 
H i- deacon of the church at Braintree, and fell dead in the 
pulpit during divine service, Feb. 20, lV.'iT. The good old 
man was interred in the Hancock Cemetery. The first 
generation were buried on their own lands, with no head- 

,i ■ to mark the spot. This was necessary in those davs 

te prevent " the noble red man" from desecrating the graves 
..I' the whites. The deacon's son, Benjamin, born Sept. 
;i. 1682, married Hannah Bigelow, of Weston, Mass., and 
about the year 1 7 1 6 removed from Braintree and settled in 
Newport, 11. I. Their eldest son, also named Benjamin, 
horn Dee. 111. 1712. was the father of John Newton Par- 
iii. ■liter, the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. 

John Newton Parmenter was born in Newport. II. I., in 
17 12. hut removed to Chester, Mass., where his second son, 
Azel Fiske Parmenter, was born in 17Sli. The doctor, as 

•I named was always called, after becoming a resident 
of Rensselaer County, having graduated with high honors 
at a medical institution in Massachusetts, came to this State 
in 1810. He never practiced medicine, alleging as a reason 
tor his strange conduct in abandoning a profession in which 
lie was so well qualified to attain eminence, that he could 
imt think of violating the scriptural injunction, "Thou 
shalt not kill." It might, perhaps, be well if all physicians 
wen as conscientious. At this time, as we have heard his 
old neighbors declare, he was a tall, erect, athletic man, 
with dark, piercing eyes, black hair, pale face, and of re- 
markable beauty. His thorough education, his keen, ready 
wit, his pleasing address and social habits', rendered him a 
great favorite in society. He was always one of the most 
popular men in the town, and many are the pleasant anec- 
dotes still told by older residents of Pittstown of the doc- 
tor'a characteristics, of his wit, his humor, and his repartee 
that so often set the table on a roar, and sometimes, when 
under provocation, "carried a heart-stain away on its 

Or. Parmenter was for many years a teacher iu vari- 
ous schools in different parts of the State, and nothing 
could be more amusing than to hear him relate, in his in- 
imitable manner, his experiences in that comparatively 
early period before the schoolmaster had been much abroad 
in our State. One incident which actually occurred under 
'•i'' doctor's tuition, and which has before been in print, must 
suffiee. The scene was near the Helderbergs. One morn- 
ing there came into the school-room t^it was originally a 
barn | a new pupil. He was a tall, raw-boned, angular youth 
"I eighteen, whose vision was so imperfect that he could not 
distinguish objects clearly except at some distance from the 

"Where do you read ir?" inquired the doctor, 
preparing to give him a lesson. " Don'l read nowheres, — 
can't read." The doctor opened a spelling-book, and. point- 
ing to i he first letter of the alphabet, asked, " Do you know 

what that letter is?" -No. I don't I" " Well, thai i- A.' 

said the doctor, encouragingly. The astonished youth 

seized the 1 k. held it out before hi- e\e- ;,| anil'- length, 

d intently for a full minute, and then ejaculated, 
'■ Great Jehovah I ie that \ '.' I heerd o' him !" 

In L820, |>r. Parmenter married Lavinia, daughter of 
Roswell Hay. of Northumberland, Saratoga Co., X. V.. 

who was a musician in Gen. St. Clair's army, and was 
taken prisoner during a skirmish with the rear-guard when 
that genera] was compelled to fly from Ticonderoga at the 
rapid approach of the British troops and Indian- under 
Ceii. Frazer, in 1777. 

Shortly after his marriage, Dr. Parmenter purchased the 

pleasant little farm situated in i'ittstown, about a hundred 
rods south of the Johnsonville station on the Troy and 
Boston Railroad ; and here he built the one-story-and-a- 
half frame house i still standing and kept in good repair by 
those who cherish it i where he lived SO many veal's, and 
where his second son, Franklin Jay Parmenter, the subject 
of this sketch, was born on the 2Sth day of August, 1829. 
His mother was a most extraordinary woman. Always of 
delicate constitution, yet gifted with much beauty in her 
young womanhood, her ambition was beyond her physical 
strength. To a great degree deprived of the advantage of 
an early education, — for in her day school-houses were not 
thickly scattered over all the land as at present, — her strong 
will and resolute spirit made up the deficiency in after life 
amid its active duties, and almost from her Bible alone did 
she obtain a respectable education. Industrious to the 
utmost limit, and possessed of wonderful business tact, she 
accumulated quite a fortune by her needle, which she de- 
voted to the uses of her growing family. We have heard 
her son say that, although his father was a kind and loving 
parent, yet it was to his mother's industry, her practical 
sagacity aiid business qualifications, that he and his broth- 
ers were indebted for the greater part of their educational 
advantages ; and that, too, whatever of success in after-years 
the brothers may have obtained is in a great degree attrib- 
utable to that good mother's fond and solicitous incite- 
ments to their ambition. This excellent woman died -at 
her residence, before mentioned, in 1848. Her husband 
survived her ten years. They are buried in the cemetery 
at Tomhannoch. 

Young Frank attended the district schools in his native 
town, always standing first in "composition." and often 
writing poetical squibs upon the teacher or some of the 
" big" scholars, and not unfrequently called to severe ac- 
count by the victims of his wit. In 1846 he entered the 
academy at Hoosick Falls, where he remained for about two 
years, teaching school during the winter season to help pay 
his expenses. In 1848 he entered the Troy Conference 
Academy at Poultney, Vt., where he completed his aca- 
demical education. Here he took a high stand in scholar- 
ship, and particularly in the ancieut classics, and iu all 
matters pertaining to literature and belles-lettres. 

Twenty-eight years afterwards, Troy Conference Acad- 



emy, having had it- sunshine and shadow, issued its call 
fur a grand reunion of its old students. Mr. Parmenter's 
illness prevented his attendance, but he contributed a poem 
which was read in the order of exercises on thai occasion, 
and which was highly applauded and extensively copied by 
the newspapers. We quote a few stanza*, not having space 
fur the whole p 

■• ' I ,- twentj 3 lay 

Sinoo thai bright, balm; morning 
When June, the rosy heir of May, 

Her sunn] brow adorning 
With loaf and Qowor of ovory hue, 

. the Summor'a portal, 
To live nor little season through, 
Thou die liko any mortal. 

■■ Y. -. more than twenty years have rollod 

Adown Life's pathway checkered, 
Anil loft, with many tin 

A sad and fearful record, 
Since who would their night retrace, 

Then all attiirsl for knowledge, 
RocoiTod and gavo the fond ombrs 

And posted off for college. 

• • • • • 
'•Along the dusty track we sped, 

A weary way before us, 
Till T. i'. A.'s broad maples spread 
The evening shadows o'er us. 

• ••••• 
" Well, here we meol again to-day, 

- many summer- after ! 
Our spirits may not all he gay. — 

Tear- mingle with our laughter j 
For as our oyes surrey the scene 

We mi-- 'he fresh young fao 
The maiden grace, the manly mien. 

That filled the vaeant places. 

• ••••* 
Nature, here, ha.- known not death. 

Still smile both mount ami meadow ; 
Still hums the mottled bee beneath 

The £r.m<l "l 1 maples' shadow. 
Day broke on yondor mountain-tops 

This mom a- brighl as ever. 
And through the ferns ami willow 

Still gropes tlo- darkling river. 

are ,r, changed : for twenty years 
■ some tell-tale traces 
t p oi the gronnd of -mile, and tears 

That human life cmbi I 
Old Time the tin. i gray 

Amid the -lark will sprinklo; 

t- kllelri I 

a the wrinkle." 

William A Beach, who i- as bad a writer as Rufus 
I I -I Parmenter to keep minutes 
him during lii- examination of a witness. Mr. Par- 
; i playfully insisted thai the hand- 
writing was nol -•■ .: 1 as l» i — own. A few minutes 

rwards hi observed written at the fool of lii- notes the 

■■. w. x. n. 
' I' I down in In- might, 

talked like an at : i 

It was soon handed round tlio court-room, and made 

much .mil tli. bar 

But as wo may have occasion to quote from other poems 
of his, written and published amid the eares and anxieties 
of a laborious profession, this must suffice for the present. 

In April, 1849, Mr. Parmenter came to the city of 
Troy, and began the study of the law in the office of 
Mel lonihe \ Parmenter, on the corner of Congress and 
First Streets, in the same building where his law-office now 
is and has been continuously for twenty-four years. He 
taught a district school in Brunswick the following winter, 
and in the spring of ]S5ll opened a select school on the 
comer of First and Ferry Street-, where he taught prin- 
cipally the ancient languages and the higher English 
branches, and was well patronized by the first families of 
the city. At the close of 1851 he abandoned teaching 
altogether, and applying himself diligently to the study of 
bis profession, was admitted to the bar on the fourth day of 
May. 1SJ2. and at once began practice. 

lie held the office of police justice of the city of Troy 
from January. lStJO, to March, 1864, having been in die 
first instance designated by the Common Council to fill the 
vacancy in that office occasioned by the resignation of Hon. 

M Warren, who had been elected as surrogate at the 

previous general election. Mr. Parmenter was twice ele< 
to the office by the people, first for the short term ending 
in March. 1861, and then for the full term of three years. 
I )n each occasion his competitor was one of the most pop- 
ular men in the opposite party, but Mr. Parmenter's majority 
was very large, lie has been successful in bis profession, 
for he attends to all business intrusted to him with vigilance, 
fidelity, and skill. He has always had a good clientage, 
embracing many of our first citizens. In political faith 
Mr. Parmenter was always an active Democrat. During 
the Rebellion he took strong grounds in favor of prosecuting 
the war with vigor until the South should come back to its 
allegiance. He made many public speeches throughout 
the country, and wrote many articles for the newspa] 
advocating these view-, and contributed two thousand dol- 
lar- towards the expenses of raising the 169th Regiment. 
New Fork Volunteers, in which bis brother. Col. Jerome 
B. Parmenter, commanded a company, as stated in our 
sketch of that gentleman. 

In 1SC9 Union College, at it- seventy-first commence- 
ment, paid Mr. Parmenter the compliment of conferring 
upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. Tie 
following extracts from the newspapers of the succeeding 
day show that the public 1 thought the honor well bestowed. 
The Troy Whiff Bays: -The academic distinction in this 
case was most fittingly bestowed upon one of the li- 
belles-lettres scholars of the country, and a know 

the fact of it- bestowal at the hands of the learned faculty 
and trustees of the ancient and honorable Union elicited a 
wide degree of favorable commenl among the distinguisl 

concourse of people in attendai n the commencement 

Mr. Parmenter is -aid to be the possessor of the finest pri- 
vate literary librarj in this city." The Sunday Herald 
It i- undersl 1 thai this honor was given in recog- 
nition of Mr. Parmenter's attainments as a belles-li 
scholar, in which relation to literature he is very popular. 
We congratulate the gentleman upon this handsome recog- 
nition of hi- literarj position." The Troy Times says: 



•' P. J. Parmenter, of this cil v. received the degree of Mus 
tar of Arts, — a worthy acknowledgment of his attainments 
in general literature and aa a belles-lettres scholar." 

In the curly fall of the year last named the Eon. Martin 
I. Townsend was seen our morning, axe in hand] in the 
public park in front of the First Presbyterian Church in 
the city of Troy, climbing and hewing away upon the huge 
trees that had become deformed by irregular growth of 
their limbs, and also cutting out the crowded sumacs, etc. 
He did this of his own motion, but with the assent of the 
church. Mr. Parmenter thereupon addressed a playful re- 
monstrance to him upon the subject. Mr. Townsend en* 
joyed the joke so much that he gave the remonstrance to 
the city papers, where it was published, ami thence copied 
and commented upon by most of their exchanges. It was 
addressed tl To Martinus, the Destroyer, from Franklinus, 
the Censor." We quote a part of the poem : 

** In earlier times, when the eagle of Rome 
Held the world in ber talons ;onl called it her home, 
Though freedom was lust to her subjects, she threw 
The shield of her power o'er the works of virtu. 
And the tame of her legions, the wealth of her marts, 
Reflected less glory than that of her Arts ; 
Ami we at this hour had not sighed for their worth 
But that the grim spoiler swooped down from the North. 
The gems of the chisel, the pencil, were riven 
And scattered like chaff in the whirlwinds of Heaven ! 
But even these robbers from spoil could abstain : 
They left smiling Nature to blossom again. 
Unlike the destroyer of modern renown, 
Who leaves Art to flourish but Nature hews down! 
Behold our fell Goth in his glory : and mark 
His desolate track in yon beautiful park 
As he mutters and sweats o'er his unhallowed toil. 

'Tis said that no grass would spring up in the road 
Where the hoof of grim Attiht's charger had trod; 
That the flowers by the wayside would wither and die 
As the murderous Hun swept ruthlessly by. 
And so shall it be where Martinus shall pass. 
The breath of his nostril shall poison the grass, 
And the beauties of Nature, all sapless, shall fade 
Amid the cursed groves that his footsteps invade. 

'' In the tent of the Arab a marvelous tale 
Is told by the Bedouin when night draws her veil, 
And the sons of the Desert, awe-stricken and mute, 
Give ear to the legend none dare to dispute. 
'Tis that of a spring welling up in the wild 
Where Hagar wept over her famishing child. 
What time the weak, henpecked old patriarch drove 
His evil-starred handmaid away from his love: 
If the guilty approach it, it shrinks and is dry : 
With parched tongue and forehead the wretch staggers by. 
When Innocence comes its pure waters to sip 
It gushes with gladness and leaps to the lip. 
Refreshed by the nectar, the wanderer bows 
His head o'er the fountain and proffers his vows; 
Then speeds him with spirits clastic and gay, 
Nor the hot arid sand-reefs embarrass his way. 
Oh, fearful Destroyer! may Fate never bring 
Thy thirst to be quenched at this wonderful spring! 
For no cooling draught shall thy fever allay, 
M hile the bright "conscious wafer' glides swiftly away. 

"With heart soft as woman's, that radical brain 
Must answer for sins which thy breast must disdain. 
Had thou heeded its dictates, or listened to mine, 
The trade of the spoiler had never been thine. 
With talent sufficient to cope with a Pitt, 
With the richest of humor, the keenest of wit, 

Wli\ h ilt ll ;n \,)l in o, H h 

1 >f bl< ing i iii' n.iiiiii i ild ;i -I. n"i ■ 

What demon inspired thee when, dead to .'ill la i 

Of natural boauty, you ravaged our grove ? 

Thai dear hallowed ■ pot, n eot cIb io bade, 

U here a W illard hud taught and a Boman hud prayed ; 

Tin- Bcei l i li' ii laboi n bei o e ich bonoi i d i 

Rose up from those elms to the temple ol I 

Where tin- polished di oou I a \ in© nl instills 

Religion in hearts thai In- oloqui nee thrill ' 
# # # » « • 

How Id's! ih >xpose the dear nymphs of the grovi 

To wioked flirtations and perils of love? 

Didst thou ii"i reflect bow b lover might spy 

The i"i in of his fair one, the glance of ber eye, 

If the shade that obscured his rapt vi ion were drawn 

Prom the close-guarded Inttico that looke o'er the lawn 

Adorning the mansion 4 just over the waj , 

Where beauty, imprisoned, sighs out tin- long day ? 

$ * * * ft 

Mart inns, destroyer ! bethink thee, when Bpring 

Shall return with the verdure the gentle gales bring, 

How the robin will mourn his lost home on tin- -pray 

Of the red -tasscled sumac thine axe lopped away ! 

There too, at the root of yon lilac, is laid 

In a sweet-clover grave, the sad parents had made, 

Their prodigal son, who had flown from his nest 

Across the broad Hudson, far into the West, 

And paid the dread price dissipation exacts 

At the court of Queen Wrenna, where morals were lax. 

Full soon the mad reveler had found, to his cost, 

The world not so kind as the home he had lost, 

And he wept for his mother, on whose tender breast 

He hoped, still he hoped, to find shelter and rest ; 

Then, broken in spirit, in health, and in pride, 

Flew back on weak pinion to die at her side. 

But even his tomb, Martinus! you spurned 

As your cruel foot trod where his dust was inurned ! 

And now his lone parent (for she who gave birth 

To her poor erring offspring lies low in the earth) 

Comes back to his once happy roof-tree, and, lo ! 

It is fallen and crushed by thy merciless blow ! 

I would not for worlds be the theme of his song, 

As he hymns to his Maker this tale of his wrong ! 

I warned you in season ; but never could man 

Divert your set purpose when i»n«'e ynu began. 

List then to thy doom ! For the havoc you made 

No tree shall permit thee to rest in its shade; 

No songster of Heaven shall pour his glad voice 

To lighten thy cares, or thy heart to rejoice. 

And when the tall column shall point to the sky, 

Inscribed with thy virtues that never may die 

(Though far be the day when thy worth shall be shown 

In letters of gold or on tablet of stone), 

No sweet little redbreast his sorrow shall bring, 

Nor, perched on the marble, thy requiem sing." 

When Dickens revisited this country in 18G7, Mr. Par- 
menter, one of his most ardent admirers, wrote a poem 
called " A Welcome to Dickens," and on his departure a 
" Farewell to Dickens." These poems were published in 
Harpers Weekly \ and created much excitement. They 
were copied into most of the leading papers and periodicals 
in this country and in England, where the " Welcome" was 
illustrated by a large picture representing Dickens, as de- 
scribed in the poem, embarking with all " the children of 
his brain." When the great novelist died so suddenly, in 
1870, Mr. Parmenter wrote the "Lament for Dickens.'' 
which was not regarded by the public as fully equal to the 

The Troy Female Seminary. 


insTiun 01 kknss khaki; cocnty. xkw YORK. 

two pr iding. These poems are too 1 ■ > 1 1 lt Por insertion 

here, and too well known and t < ■> > easily accessible to re- 
quire it. Mr. Parmenter lias written many other poems, 
of which perhaps the best known are "The Bride of ili<' 
Elm," "St Frauds Preaching t" the Birds," and "The 
B i Man's Ballad." His campaign songs are almost num- 
berless, and have 1 n sung l>\ most of the Democratic 

clubs in the country. Be has been often urged to 
collect his poems, many of which arc still in MS., and ] >nl >- 
lish them in a volume; and we understand it is his pur| 
to '1" so « hen he can find leisure, and also t" publish a series 
.■t' sketches, called "The Wits and Humorists of the Troj 

From boyh 1 Mr. Parmenter lias been a great reader 

and a collector of books. He has one of the larg 
choicest, and most valuable private libraries in the State, 
embracing seme quaint and curious old volumes that could 
not be pn >y their weight in gold, and which have 

been out of print for centuries. He is quite an extensive 
land-owner also, having purchased Beveral years ago a tract 
east of and adjoining the city of Troy, which he has laid 
out into building-lots, haviug first opened a spacious avenue 
running through the centre from east to west. It is called 

Blmw 1 Avenue, and on either side he has planted a row 

1ms, which, from their uniformity and vigor, 
present a most beautiful appearance, and will long keep his 

me rv 'jrcen. A.cross the highway, on the south, is a 

I n comprising' about sixteen acres, with farm-house, 

etc., which he has named Forendina, and which is noted 

for its choice fruits and garden products. We believe it 

is his intention at no distant day to build a fine mansion on 

. lightful Bpot and make it his permanent residence. 

In lSTli, Mr. Parmenter married Forenda, the daughter 
of the late Robert Dana Silliman. a sketch of whose useful 
lift appears in another part of this work. 


is from the northern part of the State, and has passed the 
whole of his professional life in Troy. He came here in 
11 ber, l~b'.. and formed a law partnership with the 
II ii. Hiram P. Hunt, then member of Congress from 

this district, which i tinued for two or three years; after 

which he struck out for himself in the profession of the 
law, which he has pursued with ability, honor, and success 
at the Rensselaer bar for more than thirty-five years. Sub- 
icntly he n me years associated in professional 

business with the late Charles R. Richards, Esq., and with 
■it, Esq., now of New York, and later with 

I! I, Fnr-uian and Esck Co wen, Esqs He is tl Idesl 

son of Robert and Sabrina Ramsay Forsyth, and was 
born in the town of Peru now Ausable . Clinton Co., N. Y. 
1 1 - otch- Irish extraction, and came to 

this country in 1730, settling iii Chester, Rockingham <'o.. 
N II. In 1816 his pan Lake Champlain and 

settled on tb R i. on the eastern side of the 

wilo Fork, wl the subject of 

i ti i s« sketch was bom on the 8lh "i September, 1817. The 
family « rs in that part ol the countrj lli- 

father was lumberman ivern-keeper, and mer- 

chant; bo held various town offices, and met a premature 

death by drowning in 183-4 at Pittsburgh, N. Y. II i- 
mother was a New Hampshire woman, daughter of James 
Ramsay, Esq., of Romney, Grafton Co., N. H., of unusual 
mental force and culture. She died at Keeseville, N. Y., 
in 1864. 

Mr. Forsyth received his rudimentary education in the 
common school of the period, and his preparation for col- 
lege at the Keeseville Academy, and in 1835 entered the 
I'nivcrsiu of Vermont, at Burlington, from which he 
graduated with the usual honors in 1839. The same year 

1 omtne d the study of the law in the office of the 

Hon. George A. Simmons and Charles !\ Tabor, Esqs., at 
Keeseville, where he remained until he was admitted to 
the bar in 1842, and until the following year, when he 
came to Troy. The Rensselaer bar was then led b\ emi- 
nent lawyer.-., such as David Bucl, Jr., Hiram P. Hunt, 
Job Pierson, Samuel G. Huntington. David 1, Seymour. 
and others, with John P. Cushinan as the circuit judge. 
For a young lawyer, under the then existing circumstances 
of the case, who was determiucd to live by his profession, 
there was no alternative but " to labor and to wait." 

Among other professional business at this time, he was 
employed to institute proceedings in chancery to open an 
old decree in partition of the land known as the "South 
Part of Green Island.'' Watervliet, Albany Co., and to re- 
partition the same among the proprietors and heirs, on the 
ground that the terms aud conditions contained in the de- 
cree of partition had not been complied with. The suit, 
after bill and answer filed, was settled, and the property 
rcpartitioncd by agreement of parties, and the land thrown 
open to purchasers, upon which a prosperous village has 
since grown up. 

Shortly after this period the railroad growth and expan- 
sion in Troy and vicinity began. The legislation of tie 
State on railroads was crude and undigested, and had to 1» 
interpreted, construed, and settled by judicial decision-. 
The construction ol' every railroad involved a great amount 
of litigation and professional service. He was in a position 
to take hi> share of this new business, and for fifteen years 
he was identified with it. 

The Saratoga and Washington Railroad, Whitehall and 
Rutland Railroad, Rutland and Washington Railroad, the 
Troy and Boston Railroad, Albany Northern Railroad N 
York and Troy I Harlem Extension Railroad, and the 'I'm. 
Union Railroad. — all were, the growth of this period, and 
with which he had more or less to do on one side or the 

In 1855 he foreclosed the second mortgage on the San 
toga and Washington Railroad Company, and the road was 
sold and a new corporation, the Saratoga and Whitehall 
Railroad Company, organized. 

II. . d iii several capital cases tried in this 

county, and in several important litigations involving the 

rights 1 liabilities of subscribers to the stock of pn 

railroad- and corporations, and in the contested scat casein 
the Supreme Court between Judge Wright and Judgi 

Hogel in. tried before referees at Stephentown during 

the Anti-Kent excitemi at, 

In 1846 he married Sarah M., daughter of Elisha TSb- 
bit-. Esq., late of New York. Of this marriage was born 





a son, Robert, now an cngii r in Chicago. She died in 

1854, and in I860 he married Lydia A., daughter of 
Charles Pumpelly, Esq., late of Owego, N. Y. She died 

in lSTii. 'I'll dy child of this marriage (James') is now 

al school. 

In politics Mr. Forsyth always acted steadily with the 
Whig parly until its dissolution, and then constantly with 
the Republican party, organized in LS54, in which he took 
an active pari. 

^\' 1 n-ii tlic Rebellion broke out, in 1861, Governor Mor- 
gan appointed him chairman of the war committee of Rens- 
selaer County, and he at mice applied himself to this new 
duty, and three regiments of volunteers were with the 
greatest dispatch raised and sent to the war by this com- 

When the United States government organized a depart- 
ment for raising nun for the service he was appointed by 
President Lincoln on the board of enrollment, and was 
provost- marshal of this district from 'July 1, 1864, to the 
end of the war. lie was United States collector of inter- 
nal revenue in this district in the years 1868-69. 

Preferring the duties, labors, and study of his profession 
and the command of his own time in business, he has not 
sought political preferment or asked the suffrages of his 
party, neither has he avoided the discomfiture of defeat 
when his party asked the sacrifice in a city and county 
usually adverse in politics. He has been identified with 
important interests in Troy tending to its growth and pros- 
perity. Officially connected with the Rensselaer and Sara- 
toga Railroad and the Troy Union Railroad, as attorney 
and counsel ; and of the latter, from its organization until 
1S68, the secretary and treasurer. A director, attorney, 
and counsel of the Commercial Bank of Troy from 1853 
until its close during the war. Also a director of the 
Tiny City National Bank, as organized by the late John 
A. Griswold, in 1865. The president of the Troy and 
West Troy Bridge Company since the completion of the 
work, in 1874. He was one of the incorporators, and is 
now one of the trustees, of the Union Trust Company of 
New York. 

Always interested in both educational and church work, 
a firm advocate of the free-school system, he is a trustee 
of the Troy Female Seminary, and of the Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute, and the president of the latter institution 
since 1809. He is a vestryman of St. Paul's Church, Troy, 
and has been a deputy to the General Convention of the 
American Church since the erection of the diocese of 

Of late his avocations have diverted him from the la- 
borious practice of the profession, but he has lost none of 
ais thorough love for the law as a science, or of his industry 
ind zeal as a critical reader and student of elementary 
writers and books of reports. He is content to see the 
Jiisiness of the courts in the hands of younger men who 
aave won it, and no one enjoys their triumphs more than 
ne, or gives his praise more freely to worthy young men of 
he bar. 

His career has been one of close application to his pro- 
esston and varied surrounding interests, without a respite, 
"xcept in 1859, when he went abroad with Governor Sew- 

ard and I Inn. II in j .1 K lymond, and pa I tin u timer 
on the Continent during the Italian campaign, witncf 
the battle of Solferino, in [taly, on the 24th of June of thai 
year, between the French and A.ustrians in which more 

than forty tl sand men were placed " hors du combat 

After that he made the tour of Rome and 8outhi rn I 
with Governor Seward. In 1870, soon after the opening 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, he visited California. 
He has been the candidate of his party for ma. 

peatedly, and lor county judge, and his name was stroi 

urged iii 1*7 1 by the Republicans in this pari of the State 
for the appointment of United States district judge for this 
district, in place of Judge N. K. Hall, deceased ; bul a d 
central location of this officer in the district, al S rai 

was made. 


son of Samuel Kellogg, was born in Williamstown, Mass., 
March 28, 1808. He was fitted for Williams College 
partly by undergraduates, and partly at Stockbridge by the 
Rev. Jared Curtis. Entered college in 1825, and was 

graduated in 1829. He studied law at Salem, N. Y , for 
a while with Allan & Blair, and in the spring of 1830 
came to Troy. Was admitted to the bar in 1S32. Settled 
in Troy, and has continued to reside there till the present 
time. During the administrations of Jackson and Van 
Buret), he was, for ten years, while pursuing his profession, 
the principal editor of the Northern Budget, the oldest. 
and the leading Democratic paper in this part of the Sta 
Before the Court of Chancery was abolished, he was, for 
a number of years, a master and examiner in that court, 
an important and responsible office; and he has held several 
other prominent places of trust under the judiciary system. 
In 1830 he was married to Adeline, daughter of Justin 
Kellogg, of Troy, who died in 1839. Has had six chil- 
dren, four of whom, two sons and two daughters, are now 
living. Both sons are graduates of Williams College and 
members of the legal profession. Mr. Kellogg was for ten 
years (1868-1878) one of the trustees of Williams College 
elected twice on the nomination of the alumni society, and 
has been an elder for twenty-five years in the First Presby- 
terian Church of Troy. 


Justin Kellogg, born at Troy, N. Y., April 18, 1844 ; grad- 
uated at Williams College, Massachusetts, in 1865 ; studied 
law, and admitted to practice at Albany in 1866, and since 
pursued the practice at Troy. In 1871 married Miss 
Mary Bryan Teake, daughter of Frederick Teake, of Wil- 
liamstown, Mass., formerly of Troy, and has two children. 


Giles Kellogg, born at Troy, N. Y., Dec. 21, 1S55 ; 
graduated at Williams College, Massachusetts, in 1*70; 
studied law, and admitted to practice at Albany in 1S77; 
practiced in Troy until 1879, when he removed to Chicago, 
and thence to Wisner, Neb., where he is successfully con- 
tinuing his practice. 


was horn on the 22d of September, in the year 1820. His 
grandfather, Daniel Warren, was born at Westborough, 


msToKY of rknssklaer COUNTY, NEW YORK. 

M sa . Bod was at t bo battle of Bunker Hill. His father, 
M - - Warren, Sr., was born in New Bampshire, removed 
to ilu- town of Hoosick, in Rensselaer County, about the 
year 1806, and was in 1--1 elei ted sheriff of the county. 
After attending the common schools at Boosick, M 
Warren, tin- subject of iliis sketch, prepared for college 
at Ballard Seminary in Bennington, Yt.. ami with Joseph 
■.\-. of Troy. Hi' entered Williams College in 1 s : ; 7 . 
and was graduated in August, 1841. Be entered as a 
student the law-office of Rufus & Martin I. Townsend in 
February, 1841, remaiued two years, and in the office "I' 
Kellogg & Strong one year. Be was admitted in the bar 
of the Supreme Court on the lTili of May, 1844, ami 
ii practice in Troy. In 1845 lie was appointed jus- 
tice nl' the Justices' Courl of Troy. After the adoption 
nl' ilie new constitution the office was made elective, and 
he 61led it by election till ls.v.t. Mr. Warren was elected 
surrogate of Rensselaer in 1859, and again in 1863. Was 
appointed, on the resignation of Judge Strait, to fill va- 
cancy, and in 1^71 was again elected for six years, and 
again elected in 1^77 for six years; still holds the office. 

Mr. Warren has always 1 n a Democrat In I860 he 

i member of the Democratic National Convention at 
Charleston, and supported Stephen A. Douglas for the 
presidency. Again, in 1868, he was a member of the 
Democratic National Convention in New York, at which 
G nor S ymour was nominated for President 

Mr. Warren has been distinguished throughout his long 
official career for the impartial and conscientious discharge 
of hi> dul 


Born at Charlton, Saratoga Co., N. Y.. An- .">. 1*"S. 
Educated at the Schuylervillc and Greenwich Academies, 
the New York Conference Seminary, and Fort Edward In- 
stitute. Studied law at Fort Edward, iu the office of 
Bon. A. I». Wait, county judge of Washington County. 
Was admitted to practice at a general term held at Cald- 
well, on Laki in 1S5'J. Resided and practiced 
his profession at Schuylerville until 1866, when he removed 

Troy, and became the partner of Bon. James Forsyth, 
and afterwards of Mr. Esek Cowen. In 1870, Mr. Furs- 
man became ■ — iated with Mr. Levi Smith (formerly 
h \ Smiili |, tin- firm-name being •■Smith. Fursman & 
( loweo." Mr. Fursman i- a man of commanding eloquence, 
and of marked ability in the practice of hi- profession. 


hom in the town of Rich ford, Franklin Co., Vt., in 
the year 1 B23. At the tender ago of eight he went to live 
ng hi- relatives, by reason of the death "i hi- mother 
and tin- breaking up of the family. Consequently In- early 
life for himself, ami. unaided pe- 
cooiarilj n education, which he finally 

luring hi- minority by working on the furm 
part of tii,. year and attending school the re- 
mainder of the time. At the age of sixteen, having had 

1 »>1 for oho term, ho was 

a teacher the following winter. In the Spring of l-|n 1,,. 

rksbip in a wholesale dry-goods I se in Bos- 

ton, where lie remained one year, and then entered the 
academy at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co.,N. Y., where lie re- 
mained until 1845. In the mean time he had become a 
law-student in the office of Hon. William A. Dart, of that 
place, and in the winter season taught school as a means of 
supplying funds to further studies. 

Mr. Smith is not an exceptional ease among professional 
nun. who. surrounded by difficulties on every hand, have 
obtained their education and laid the foundation tor their 
future success by their own perseverance and indomitable 
will to carve out fortune and place for themselves. 

In 1845 he became a clerk in the law-office of the late 
Job I'ierson. of Troy, and in 1S4G was admitted to the 
bar, forming a partnership with Mr. I'ierson for the prar- 
lice of the law, which continued until 1851 under the 
firm-name of " Picrson & Smith." In 1S51 the Hon. 
William A. Beach, now of the city of New York, joined 
the firm, and its name was changed to " Pierson, Beach & 

Alter a few years, Mr. Pierson withdrew from the firm, 
leaving the name " Beach & Smith," which firm continued 
until December, 1870, when Mr. Beach withdrew from it 
and removed to the city of New York. 

Mr. Smith then associated with him as partners Edgar 
L. Fursman, K-ck Cowen. and Charles ]>. [vellum, Esqs., 
under the firm-name of "Smith, Fursman & Cowen," 
which still continues. For over thirty years these various 
firms, of which Mr. Smith has been a member, have been 
known uot only for the wide extent of their practice, hut 
as composed of individual membership ranking among the 
first as advocate and counselor. 

Mr. Smith is among the most genial and companionable 
of men. In the city of his residence there can he found 
no one with a larger or more devoted circle of friends. 
lV.-.-cs-ing broad and enlightened views of the duties and 
responsibilities of life, he has always been found among the 
readiest to advocate and support public enterprises, and to 
aid with his counsel and from his means deserving public 
and private charities. For his wise counsels, his known 
integrity, and his unwavering fidelity to every trust confided 
to liiin. he i- deservedly held in high esteem by his fellow- 
eitizeiis. both as a lawyer and a man. 


'I'he subject of this sketch was born at Stcphcntown, 
N. Y.. May 28, L82I, and is consequently fifty live year- 
old. Bis family name come- from New England, hi- father 
having been born in Providence, R. L. the second of three 
sons, called, respectively, Shadruch, Meshach,and Alx 

h Strait, early in life, settled in Stcphentown, when 
he married Aphia Smith, a native of the latter]! 
English parentage, by whom In- had eleven children. Ebon 
czer Smith being the ninth. Meshach Strait was bj pro- 

n a lawyer, but never devoted himself to pi 
following for many the business of land surveying 
Iii his adopted town he was held in great respect by In* 
fellow-townsmen, who for thirty successive years elected him 
to the office of justice of the peace. Loth of the judge « 

li lived to a ripe old age, his father dying at tl 
of ninety ,, ne year.-. The judge received a.- hi- only patlV 


public lib; 



V / / , , 




11 \ ;i fair English education, a capital which he has cer- 

toinh made the most of. When twenty-two years old he 
began the study of law, and three years later, in L849, was 
admitted to practice. Shortly after his admission he re- 
moved to Nassau. N. Y., where lie opened an office and 
began the practice of liis profession. While there he was 

chosen to the office of superintendent of common Bchools, 

in which he served five terms, lie has twice represented 
his district in the Legislature, the first time in 1857, and 
again in 18G3. In 1867 he was elected surrogate of Rens- 
selaer County, and thereupon removed to the city of Troy, 
where he has continued to reside. lie held this office until 
Feb. 1, 1S71, when he resigned to accept the appointment 
of county judge made by the governor to fill for the unex- 
pired term a vacancy in t lie office caused by the death ol 
the incumbent, Hon. Jeremiah Romeyn. At the next 
general election, in the fall of 1871, he was elected his own 
successor for the full term, and at its expiration, in 1877, 
he was re-elected by the largest majority ever given in his 
count v to any candidate for the same office. Judge Strait 
was married in 1859 to Louisa, daughter of Horatio N. 
Hand, of New Lebanon, N. Y., who bore him three chil- 
dren, but one of whom, H. Nelson Strait, now survives. 
In private life Judge Strait is especially characterized by 
modest and unassuming manners, strong social feeling, and 
warm friendship for a large circle of admiring friends; in 
public life he is ever the courteous gentleman to all, and a 
faithful and devoted servant to public interests. As a law- 
yer lie is thorough and painstaking, his attainments being 
rather solid than showy, and he is well regarded by his 
brethren at the bar for both learning and ability. In the 
judicial office he is upright and conscientious, fair in bis 
decisions, and careful in his investigations. 


was horn in the town of Decatur, Otsego Co , N. Y., May 
It, is:; I. The founder of the family emigrated from Has- 
sctt, near Zwall, Holland, and settled in this country in 1000. 
His father, James E Lansing, in early life removed from 
Schodack, this county, where he and many generations of 
his ancestors were born, and settled in Otsego County, where 
for many years he was a merchant. 

Mr. Lansing was the eldest son of a family of nine chil- 
dren. At the age of twelve he became a clerk in his father's 
store, and during the winter season attended what were then 
known as select schools, taught by law students. It was 
during these school terms that bo first cultivated the desire 
for public speaking, by being connected with a debating club, 
where he rarely missed an opportunity to speak. 

Following the age of sixteen he was a student in Caze- 
novia Seminary. Depending upon his own exertions to ad- 
vance his studies, at the age of eighteen he taught one term 
of school in Ohio, and then attended school at Warnerville 
Seminary for four terms. Necessity again compelled him 
to leave school, and he set out for the South, — at that time 
the great Eldorado of penniless adventurers, — his purpose 
being to teach school, to improve his education, and ulti- 
mately to study law, a design which he had early formed, 
and which he never at any time had relinquished. 

After a short stay in Kentucky he went to Mississippi, 

win-re he was successful in obtaining a school upon a pi u 
lion, at a salarj of eighf hundred dollars for forty weeks' 
service. At the expiration of this timi h 
ation as assistant in the academy al Byhalia, Mi al ad 
vanced wages, After six month- he returned North, and 
the same year, ls;>7. married Sarah A. Richardson, of 
Poultney, Vt. Returning to Mississippi, he was principal 
of Mount Pleasant Academy for one year. He then 
sisted by his wife, took charge of the Female Academy 

Of that place, where he remained until the breaking out of 

the Rebellion. Shortly after the firsl battle of Hull Run 
his school was broken up by a mob; he was notified to leave 
town, and compelled to seek safety by flight. A few months 

afterwards, through the aid of friends, he secured a scl 1 

in Macon, Tonn., where he remained until after th vu- 

pation of Memphis by the Union forces, when an opp ir 
tunity occurred for his departure. 

During his stay in tin; Confederacy he was several tira - 
arrested by the conscripting-officer, and, after being taken 
some distance from home towards the camp, was released 
and allowed to return, on account of the Confederate con- 
script law exempting teachers. On arriving North he im- 
mediately resolved to put into practice his long-cherished 
project of studying the law, — a profession for which he had 
in a measure already prepared himself by the private study 
of Blackstone and Kent. 

lie was graduated from the Albany Law School in May, 
1864, and at once took a student's chair in the office of War- 
ren & Banker, of Troy, N. Y., to learn something of the 
practice of law. After six months, through the invitation 
of Mr. Warren, then surrogate, he accepted the position of 
clerk of the surrogate's court, where he remained for al- 
most two years, and entered into a copartnership with Robert 
H. McClellan, a prominent lawyer of Troy. Mr. Lansin" 
immediately and diligently sought to perfect himself in the 
knowledge and practice of his profession, with the desire, if 
possible, to bridge over by his industry the years that others 
of his age had spent in the practice of the law prior to his 
admission. To that end he turned his attention to litigated 
business, his first case being tried at the Rensselaer County 
bar not more than ten years ago. lie prepared and tried 
his own causes, and, without the aid of counsel, argued them 
through the several appellate tribunals of the State. 

James Lansing was one of the delegates selected from 
the Rensselaer County bar to attend the meeting called for 
the organization of the New York State Bar Association, 
in 1876. He was present at its formation, and was ap- 
pointed a member of one of its principal committees, which 
position he has since held by successive reappointments. 

Mr. Lansing is a man of excellent natural powers, and by 
his own exertions has made himself one of the most learned 
and successful lawyers at the Troy bar. His habit of self- 
reliance has gained him a standing of independence and in- 
fluence. His career is noticeable as an example of honor- 
able success in a profession adopted late in life, and pursued 
under circumstances of great difficulty and discouragement. 
His name is associated with some very marked professional 
triumphs, and bis arguments are always entertained with 
high respect by the appellate tribunals. In addition to his 
public efforts, Mr. Lansing has exhibited rare talents as a 



writer upon legal topics, and bis learning nnd candor have 
made him a favorite referee in important cans 

Mr. Lansing has seven children living. Bis eldest son, 
- Walter, n promising young man, died in l>T:i. 


l',.r a sidernble time a resident of Troy, and long 

1 now identified with the bar of Rensselaer County, 
Gen Bullard deserves mention in this connection. lli- 
record :is :i lawyer is conspicuous, and his practice has been 
widely extended ; as a jury advocate he is also very buo 
ful. The reader i- referred to our recently-published his- 
tory of Saratoga Co., N. Y.. for a more full personal sketch 
(it* this gentleman.* 

MOSES I. CI "I 'ill 

was in Hopkinton, N. B. Be attended the academj 
in iliat town, and at the age of fifteen years entered Dart- 
mi mil College, graduating in the year 1834. At the ex- 
piration of his college life, and in pursuance of a prior dc- 
termination to come to the Stat.' of New York and study 
law, he entered the office of Eliphalet Pearson, al Ticon- 
,l,. r . j - . thereafter Mr. Pearson removed from thai 
place, and Mr. Clough went into the office of James J. 
Stevens (a brother of tin- late Samuel and Cyrus Stevi i 
at Ticondcrogn, finished his studies, and was admitted to 

the bar in the year 1-:'.". [n 1-1 1. on the re val of the 

late Gardner Stow to the city of Troy, he was appointed 
district attorney of the county of Essex, which office lie 
held for more than six years, having, at the expiration 
of his term of appointment, been elected as a Democrat in Btrong and reliable Republican county in the year 
1847. Be also held the offices of master in chancery and 
Supreme Court commissioner, and was poslmasterat Ticon- 
deroga during President Polk's administration. lie con- 
tinued in a successful practice of the law at Ticonderoga 
until the year 1857, when he removed to the city of Troy, 
where he -till resides in the practice of his profession. 


was born in Rcnss ' N. Y., and died at Saral 

Springs N V . on the 30th of August, 1879, aged thirty- 
nine years. II" had always lived in Rensselaer County, 
with the exception of a few years of his early life passed 
in the Weal Hi- education was of the common schools 
and academics. In his youth he had taught in both de- 
partment! H was admitted to the bar of this State in 
Saving always a predilection for the editorial oc- 
cupation, he ultimately became a legal editor, author, and 
elebrity. Be became city editor of the 
/ Daily Prat about 1869, at the same time compiling 
his minor legal treatises. In l s "<> he founded the 
Allan)) d In 1871 he commenced the pub- 

lication of the " American Reports." Bewroteatreatia on 
tie Law of High* itise on Provisional Rem 

I •• Worn ■ I. ■■ Stud'u -." supplying a 

Study of For* nsii I ! impilcd a 

volume il Bank Cases," manuals for supervisors, 

i the first 


twenty-four volumes of the " American Reports," edited 
with Mr. Conk six volumes of tlie "Supreme Court Re- 
ports" of New York, which effected a revolution in the re- 
porting system of the State, and at tlie time of his death 
was engaged upon the most important law treatise of hi- 
life, which lie left half finished, lie was married in lSTl', 
and his wife and three children survive him. Mr. Thomp- 
son continued to edit the Albany Laio Journal and the 
■■ American Reports" up to the time of his death. Tho 
former is read in every English-speaking community in the 
world, and had attained, under his direction, an influi I 
unsurpassed, if not unrivaled. The latter, now in their 
twenty seventh volume, pur]. oil to "jve all cases of general 
interest in the courts of ultimate resort in all the States 
and Territories, have attained a very large circulation, and 
have universally been esteemed models of their class Two 
such original enterprises have rarely been conceived and 
executed by a man of thirty years of age. 

The following from the pen of Mr. Thompson's 
cc— or. Irving Browne, in the Ml>,mij Law Juurntd of 
Sept. '.. 1-7'.'. conveys a just and intelligent estimate 
Mr. Thompson's character and work: 

"The writer may be pardoned for saying — what Mr. 
Thompson never would have said publicly — that the Albany 
Law Journal has made its way all around the World, and 
is read, copied, and cited in every Slate of this Union, 
throughout Great Britain and Ireland, in France, Germany, 
and Italy, in China, Australia, and New Zealand, without 
•much advertising or canvassing, almost exclusively upon its 
merit-. Mr. Thompson was proud of this; he loved to 
have it so. It was his pet project and hobby ; he -pared 
no pains nor expense upon it ; he cared not what il i 
him; he was continually planning to make it better, 
was never satisfied with it. He was conscious of the de- 
mand- of the great and critical audience which he addn • 
he had a high sense of what was due them, and hi- con- 
science was always unca.-\ lest he was not giving them li is 
very best, 

■ Mr. Thompson would unquestionably have made his 
mark at the bar. His mind was acute, incisive, compre- 
hensive, and fertile; his self-possession was perfect; his 
command of language was strikingly forcible, affluent, and 
elegant. Be did not leave the bar because he doubted bis 
adaptation to the pursuits of the advocate, nor from <iis 
taste, but because he preferred to strike out a new path, 
because hi- tasti - were scholarly rather than argumentative, 
and because in his chosen walk he thought to meet fi 
of the unpleasant incidents and harassing circumstance! 
that infest the vocation of the advocate. 

" In person Mr. Thompson was rather below the middle 
hi ight, quite stout, and broad-chested ; his head was large 
and fine, his forehead full and broad; his complexion WW 
dark and ruddy; his features were regular, his eyes » 
p oially brilliant and kind. lie was a fine specimen ol 
Vigorous and manly beauty. While he did not shun nor 

repel men. his i isU - wi re r< served and .-.•eluded. Ill- -hy 

(tended i ven t.. hi- own actions and emotions. Be IH 

the most unpretentious, modest, and simple of men. He 

was ready to oblige, and knew how to confer an obligation 

deli. ,t.l\ Id was faithful and punctual ill the smallest U 

^rvw V C^Anv- 

The parents of John H. Colby came to the eity of Troy 
from the counties of Grafton and Sullivan, in the State of 
New Hampshire. Their ancestors were among the early 
settlers of the Granite State. His grandfathers, upon both 
the paternal and maternal side, were engaged in the Revo- 
lutionary struggle of the American colonies for independ- 
ence, one participating at the battle of Bennington and the 
other upon the field of Saratoga. His father's name was 
Caleb K. Colby, and his mother's was Abigail Howe. Mr. 
Colby was born at Troy, March 27, 1835, and received his 
education at the common schools of the city and at the 
private academy of the Rev. John Smith, A.M., who was 
a graduate of one of the Scottish universities. Upon 
leaving school he entered the law-office of Olin & Geer, 
at Troy, the senior member of the firm being the Hon. 
Abram B. Olin, who was, until quite recently, one of the 
judges of the District Court of the District of Columbia. 
Upon his admission to the bar, Mr. Colby became a mem- 
ber of the legal firm of Olin, Geer & Colby, and continued 
therein until the election of Mr. Olin as a member of Con- 
gress, since which time he has practiced law without any 
partner. He is the author of " Colby's Criminal Law and 
Practice," a publication well known to the legal profession 
both within and without the State, and has also published 
a commentary upon the law and practice governing the 
disposition of surplus funds arising upon sales of land 
under mortgage foreclosures. 

Politically he has always been an uncompromising Demo- 
crat, and an active member of the party, having been 
several times chosen a delegate to State conventions, and 
having been a member of the Democratic State Committee. 
He was a delegate from the State of New York to the 

Democratic National Convention, held at Baltimore, Md., 
which nominated Horace Greeley for President, and was 
also a member of the Electoral College of the State of 
New York, in 186S, which cast its vote for Horatio Sey- 
mour for President. 

He has been a member of the board of education of the 
city of Troy ; was appointed city attorney of Troy by its 
common council, and at the age of twenty-six years was 
elected district attorney of Rensselaer County. While 
district attorney he was one of the most prompt, efficient, 
and fearless public prosecutors that ever served the people 
of his county. He was an active member of the citizens' 
committee which in 1870 framed the new city charter, and 
one of the special committee selected to secure its adoption 
by the Legislature. While city attorney, and acting under 
the direction of the common council, he compiled the 
statute laws and municipal ordinances relating to the city 
of Troy, which were published by the city in a printed 
volume of seven hundred pages. 

From the time of his admission to the bar he has been 
actively engaged in the practice of the law in his native 
city, and is well and favorably known as a safe and prudent 
counselor, — one of untiring zeal in his fidelity to his 
clients. Although leading the life of a busy advocate, 
coupled with the discharge of the duties of public offices, 
he has found time to become largely identified with the 
purchase and sale of real estate in the cities of Albany 
aud Troy. He is a man of uncommon energy, industry. 
and perseverance. He is a married man. — the name 
his wife was Ellen Desmond, — and he has two children, 
named John D. and Mary J. His religious proclivities 
are of the Universalist persuasion. 

h.a.e.^ey j-_ iec i in* a-. 

now one of the senior members of 
tho bar of ■ ' bnntj , was 

born At JonotvHlo, • 
N Y , July 10. 1834, ml oral tli- 


, [gl Dally 

inia i ]•■ tod- 
ahlro, England, from which place nil 

■ . W 

« Itfa hi- t v. 

James and Willi. .in to Now England! 

Hi I iit>t al Ipswii b U i 
The but named ion ■ 
to Virginia, when he became tho 
ii ir "f a numoroui family. 

, the elder, In 1070, 
married Kllnbeth Emerson, Howai 
tho ».! intoes and 

nihil) "i land 

«itu it.- in the rallej ol the Quonnoo- 

ii. in," then calle i Stony Brook, bill 

- iffleld, under a 

grant from the Qenoral ' 

In 1070, He 

t.- Sofflold in 107*1, » hero, 

(br tli*' next crntory and a lml f. In* 

and his descendants were prominent 

• ii and Inflm no n lied 

>1 »j 13, IT.: 

I Uarch 
8, 1760, tooh an actlToparl In public 
Bllphah I Kb ph,who 

WM l-orn m 1TI-, iiinl died in 1821, 

lieutenant in militia dnring the 

tronblouj timo which preceded the 

flndc] ndi nee In 1770, 

and alterwanli a like commission In 

■in. ntal army, ilgned by 

John Ba I 

■ 'ill of 9 blcli . nmm Unions 

in the family. 

K n -. the oldoal aon of tho 

but nanv-d. waa born al Sufflcld, 

Jan. 10, 1771, and in 1T:»1 camo with 

ltdeon Granger, 

poetma-r i 

Inol to Troj, then n 
■mall but thriving village, where ho 
IlTod until 1820, when, In conse- 
nt fin which in 
: best] hi of 

tho ■ ■ ■ LllUOSl fatal 

blow t.. it- prosperity, ho removed 
to JoneaTllle, where he resided until 
hi- death, la i 366. Bii matoi nal 

■ grandfather was graduated al Barrard College In L707, and became tho 
Brat settled pastoral Snfflcld In 1710,8 relation which continued dnring a long 
and usafnl life. 

J. King wu pre| and tor college at Jonesvillo Academy, then n v. ry 
flonrlahlDg Instltntlon under tho care of Prof Hiram A. Wilson, when In i> 1 1 
mph ted an extended and thorough course of preparatory studies. 1 1 • ■ was 
l-l- with two college honors, ran King among 
ihe very Hist of a class nTnety-elghl In number, seventy-nlno "f whom won 
the ■!■ _ f a i: in 1861 bo received tlie degree of A U. immediately upon 
Imtir, tie to Troy I c mploto his law studios, in which ho had 

already mad i . rnd thenceforth to make that citj his liomu. 

be wbi ■ student In ti IHce of Judge Gould and Hon. 

■ ■■ Imlttod to th" i at. ho i "intn n ■ i iii. pi ictlo 
of Uw in I that year Hon, John D. Wlllard, tbe senior member of the 

firm of \s iliar.i a Raymond, who for many yean had controlled a very large 
I red frum prat lice, and Mr. King at the panic time bo- 
came a iwrtner with Hi H nnectlon which i at once Introduced him 

lnt<> a Urge and responsible la* . in 1863, Mr. Raymond also retired, 

and In sir King formed a partnership with tin- late 

John A. Millard, which continued until the death of that gentleman, In I860. 
I Mir -i ■ \r* the business ol his firm wu and Impor- 

tant. King waa appointed dty attorney, which offl o he filled for 

a full tonn Ii .like credl labia t-> lilmsell and ttunactorj to tbe cor- 

bankrnptcy laa baring been onactod, ho was by 
r-JosUce ("hA.**- ftj-j-oint^l register In hankrnptcj for tho I 

i . : W ishlngton Counties, and hold thai i 

.■ twelve yoani, and until the repeal of th 

• i ■ n I ' l at tho expiration of 

hi* flr«i t' nn wu i aarvad f<-r a as I term of four yean H 

bad prsrvloaslj f"r «••»« al yean basn prssidenl of the I nl Unmnl 

A*»- | and Its vicinity, and always an actln friend of the college, 

In i-~ n b morary member of the Alnmnl \««- latlon ol w lb 

)\r K r. 

a elected a trnstse ,,f the Troy orphan Asylum, whb ti 
•tin i. md oif.'rt t.. promoting tho Intel 

oldest and •! rateable charities In tho city. 

II' baa *!«•• for a Mill I-.- f the board of trust 


H*ing originally »wii a. In polll 1 anll-slSTery man, ho 

wtm f hs i irtj . and 

early t-*eam« an in-tiTe and a isaloos partir||«nt in tlio political mOTsmontl of 

tho city nml county, often represent, 
ing bia district in tho State conven* 
tions. For many years ho was In 
Intimate relation with Hon. Thur- 
low Wood, the sagacious iH>lj[tcal 
Icadi r, and also enjoyed the personal 
friendship of (JowriiorSowunl, never 
faltering in his fidelity to tho ideas 
and principles of that great cham- 
pion of human freedom. When ih, 
dissolution of the Whig pal 
came imminent, by reason >•{ thf 
irreconctlaldo division on the nri> 
Joct of slavery, he was chairman : 
tho ity central commit toe, and au 
one of three prominent mem 
the party in Troy who publlohi d thl 
call for a mass meeting of all iti> 
members who wero in favor 
speech, free Boil, and free mon,"fbf 
the purpose of reorganizing as ' Rl - 

The meeting was hold and tlio 
new organization promptly . 
From that time for seventeoi 
hi was ono of the most active men* 
hereof the Republican ccnti 
untie,, of Kensselaer Coin • 
for a time nls<i a member of the Si »t. 
central ■■ <tiuii i tt i .- and mi u- 
tive committee. Mr. King hoa fre- 
iniently declined Bolicltalions b) 
accopt office, but his i« ti\ ity in 
political organization, and hit* famil- 
iar acquaintance with • mini - 
have given him a soniewluil extss> 
bIto political Influence, 

At the breaking out «>f th 
Hon in ISfil ho was among i 
most in the matter of pn 
enlistment* and filling the local 
regiments, and until the cli se "1 thl 
war in every way manifested In* 
earnest desire for Ihe trilimpn Of 
the cause of freedom and hi 
sympathy for its noble defenders In 
the field. Ah a consequent 
ii nd e Vint ing course, when the" Prafl 
Riots" occurred in Is'.: hi 
was one of those designated in ad- 
vance for destruction by tli 
which sacked the office of (ho Tn-v 
Daily Timts, and destroyed the tur- 
nituro and nearly dcmollshod Ihr 
residence ,.f ll-.n. Martin I. Town- 
»end, who was his near n« 
Notice of thoir design had heei 
to Mr. King several hours prci 
both os a menace from enemies and as n kindly warning from others snsO 
knew and desired to thwart their plans, and his family \va- consequently asal 
..ut ..f the city for safety; but Mr. King, with Urge numbers ol othi 
citisons, remained on the ground. Tho late arrival of a military force on il"- 
Bccnc caused tho mob to scatter before their designs could be accomplish) <L 

During the Inst two years ..f the war ho spent much of Ins lime and 
devotedly as chairman ->f the Troy branch of tho United States Christian Com- 
mission, nn organization embracing large numbers of the Iwst and most libera] 
citizene of Troy and its vicinity, who not only give freely in money and nup- 
plb -. but also their personal services in camps and hospitals, for tbe n 
comfort of sick and wounded soldiers. 

Though not born in Troy, Mr. King is very closely identified with the dtj ( 
his fath.r having resided in it for twenty-six yeai s. and ho himsell f.»r the lavt 
thirty-one yours and upward. Ho married," in 1861, Kllen B. L Ilaj 
granddaughter and one of the only four surviving grandchildren *>\ .1 
Vandorhoydon, tho"Fatroon" of Troy, and ..n,e the owner oi m 
ils is more fully shown elsewhere In this volume. Ho has two children Hvhtg, 
a son, Edwin A King, who j^ now n law student in Ins office, and n I 
Mr. King i- now the senior member of tho law firm of Kin. Ill 
partner being La Uotl w. Rhodes. 

Mr. King baa been for many year* one of the most prominent, active, »nd 
public-spirited citizens of Troy. As a lawyer he has always held in i 
rank and comnmnded a large }<atronago. His legal learning, his sound judg- 
ment, and hi- long and varied experience, have peculiarly fitted him a« an 
adviser, and his services na a counselor have always been in especial n*qu#st, from accident and early business relations than from oi iginal im ' 
hli ill- baa been mainly passed as a counselor rather than as an ndvoi 
it li probable thatolherw|»o hia fine scholarship, cleat power* -'f "tat- meni,and 
persuasive address would have given him a creditable rank as an ndvi 

Tho Jndli ial . asl of his mind wan fitly recognized in his appointment to thl 
res (ions lb) < | i r In bankruptcv, the duties >d which hi| 
portant ofllco ho has so longdischnrged to entire public acceptance, m > King < 
l n of learning and devotion to tho cause of publb ediuati.n have alwayi 
I -'en remarkable, ; m.| l.av.- 1 n |.nhlic,ly recognized and rewarded,*- i* evident 

from the foregoing review. 

In the midst of a most busy professional life and of exacting public 

has nlway- h d time for personal culture, and has added to bin oxeellf»l 

youthful education tho wisdom and urarpn of nn extensive reading. I 

thai ■ i i wise and unostentatious i Itizcn, i- wboss, 
' » and virtues, many honors have como unsought, 
And who, without solf*«.eek(ng, lias thus exert*'d an exton*lvo and I i 
in the affairs of the cily, the county, and the BtatO, 


well ;is in the largest duties, private as well as public. He 
was the fondest and firmest of friends. Il«' was an anient 
lover of nature and of poetry ; his greatest ambition was to 
possess a farm and l>o a farmer." 

Mr. Thompson was one of (lie most widely-known citi- 
zens that Rensselaer County lias ever produced. His sud- 
den ami untimely decease was regarded by the bar of this 
oounty as a serious loss to the profession, and elicited many 
touching tributes from the most eminent jurists ami journ- 


eldest child of Rev. Lewis C. Browne ami Harriet Hand, 
was born at Marshall, Oneida Co., on the 14th of Septem- 
ber, 1835. His father was pastor uf the 
Church in Troy. N. Y., from 1S:;7 till is in, when the 
family removed to Nashua, N. II., ami afterwards to Nor- 
wich. Conn., and to Hudson, N. Y. Mr. Browne's educa- 
tion was in the common schools and academies. Between 
the ages of fourteen and eighteen he worked considerably 
at the occupations of printing and telegraphing. In the 
fall of 1853 he commenced the study of the law at Hudson 
in the office of Theodore Miller, now one of the judges of 
the Court of Appeals of this State, continuing there until 
the fall of 1850, when he entered the Albany Law School, 
from which he graduated in the spring of 1857, and was 
then admitted to practice. His graduating thesis, in favor 
of Parties as Witnesses, was published, at the solicitation 
of the faculty, in the " American Law Register."* After 
six months spent as a law clerk in the city of New York, 
Mr. Browne entered iuto partnership with Rufus M. Town- 
send and Martin I. Townsend, at Troy, forming the well- 
known law-firm of Townsends & Browne, which continued 
until the summer of 187S. Mr. Browne then practiced 
law alone in Troy until the fall of 1871), when he was sum- 
moned to Albany to succeed the late Isaac Grant Thomp- 
son as editor of the Albany Law Journal and the Ameri- 
can Reports, and then removed to that city, where he is 
now engaged in that occupation. In 1858 he was married 
to Delia, only daughter of Richard F. Clark, of Hudson, 
N. Y., by whom he has two daughters. He has never 
sought office, and has never held any, except that of school 
lommissioner of Troy, which he occupied five years. 

Although leading an active professional life, Mr. Browne's 
astes and inclinations have always been in the direction of 
iterature, study, and the development of the critical faculty. 
3e lias been best known at the bar by arguments in the 
ippellate courts, and particularly by his argument in the 
Uundy trade-mark case, which established in this State 
he right of every man to the fair use of his family name 
a business. Of this argument it has been said that " it 
tas become the standard authority, and is used as a text 
or citation by the whole legal profession." 

Mr. Browne became a contributor to the Albany Law 
Journal at its start, and continued largely to contribute to 

until he assumed editorial charge of it. He republished 
) book-form two series of sketches which he wrote for 
iiat periodical, namely, " Humorous Phases of the Law," 

* An curly indication of the spirit of legal reform which has char- 
iterited much of his later life and writings. 

and"Shorl Sketch.- ol Greal Lawyers," both of which 
nut with warm approval throughout this country and 
( Ireal Britain. An emincnl jui i I of wrote of 

him : "In my judgment I" i m I iccond to the d 
brilliant ami effective writers, al home or abroad, in the 
department of forensic literature." Mr. Browne bae 
made and published a translation of Racine's •' Lea Plaid- 
curs ; ' has written several amateur dramac anda real .ari- 
cty of esthetic and literary criticism for newspapers and 

magazines; ami has edited several legal works ami volumi 

of law reports. On his removal from Troy to Ubany he was 
thus spoken of in the leading Troy newspapers: ■ Every 
production from his pen is replete with thought and sug- 
gestion, and his compositions are generally pervaded by a 
humor natural and effective, and by critical statements, the 
result of a full appreciation of the Bubject under discus- 
sion." " He is singularly well qualified by taste, culture, 
and experience for the duties of his new position, and 
those who are acquainted with his remarkable powers of 
application are confident that the high character of the 
publication about to be placed in his charge will suffer no 
deterioration. But while we congratulate Mr. Browne 
upon the unsought and deserved honor of his appointment 
to such an editorial chair, we join in the general regret 
that his duties will compel his removal to Albany." 


was born in the village of Coxsackie, Greene Co., in this 
State, Oct. 11, 1847. His father's name is Win. II. Hol- 
lister, a life-long resident of that town. His early educa- 
tion was obtained in a district school, and later at the 
Coxsackie Academy. In the spring of 18G5 he entered 
Phillips Academy, at Andover, Mass., preparatory to enter- 
ing college. He finished his preparatory course at the 
Hudson River Institute, at Claverack, Columbia Co., N. Y. 
In the fall of 180G he entered Williams College, Williams- 
town, Mass., and graduated in the class of 1870. 

Immediately upon graduation he received an appoint- 
ment to the census bureau in Washington, where he con- 
tinued for one year. In the fall of 1871 he came to Troy 
and entered the law-office of Edward F. Bullard, with 
whom he studied for three years, and was admitted to the 
bar Sept. 11, 1874. He was at once received into part- 
nership with Mr. Bullard, and the partnership continued 
under the name of Bullard & Hollister until the spring of 
1878. He is now practicing alone. In the spring of 1878 
he was elected school commissioner for the city of Troy. 


was born in Troy, N. Y. He was the son of a stove- and 
iron-manufacturer of that place. His ancestors came from 
England, and very early settled in the United States. The 
rudiments of his education be received in the common 
schools, the Santa Clara College, Cal., and the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. He commenced the 
study of law with Gen. 0. II. La Grange, at San Francisco, 
Cal., and continued his studies with Hon. Martin I. Town- 
send, at Troy, N. Y. He was admitted to practice as an 
attorney and counselor in 1874, and is still practicing his 
profession in Troy. 



■ issrus b., 

born in Albany, N. V.. Aug. 21, 1849, began the of 

law in ili'- office of Smith, Fursman eV. Cowen in lSTt!. 

Admitted to the bar in May, 1877; now practicing in 

] ■;. 

HKNltY VAIL BHEPARD, in Troy, N. Y.. Jan. 9, 1856, began reading law in 

the office of Ball & McGregor in IST.">, ami subsequently 

iii the office of Smith, Fursman & Cowcn. Admitted to 
the bar in May. 1877, from law dopartnu'iit. I'nion i 
practicing in Troy. 


Abonl 1812, Samuel B. Ludlow, having been graduated 
in 1809 at Onion College, commenced the practice of the 
law at Nassau, until about thai time called Union Yillagc. 
Ili< practice was considerable, and he had many Btudcnts, 
among them Cyrus Mason, afterwards D.D., and Henry 
Ludlow, his own brother, afterwards an eminent preacher. 
N very long after lsi'2. Barent Van Vleck also com- 
menced the practice at the same village. Mr. Ludlow con- 
tinued at Nassau until about 1S.'!4. when lie removed to 
( tawego, wh are he still lives honored and at a great age. 
Not t'.ir from 1830, Mr. Van Vleck died, and he was 
succeeded by John Koon, a native of Schodack. Mr. 
Koon was subsequently appointed district attorney, removed 
t" Troy, and afterwards to Albany, where lie died. Mr. 
Ludlow was succeeded by Anson Bingham, who had, like 
him, graduated at Union College, and had studied law in 
his office. 

In IS4H. John T. Hogcboom, originally from Ghent, 
Columbia Co., opened an office at Nassau, and remained 
there until 1844, when he returned to Ghent, abandoning 
active practice because of a tendency to a disease of his 
throat Be was soon after and repeatedly elected county 
judge of Columbia County, and has filled most acceptably 
other honorable positions. Mr. Bingham joined with him, 
in 1852, hi- brother-in-law and pupil. Robert II. McClellan, 
who remained with him until 1855, when, being elected 
surrogate, Mr. McClellan removed to Troy. Mr. Bingham 
then associated with himself Hugh \V. McClellan. from 
Chatham, but a native of Schodack. and in 1 ^."",7 removed 
their office to Albany. Mr. Bingham, in 1853, was elected 
district attorney of the county, and Bincc has published a 

most valuable Beries of 1 ks upon the law of real estate, 

in which he specially excels. Be has been a number of 
tim. - ■ member of the Assembly, there ■ chairman 

of the judiciary committee. Judgi II _ I i was buc- 

i by Edward I! Peck, from Chatham, who, about 

I -.">-• 1 !■;. Wat ren I Benl m, from New 

Mass., but he n movi I about I 354 to Vala- 
tia, and afterwards to Hudson. Bon. E. Smith Strait, 
about 1852, had commenced the practice at East Nassau, 
near his n - phentown, and on the removal of Bing- 

ham \ McClellan t" Albany he removed i,, Nassau, wh 
he remained until he was elected surrogate and removed to 
i N i. hi- pi npied by 

his brother, Barni* I 3 I who has sine, removed to 

I I abash, Mr. Lindsay for a timi Jo 

On cnbush, In the 

mean time, about 1SG7, Grove P. Jenks had opened his 
office at Castleton, where he still remains. About 1853, 
Cornelius S. Snyder, of West Sand Lake, after a short time 
practicing at Berlin, returned to his native village, where 
he has since continued practicing. Burton A. Thomas, of 
West Sand Lake, was long since admitted to practice, but 
has confined himself to office practice. 

Among the eminent lawyers who have graced the bar of 
Rensselaer County there are many more of whom we have 
endeavored to obtain biographical sketches, but unsuc- 

The following is a list of the members of the Rensselaer 
County Bar, with the year of their admission to practice in 
its courts. Where not otherwise specified, the residence is 
understood to be Troy: 

Aokloy, P. W., 1805.* 

Alberts, rohn P., 1840. 

Aldcn, Charles L., 1854.* 
Averill, James K. 
Baermnn, P. II., 1857. 
linker, Charles I., 1873.* 
Banker, T. S., 1S57. 
Ball, John, 183;'). 
Ball, .Milieus, 1857. 
Beach, Wm. A., 1855. 
Benton, Warren C. (Nassau). 
Bi D h, Miles, 1856. 
Belts, Harvey, 1857. 
Bingham, A. (Schodack).* 
Bird, John, 17'Jii. 
Birdsall, Simeon P., 1871.* 
Bingham, Aiishii i N'assioi i. 
Bishop, P. VT., 1864. 
Blair, George T., 1st:',. 
Bliss, William M.. Ism;. 
Black, Frank S.» 
l!,,ar,lm.ui. I>. I.. 
Boies, William, isri. 
Ifritt.m. John G., 1837. 
Bristol, Henry H.. 1843. 
Brintnall, C. B., 1851. 
Brintnnll, Charles S., 1S76* 
Brockway, D., IS57. 
B >wn, I". M.. 1870. 
Brown, Lyman, Is 13. 
Brown, Henry. ISL'I. 
Browne. Irving, Is.'.s." 
Britton Si Hndloy, 1845. 

Bryan, Frank II.. lsri'.l. 
Mm I. David, Jr., 1812. 
Buclj Clarence, I S57. 
Jo ., 1857. 

Bucl, Oliver P., 1865. 

Ball, Archibald, 1810. 
Dullard, B, I'.. 1*66* 
Burdiok, Albert s.. 1870. 
Bntlei 1827. 

Buikley, 0. F..» 
Hi, it-. Blibn Sehaghticoko).* 
lliirlm Sohaghti. 

I, rhoms B . 1857.* 
Christie, Robert, 1844. 

Cipperly, .1. Albert, isr,«.* 
Clarke, Do Will C, 

Hark. I 

Olough, Hon I . i 

Clowes, Thomas. I si;. 
Clute, Tli,, mas J., 1860. 
Colby, John II.. 1850.* 
Cole, Edmund L., 1866.* 
Cook, Robley D., isr,:;.s 
Cowen, Esck, 1865* 

CofTcy, .Tain.- W. 

Comstock, A. C. (Lansing- 
Cross, W. R., 1860. 
Cusbman, John P., 1812. 
Cushman, Jabet \., 1830. 
Cutting, G. S., 1860. 
Curley, John P. 
Darling. William, 1S30. 
Davenport, Charles F... lsils. 
Dai onport, Nelson. 1 857. 
Davis, George I:.. IS20. 
Davis, Charles M . 1335. 
Davis, George R., Jr.. 1843. 
Davis, .lame- T., ISJ3. 
Davis, II. J., 

I is, E. C. (Lnnsingburgh).* 
Day, George, 1S51.* 
Donio, Colo II.. 1857.* 
Dexter, Geo. S., 1S75.* 
Dickinson, John D., 1 7 '.' I . 
Disbrow.W. I'.. 1857. 
Donnan, George I!.. I 875.* 
Dorr, Francis 1 1., 1S75.* 
inson, 1806. 
Eastman, Ira A.. Is:;:;. 
Eddy, Henry T„ 1-:;.,. 
Ensign, Lew i- W ., 1875. 
Blmendorr, Peter E., 1791. 
Filkins. Hamilton, 1848. 
Fitob, John, 1843. 
Fitch, George W„ 1844. 

. John I... 1858. 
Flandraa, B. F. 
Flint, William. 1874. 
Fonda. Nicholas, 17'.U. 

Bbenezer, 1800. , 

I l ',. James, 1844* 
Forsyth, Niolson, 18 17 . 
I ostoi . Samuel.* 

i Iwln W.. 1857. 
■ ■".* 
Frciot, .linn, - I . 


Fulleii Ui lander N\. 1 53 . 

Fursman, Edgar I... 1867.* 

Inscl II.. 1816. 

\ present momber of the Rensselaer County -1'i'rfi Supreml 
U ij Term, i - 


Hon. Thomas Clowes was born in Marblehead, Mass., Aug. 5, 1791. 
His father and uncles were seafaring men. While a hoy he went to 
sea with his uncle, making two voyages across the Atlantic. While 
the vessel was lying in the harbor near Lisbon, tho famous Berlin and 
Milan Decrees were issued, closing the ports of all Europe. After 
several months the captain put to sea, escaped the British and French 
cruisers, and arrived safely at the port of Marblehead. His father, 
brother, and one uncle were lost at sea. In the year 1SUS he went to 
live with an uncle, who had settled in the town of Brunswick, with the 
promise of becoming heir to his property. He subsequently litted for 
college under the instruction of Rev. Mr. Banks, of Montgomery 
County, and entered the sophomore class. He remained a student for 
two years, when, upon (lie death of his uncle, his personal attention 
was required in tho settlement of the estate, and he came to Troy 
and entered the office of Ross & McConihe as a student of the law. 
While pursuing his law studies the late Governor Wm. L. Marcy came 
to the city, and tlie two young men became warm personal and political 

lie was a diligent student, became a good scholar, and could repeat 
whole pages of Homer's " Iliad" in the original Greek. He was a 
good lawyer, and was the first man in Rensselaer County who en- 
gaged in Chancery practice. 

Although his father and uncles were Federalists, he became, by tho 
teachings of his mother, an Anti-Federalist and Republican, and 
engaged when a boy in all the political discussions of the day. For 
some years he was the owner and editor of the Ilndyct, whose columns 
owed all their political weight and character to his vigorous pen. 
When the Republican party split into two factions he sided with the 
Bucktails against tho Clintonians, and subsequently, in the contest 
for the Presidency after Monroe, he, with a large fraction of the 
Bucktails, supported Adams. He was a man of positive opinions, 
and always followed his convictions. He was a National Republican, 
and a firm adherent of Mr. Clay ; and afterwards a strong member of 
the Anti-Masonic party, of the Whigs, Fusionists, and Republicans. 
In 1831, Mr. Clowes was prominent in his efforts to procure the 
nomination of Mr. Seward for Governor, and in 1836 his influence 
carried the county and decided the vote in the convention in favor 
of Mr. Seward. He was appointed by Gen. Taylor postmaster of 
Troy, and held the office about fifteen months, when he was removed 
by Mr. Fillmore because he would not support the compromise 
measures. Mr. Seward's friendship obtained from Mr. Lincoln his 
nomination for postmaster a second time. He was reappointed a 

Photo, by Atkinson, Trey, N. Y. 

third lime by President Johnson, but did not live to enter upon tl.o 
duties of tho office. He was surrogate of the county from LSI I to 
1827; recorder from 1823 to 1828; alderman of the Second Ward from 
1833 to 1839; and served one term as county treasurer in 1S32. lie 
was canal appraiser from 1840 to 1844. He was elected canal com- 
missioner in 1856, but was juggled out of the office by the convention 
of that year. He was appointed by joint resolution of the Legisla- 
ture to fill out the unexpired term of Jones, resigned. He was ap- 
pointed State assessor, April 18, 1849, and served one term of two 

He was elected a trustee of the Troy Female Seminary in 1S27 ; 
was a constant and wise friend of the institution, and for nearly 
forty years always watchful to promote its best interests. 

In the many Legislative contests over measures affecting the inter- 
ests of Troy he always took an efficient part. He was a stubborn 
opponent of the often tried, often defeated, project to build a bridge 
over the Hudson at Albany, and the city is mainly indebted to him 
for the charters of the Troy and (ircenbush and Troy and Schenectady 
Railroads. He began, as alderman, the system of sewerage and 
macadamized roads which has done so much for the health and 
cleanliness of the city, and advocated strongly the purchase of Ida 
Hill by tho city for a public park. In 1824 he set out trees in Semi- 
nary Park, of which one in each corner now survives. He also set 
out the trees in the Court House Park. He was remarkable for his 
good judgment in public affairs, and for his skill and tact in devising 
ways and means to obviate unforeseen difficulties. In two instances 
were Mr. Clowes' suggestions of notable import, — in the act known 
as the " Hold-Over Law," and in the " Metropolitan Police Bill." In 
all the relations of life Mr. Clowes was emphatically an honest man, 
and discharged public and private trusts with strict integrity. His 
mind was a storehouse of political knowledge as well as of classical 
literature. He was full of anecdotes relating to public men and 
public measures. Upon the occasion of his death, April 9, 1866, the 
Rensselaer County Bar passed fitting resolutions, accompanied with 
appreciative addresses of the services and usefulness of their worthy 
but deceased brother. 

On July 6, 1818, he married Nancy Cox, of Nassau, but at the time 
of her marriage of Cambridge, Washington Co., N. Y. Of their children 
only one daughter reached maturity, Mrs. P. S. Mallory, of Troy, 
who has two sons and one daughter, — Thomas Mallory, a merchant 
of Troy ; James H. Mallory, in the post-office service at Troy ; and 
Mrs. Charles C. Craft, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

John* Lamson Flagg, well known to the citizens 
of Troy for many years as a gentleman active in 
business, warm hearted, of unbounded generosity, 
genial, and with marked force of character, was horn 
at Nashua, N. H., Sept. 11, 1835. He prepared for 
college at Troy, X. Y., under the tuition of the ven- 
erable John Smith, and entered Harvard University 
in 1853, from which he was graduated in 1857. He 
was a student at law in the office of the late Hon. 
David L. Seymour, of Troy, and was admitted to 
practice in 1858. In 1860 he married Ellen H, 
•laughter of Col. W. W. Brown, a prominent citi- 
zen of Providence, R. I., by whom he had one son, 
John Flagg. 

In I860 he was elected school commissioner of the 
Third Ward of Troy; manager of the Troy Young 
Men's Association in 1862, and president of that 

institution in 1863. He was elected jn-tii f tic 

Jnstires' Court of Troy in lStll2, and appointed by 
the common council as police magistrate of the city, 

— holding this office until 1865. In ls66 he I ame 

the Democratic candidate for mayor, and was elected 
to that high and responsible position, being the 
youngest person ever chosen to that office in the 
history of the city government. He was re-elected 
the following year. Previous to and during his 
administration of the mayor's office the incumbent 
pn tided in person over the deliberations of the com- 
mon council. In this position his talents shone 
conspicuously, for he was a good parliamentarian, 

and possessed the nerve to enforce the rules and take 
advantage of all points in his favor. 

In 1868 he was elected to the lower house of the 
Legislature, and re-elected in 1869, 1870, and 1871; 
serving in 1869 as chairman of the committee of 
ways and means, and being a prominent candidate 
for the speakership; acting in 1870 as chairman of 
the committee on public instruction, and in 1871 as 
chairman of the committee on railroads. He was 
a director of the Troy City Bank from 1864 to the 
time of his decease, May 11, 1874. 

Since 1871, Mr. Flagg had been quietly engaged 
in professional pursuits, and was formerly connected 
with J. G. Runkle, now of Albany, in the practice of 
law, and had built up quite an extensive business, as 
collection agent, with Mr. Xeary. He was the recipi- 
ent to a large degree of the public confidence, a man. of 
exquisite tact, ami possessed the faculty of reducing 
the most complicated details of business to a beau- 
tiful order Mini method. He was a believer in the 
Unitarian faith. His disposition was mild, his at- 
tachments warm, his impulses generous. lie in- 
herited a marked benevolence from his parents, and 
always held an open hand to the poor and needy. 
Hi- natural amiability, courteous demeanor, and 
graceful politeness attracted hosts of friends, and ren- 
dered his companionship pleasing, if not sometimes 
magnetic. He never cherished malignity or sought 
revenge, and had remarkable self-command amid 
the stormiest antagonisms. 



Qalo, John B., 1846.* 
Gardner, Daniel, 1823. 
Gambell, Oi in 
Qeor, Brastus, 18 16. 
Beer, A. C, 1847.* 
Gilbert, Hullistcr I!., 1830. 
Qleason, I'm id, 1830. 
(Ileus,, n, I h niel S., 1 837. 
Gould, George, 1831. 
(I, .iild, George V., 1876.* 
Gould, Tracy, 1875.* 
Grnnt, Br} ;MI - 1S: >7. 
(in, ii, John B., INT'.'.^ 
Grcone, John ('., 1868. 
Grey, Thomas, 1871. 
Griffith, Lewis E„ 1869.* 
Guy, Thomas J., 1870.* 
Hull, F. L. (Berlin 
Hull, Daniel, ISIO. 
Hull, lionj. II., 1856* 
Hadley, Imos K., 1843. 
Hazen, William, 1S46. 
Hardie, Robert.* 
Hassott, J. J. :i! 
Harris, Henry, 1S36. 
Harwood, il. M., 1857. 
Hayner, Henry Z., 1830. 
ll;i\ nrr, Irving, 1865.* 
Heartt, Richard, I860. 
Henrmun, (J. H. (Lansingb'gh).* 
Henry, John V., 1791. 
Hess, Hyman.* 
Kicks, Horace I.. 
Hong, J. Edgar, 1875.* 
Holley, Orville L., 1S26. 
jBollister, Wm. II., Jr., 1874.* 
Holmes, Jacob, 1S46. 
Hogcboom, J.T. (Nassau), 1840. 
Howard, J. N., 1840. 
Hubbell, C. B., 1876. 
Hubbard, Rugglcs, 1806. 
Hun, Abraham, 1791. 
Hunt, Stephen P., 1833. 
Huntington, Sam'l G., 1S10. 
Hurlbut, E. P., 1836. 
Hyatt, E. (Lansingburgh).* 
Ingalls, Charles R., 185::. 
Jcnnyss, Richard C, 1847.* 
Jcnks, G. P. (Schodack), 1867* 
Johnson, H. A. (Iloosick)* 
Johnson, Alex. G., 1S43. 
Jones, Daniel, 1806. 
Jones, P. L., 1857. 
Keach, Briggs (Iloosick Falls). 
Keach.Calvin E. (Lansingburgh), 

Kellogg, Giles B., 1S32* 
Kellogg, John B,, 1860. 
Kellogg, G. B. 4 J., 1867. 
Kellogg, Justin, 1S66.* 
Kellutu, Charles D., 1873.* 
Komble, John C, 1833. 
Kendrick, Samuel, 1S12. 
Kent, Moss, 1791. 
King, Eliphalet R., 1S46. 
King, Harvey J., 1849.* 
King, L., 1S19. 
King, Henry A.* 
Kimball, Richard B., 1840. 
Knickerbocker, .1. F., 1847. 
Koon, John. 1846. 
Lamport, John T., 1831.* 

Landon, John .M., 1855.* 

I. , Di riok, 1857.* 

Lane, Jacob I... 1 B57. 

Lansing, James, L865. 

Lansing, Charles J. (Lansing- 
burg b 

Lawton, George P., 1870." 

Lee, A. A., 1857. 

Lostor, P. A., 1875. 

Lindsey, C. B. (Greenbush).* 

I kw I, P. T„ 1871.* 

Lottridge, Robert A., 1857. 

Lyon, v. I)., I860.* 

LudloWj Samuel II. (Nassau), 
1 s l •_'. 

Mann, James F., 1821. 

Martin, Olin A., 1875.* 

Marcy, William I,., 1812. 

Marvin, D., I860. 

Mann, Francis N.* 

.Mann, Francis N., Jr.* 

Mastcn, Henry V. W., 1843. 

Mather, Calvin E., 1843. 

McClellan, Robert II., 1862* 

McClellan, Hugh W. 

McConihe, Isaac, 1815. 

McConihe, John, 1860. 

McConihe, Thornton, 1866. 

M,T'ui lane, Duncan (Green- 
bush). - : 
MeGrogor, Beekman, 1865.* 

McManus, William, 1S17. 

McManuB, Thomas, 1875* 
Merrill, Alphonzo (Schaghti- 

Merritt, Henry A., 1858.* 
Miller, Dennis, Jr.* 
Millard, John A., 1840. 
Moran, John, 1852. 
Moran, P. H., 1857. 
Mosher, George A., 1870.* 
Moulton, J. W., 1822. 
Munsell, Hezekiah (Hoosick). 
Myers, II. II., 1875 
Neary, Thomas, 1S66* 
Neil, James, 1843. 
Neil & Lowry, 1842. 
Newman, W. A., 1S60. 
Norton, Marcus P., 1864. 
O'Brien, John, 1853* 
Olin, Job S., 1843. 
Olin, Abraham B., 1843. 
Olin & White, 1843. 
Osborne, Jeremiah, 1S05. 
Paine, John, 1830. 
Paine, Amasa, 1807. 
Palmer, George, 1835. 
Palmer, J. W., 1874* 
Parmelee, Charles C. (Lansing- 
burgh), 1835. 
Parmentcr, F. J., 1852* 
Parmcnter, R. A., 1848.* 
Parmcnter, J. B.* 
Patterson, Charles E., 1865.* 
Pattison, Elias J., 1843. 
Patton, J. G.* 
Pearson, Eliphalet, 1840. 
Peck, John II., 1864. 
Peck, Edward R. (Nassau). 
Perkins, Charles W., 1S70. 
Percy, A. J., 1S57. 
Percy, John T., 1857. 

* A present member of the Rensselaer County Bar.— Vide Supreme 
Court Calendar, May Term, 1879. 

Phillips, Levi, I i I 

P n, Samuel D., 18 13. 

Porter, John I'.. 1858. ki abu I,. Edwin, IS60. 
Raymond, John, 1840. 
Rodfield, Sidney A., 1821. 
Rej in. Ms Win. V. V. (Si Ii.i !.i 

coke I. 

Reynolds, S. E. I Petersburgh).* 

Rhodes, La Mott W., 1867. 

Rioe, Obed, 1817. 

Richards, Charles I:.. 1843. 

Robertson, Gilb't, Jr., 1843, 

Koili,-, Wm. J., 1875* 

Rodgers, Spcneer C, 1875. 

Root, Charles W., 1843. 

Romeyn, Jeremiah, 18 10. 

Ross, Stephen, ism',. 

Rowley, Charted N., 183.1. 

Ramsey, I,<\ i, 1806. 

Rankle, J. Z., 1864. 

Russell, John, 1806. 

Rutherford, Friend S., 1846. 

Schooloy, Win. II.* 
Scott, Frank, 1850. 
Sergeant, S., 1857. 
Seymour, David L., 1S31. 
Seymour, W. W., 1840. 
Shappo, John A., 1874.* 
Shaw, William, 1865.® 
Sheldon, Cyrus D., 1830. 
Shepard, Henry V.* 
Sherwood, Lorenzo (Hoosick). 
Sherwouil, Lyman (Hoosick). 
Shirland, William H., 1875.* 
Shortis, Edward, 1843. 
Shrauder, Gurdon G-* 
Silvester, Francis, 1791. 
Smith. Benjamin, 1818. 
Smith, Levi, 1846* 
Smith, Albert, 1875.* 
Smith, Henry W.* 
Smith, Charles Ed., 1875. 
Snyder, C. S. (Sand Lake), 1 853.* 
Starr, Samuel, 1806. 
Stevenson, James M., 1S33. 
Stiles, 11. B. ( Lansingburgh). * 
Stone, D. H., 1835. 
Storm, Allen B., 1830. 
Stoughton, Hugh B.» 
Stover, Samuel, 1857. 
Stow, Gardner, 1845. 
Strait, B. C. (Greenbush)* 

E. Smith, 1871.* 
II- ... ■- u , I - 13. 
Stroud, C. I. II-. -i,.-k). » 
Suthoi land, Thome .'.. i 

i r, .v. li., i 
Tabor, Char] I ,1857. 
Taylor, John. ls:;7. 
Taylor, II.. 1840. 

Taylor, John II! 
Taylor, I'. B., 1875* 
Tin Broeok, Derlck, 1791. 
Terry, Scth II.. I 
Thomp ii I .iii.i i 
Tillman, Lewis T., 1810. 
Tin. ma-, Bonton A. 
Tot ranee, .1. I:., 1*75* 

Towner, Luther, l 

Townsend, Byron G., 1865 
l.i end, Martin I., 1S37.* 
Townsond, M. I,., 1 ■ 
Townsend, Rufus M.. Is::::. 
Tracy, Cornelius L., Is|o. 
T raver, Alvuh ('., 1857. 
Vail, Alvah ('., 1S57. 
Van Dyck, Peter A., 1791. 
Vandenburgh, Cornelius, 1791. 
\ :,n K lock, Barent (Nassau). 
Van Santvoord, George, 1857. 
Van Schoonhoven, Gerrit, 1791. 
\'au Srhoonhoven, W. II. 
V1111 Veghten, Dow, 1825. 
Viele, John J., 1846. 
\ iele, Philip, 1830. 
Waite, George C. 1846. 
Wanen, Moses, 1845.* 
Wells, J. Fairfield, 1843. 
Webster, Nelson (East Nassau).* 
Wendell, Gerrct, 1791. 
Wellington, George B.* 
Wheelcr, George, 1833. 
White, Jos. D. (Iloosick), 1843.* 
Whiting, Daniel, 1830. 
Whitney, C. M., 1865. 
Wilkinson, J. B., Jr., 1S75. 
Willanl, John D., 1830. 
Wilson, Ebenezer, Jr., 1812. 
"Wilson, Horatio, 1845. 
Woodbury, P. T., 1843. 

W Icook, Don Carlos, 1845. 

Woodworth, John, 1791. 
Woostor, Albert E., 186S.* 
Wooster, E., 1S69. 



In this chapter it is only attempted to give some me- 
moirs of a few of the early physicians, with an account of 
the medical organizations of the county, to which are added 
short sketches of some of its living members. 



Prominent in ability and influence among the early set- 
tlers of Rensselaer County was Dr. Samuel Gale. He was 
born in Goshen, N. Y., March 3, 1743. He studied med- 
icine with his uncle, Dr. Benjamin Gale, of Killingworth, 
Conn., who was a graduate of Yale College, and an author 
of several works on medicine and other topics. The latter, 



in 1770, was award. -.1, 1 > v the London Society for the Pro 
motion of Art and Commerce, a gold medal, which is in 
the possession ofE. Thompson Gale, of Troy. Dr. Samuel 
married and practiced hi- profession in ELillingworth, 
and while there was commissioned by Gov. Jonathan Trum- 
bull, May 1. 177."). a captain in the Continental army. 
After the close >>f the Revolutionary war. learning of the 
local advantages of the newly-laid out village of Lansing- 
burgh, N. Y.. he removed thither. Bis judicious sugges- 
tions, lealous participation, and executive tact were active 
9 which largely entered into the social and political in- 
-!- of the little hamlet, in which, at the very beginning 
of its life and growth, he made his residence. Honored as 
he was professionally, with the respect and confidence of the 
community, he developed, with great zeal, the educational 
and religious tendencies of the people, which, in a short 
time, resulted in the publication of a newspaper, the estab- 
lishment of a library, and the organization of several 
churches, Pr. Gale removed to Troy in 17S7, where his 
leal in promoting the growth of the village into the city 
was untiring, lie was. at the day of his death, a very 
skillful physician and surgeon, and had a large practice 
both in the village of Troy and around the adjacent country. 
As remarked by a writer. " He was a tall, well-formed, good- 
looking man, — a man in the broadest sense of the word ; 
!•> use the language of an intimate friend, 'Dr. Gale was 
born a gentleman.' : ' 

He died dan. !». 1799, aged fifty-six years, and was buried 
in the old graveyard on the southeast corner of Third and 
Stat.' Streets, from which his remains were removed in 
1 364 to the Gale vault, in Oakwood cemetery. 

A - ii. Samuel Gale, Jr., M.D., was graduated by the 
fir-t medical Bociety of Vermont, May 9, 1792, and was 
licensed to practice medicine in Troy. April 12, 1798. He 
afterwards removed to the W.-t Indie-, where, for a short 
time, he pursued the duties of his profession. On his 
return to Troy, he changed his profession to that of an 
thecary and druggist. Subsequently he was postmaster 
of the village and city of Troy, from the year 1S0-1 to 
1 328 lie died July 21, 1839, aged sixty-sewn. 

JOHN- i.i.i DON, Ml'.. 

on hi- settlement in Troy as d physician and Burgeon, made 
himself known to the public by advertising in the . I nu i 
Spy, published in Lansingburgh, the following card: 

"The subscriber, having finished the Itudicl of physio, surgery, 

and man midwifery nt the Unir* [b, and pr;< 

in Europe " tho inh.-ibil- 


" JoDM Lol 


lii 17'.u the smallpox raged with extreme malignancy 
.- the Uppoi Hudson, and many of the inhabitant 
the villagi ictims of the contagious dis- 

In its treat dI Dr. Gale and Dr. Loudon wen 

intin i. nid both were extra ly successful. 

Dr. John I. Ion's license were granted bim Oct. II. 

17!'7. At the day of his death, which occurred in mid- 
winter. 1- hi- residci n the northeast corner 

Di I. udon had secni 

competency and considerable property from his large prac- 
tice in Troy and vicinity. He was one of the charter- 
officers of the city, and on its incorporation, April 12, 1S1G, 
was assistant alderman, representing the Second Ward. 

was also an early practicing physician of this county. An 
extended sketch of his life will be found among the memoirs 
of the early setters of Troy, in the history of the city, on 
subsequent pages of this work. 

was organized July 1, 1S0G. The minutes of the first 
meeting are as follows : 

"In conformity to an net of tho Legislature of t lie State of New York, 
entitled An Act to Incorporate Medical Societies for the Purpose of 
Regulating the Practice of Physic and Surgery in this State, passed 
April I, 1806, the physicians aud surgeons of the county of Rens- 
selaer, to the number of twenty, viz.: Benjamin Woodward, Aaron 
D. Patehin, Benjamin Rowc, Abner Thurber, .Moses Willard, Asher 
Armstrong. Ely Burritt, I. M. Wells, ll.zekhih Eldiidge, Samuel 
telle, David Glcason, Edward Davis, Alexander Rousseau, U. M. 
Gregory, John Loudon, Sanford Smith, Edward Ostrnnder, David 
Doolittlc, Moses Hale, James H. Ball, convened at the court-house in 
Troy, and proceeded by ballot to elect their officers, when the follow- 
ing gentlemen were declared duly elected : 

"President, Dr. Benjamin Woodward: Vice-President, Dr. John 
London: Treasurer, Dr. Samuel dale: Serr.'tary, I'r. f. M. Wells; 
Censors, Dr. Ely Burritt, Dr. Muses Willard, Dr. Hezckinh Eldi 
Dr. David Doolittlc, Dr. Benjamin Il.ove : Delegate to the Medical 
Society of the State of Xew York, Dr. Moses Willard. 

"Bexjamis Woodward, Secretary pro lent. 

"Tr.iv. July 1, ISnC. 

•• /.' < \ That a committee of five be appointed to draft a code 
of by-laws for the use of the Rensselaer Mcdicul Society, mid that 

Dr. Ely Burritt, Dr. Ilezekiah El.lri.lge, I'r. M - Willard, Dr. M 

Hale, and Dr. Aaron D. Patehin to be the committee. 

"Jteeotved, That the annual meeting of the Rensselaer Mediou 
Society he the first Tuesday of July, and that it he held at the court- 
house in Troy. 

'• Resolved, Thai a tax <>f twenty-five cents bo levied upon .-very 
member for tho use of the sooiety. 

•• /,'. ,,,/,-. ./, Thai the president direct the treasurer to purchase two 
books, one for the use of the secretary, the other for the treasurer. 

. Thai the gentlemen who arc appointed the committee 
to draft a code of by-laws to govern the Medical Society of the county 
of Rensselaer report the same the second Tuesday in January next, 
to whi.'h time this meeting stands adjourned. 

•■ Retained, Thai the adjourned mcoting he held in the court le. use 
i . ji ten o'clock, i.H., the Becond Tuesday of January next 

•■ /.' wived, That the secretary bo directed !■■ publish notice of the 
adjourned meeting in the Xorthern Hndyrt three weeks previous 

" I. M. Wiii -. v , (,,,-,/. 

"Tit.. v. July 1, 1300." 

The records of the 

were burned in 1 320. 
bers i a> far as can be 

•David 1 little. 


Motet Dale. 
i it Collins. 

Pelog It. Allen. 
•Asaph Clark. 
[Stephen J. Brown. 

■fJ'.hn Wl I. r. 

•Irn M. Wells. 

Rensselaer County Medical Society 
The following is the list of mem- 
ascertained) prior to that date: 

John Loudon. 

M s Wilhinl. 

•Aaron D. Patehin. 

I'eiiiiinon Rowe. 
s llc7«'kiah El. 1m 
I'm id CI.- I "II. 


let Tann.r. 
•Samuel McClcllan. 
•Nicholas B. Harris. 

* Dec* 

| Itroi.n.l. 

Photo, by Atkinson, Troy, N. Y. 


Alfred Wotkyns, M.D., was born at Walpole, 
N. H., Sept. 7, 1798. His father was a farmer. 
He was mainly educated by a private tutor, under 
whose charge he was put at the age of thirteen. 

At the age of nineteen he came to Troy, and en- 
tered the office of the late Dr. Moses Hale. In 
1821 he was admitted to the practice of medicine, 
and became a partner of Dr. Hale ; but not long 
afterward, wishing to perfect himself in his profes- 
sion, he removed to Philadelphia, where he read 
medicine one year under the tuition of Dr. Nathan- 
iel Chapman, and attended the lectures of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, of which institution he is a 

He returned to Troy in 1822, and applied for the 
appointment of surgeon in the United States army, 
and received the appointment, though there were 
some three hundred applications for the position. 
He was soon ordered to Natchitoches, La., on the 
Red River, about two hundred miles above New 
Orleans, an extreme frontier post. A subsequent 
order changed his destination to Pensacola, Fla., at 
which post there were then stationed some two thou- 
sand men. Here he remained two years as surgeon, 
when he resigned. 

Returning to Troy, he reopened a physician's office, 
and tor a period of nearly fifty years was a practicing 
physician of that city. 

He has been president of the County Medical 
Society. He was many times a delegate to the State 
Society, of which organization he was a permanent 
member. In 1838, when Troy had but three super- 
visors, Dr. Wotkyns represented the Second District. 
He was one of the originators of the Marshall In- 
firmary, a governor of the institution from its com- 
mencement, and a member of the medical board. 

When the State Bank went into operation, in 1852, 
Dr. Wotkyns was chosen its president, and continued 
as such until January, 1868. The prosperity of this 
banking institution is well known, and it is conceded 
that its success has been largely due to the striking 
financial abilities and great business sagacity of its 

In 1857-58, Dr. Wotkyns was mayor of Troy. 
It will be recalled as the panic year for the whole 
country. City finances were somewhat embarrassed 
throughout, and the aid Mayor Wotkyns furnished, 
in enabling the city to meet all of its obligations on 
the one hand, and to escape the extortion of money- 
lenders on the other, was very considerable, as well 
as very timely. In the discharge of his official duties 
he exhibited his characteristic business satracitv. 

Dr. Alfred Wotkyns died on the 23d of December, 
1876, deeply mourned by his family and friends. 
His life was an eventful one. There was not a 
word of reproach against his character; nothing to 
sully his fair name; nothing to dim the lustre of his 
life, still left shining as a bright example. 

His magnificent person will be long remembered 
in Troy, and many have learned from him, as golden 
rules in business, to be cautious in the inception of 
an enterprise, and prompt and daring in carrying it 

For his first wife he married Mary Williams. Of 
this union were born three children, of whom only 
one survives, viz., Mrs. Dr. W. P. Seymour, of Troy. 
For his second wife he married, in 1850, Eliza, 
daughter of Dr. Isaiah Breakey, of Greenbush, 
N. Y., who died Sept. 11, 1876. His children by 
this marriage are Grace, B. Marshall, Webster, Wal- 
ter L., and Roger S., who have, since the death of 
their parents, removed to Chicago, 111. 



Jul] ii Downs. 
•Simon rfewcome. 

-John Van Xniiiee. 

.1. - II. Ball. 

* Walworth. 

•Emerson Hull. 

Minn- Thurber. 

Charle Cole. 

Benjamin Woodward. 

Theodore M.i\ . 
■ Elj Burritt. 

I i iah M. Gregory. 

* Arnold. 

I 'In C 

■ I li Kingsloy. 

A-her \ini 

3a] \fosos. 

•John S. M ill. i . 
•Jeffrej W. Thomas. 
| Horace Bull. 

Abraham llng.h torn. 
' C. P. Van Ayke. 
— Drake. 

The following is a chronological list of members from 
Jan. 9, 1821, to 1880: 

Graduate of JR at0 "' 


.Lie. Medical Soeiotj State of Vn 1821, 

. " Rensselaer Count; Med. Society. .182 1. 

. " Dutchess County Med. Society.. ..1821. 

. " Jos. C. Yates, Mas. in Chan... 1821. 

. " Hebron Medical Sociel v. Conn.... 1821. 

" Me Ucal Society Stnte of X. V 1821. 

•' ....1821. 
Rensselaer County Mel. Society ..1821. 

" " " ' " " ..1822. 

" Albany County Medical Society ..Isl'l'. 

•• Rensselaer County Med. Society.. 1822. 

•• Montgomery County Med. Society.1822. 

•' Medical Society State of X. Y.....1823. 

Yale Colle 


[ Archibald lloliertson 

I Matthew M Ij 

I i';i Vail 

•John Ta\ lor 

I Blijuh Graves 

•Alfred Wotkyns 

tCornelius \V illinms... 

•John «'la|i|i 

Ezekicl linker 

fO. E. Lansing 

fKufus S. Waiic 

- ii I), Basset! 

1 Elisha Sheldon 

' /.'lias I !arv 

fjacoh S. Miller.. 
■■■T. C. Brinsuiadc.. 

"f Norton 

fAbram D.Sporr 

Wass .......'.'!!!! 

■fCkarles E. Burrows Castleton Medical School 

• II. P. Van Dyke Lie. Columbia County Med. Society.. ..1S25. 

fDnniel Haines " •• •< •• •• ' 1825* 

►Charles II. Gregory !!.!l825! 

(Joseph Koon Lie. Albany County Medical Society... 1825] 

gjB. S. Kimberles " Rensselaei Co Medical Society.... 182s! 

I / : i hariah Lynn .1826 

fSimeon A. Cook 189r' 

Hiram .Moses 

t Alexander 11. Day 

1'. S. Westcrvelt.... ].]" 

f Martin Mason... 

John Squire -# 

-.lames Langworthy 

ICharles Hale .....!!!!!!!!!!!!! 

'< \. Streeter Berkshire School of Medicine.... 

■P. M. Armstrong " " 

►Avery.I. Skilton... 
KJoseph W. Freiot. 

tWin. P. Porter University of Vermont. 

I . Hi own 
















.Li.-. Medical Society Stat.- of Conn ls-_>s. 

Regents' University Sta'eof N. V..1sl's. 



•J. II. Carpenter Berkshire School of Medicine 1828. 

tAlexanchr Burritt Li.-. Medical Society Slat.- of X. V I82s! 

•l-aiah Beaky •• Rensselaer County Med. Society.,1828! 

I Frederick B. Leonard. ..Yale College ....1828! 

•Lorenzo Streeter 1829* 

tWillinm Anderson Edinburgh College of Surgeons. 1829 

•Lansing Mather Yale College !]ls]]".i] 

C. S.J.Goodrich Berkshire School of Medicine 1S29! 

tDavid Elliot Lie. Herkimer County Med. Society.. .1829! 

1 1'. W. Blatchford University of New York 1829! 

fJohn K. Palmer Berkshire School of Medicine I82!l! 

•John Van Buren Lie. Rensselaer Comity Med. Soeiel v... I S2!l! 

•Joseph K. Elmore .1829 

t.Matth.-n-Tnrek Berkshire School of Medicine.!!. !.!!!!!!]83t)! 

fMclzer Flagg Bowdoin Medical College !]]]]) s:;n 

tBenjamin Gates Lie. Saratoga County Med. Society..]]] I s:;n' 

fJoshua B. Graves Vermont Academy of Medicine... 1830"! 

JGeorge Sampson Lie. Clinton County Med. Society. !]]]]]l v.n 

tSamucl Russell •< Censors Stato of New York. |83o" 

fOrren Goodrich " Berkshire School of Medicine 1830 

J '■ Brigham " Rensselaer County Med. Society..l831. 

.'"'".i "> A. Rousseau.. College of Physicians nnd Surgeons. ..1831. 

tjliram Wotkyns Lie Medical Society State of X. V.. 1831* 

TF. A. Carpenter Berkshire School of Medicine !!.183l! 

Rr. C. Schermerhorn " " " ...|s:;i 

•>■ S. Van Alstyne Lie. Herkimer County Mel. Society!" 183 1 

Bostwick , ] V;1 

!•'• v - w - Abbott Castleton Academy of Medicine.. .]]]]]. I s:;l'] 

."• ,"■ Hll ° Lie. Rensselaer County Med. Society, is::-' 

TL S. Kilbourn •' " • < <i u ' | S:; ., 

'Piatt Burton Berkshire School of Mcdiein- ..1882! 



f Removed. 

X Expelled. 


I Lee II. Ma\on 

i 1 1 <-ii i \ Brown.. 

I Vlonzo ii. Hull 

■ I mi'- I horn 

Hoi ace n "i 

l-lo.'l ti. (hinder 

•John Wright 

-I. II. Xeuland 

rtichu rd S. Bryo n 

•John II. Ila\ in - 

i Da i I Wheeler 

Bonjamin Judson.. 

Luther II Bat bei .... 

fPhilip T. Heart! 

fAnson Owen Hard... 
Hi in v Lane, 

•Joseph Nelson 

fCharlea Smith 

* Eber F. Crandnll .... 

f Andrew C. (Jetty 

•George II. 1 1 regory.. 
*\V illiain .1 . JTouug..., 

•John II illnian 

t"R. G. Buck ingba m... 
•G. 11. Van Wagenan 
fThomas Browning.... 

•James Christie 

tA. Vide 

*S. Z. Henry 

fThomas T. Wells 

t-l. W. Richards 

fMyron Knowton 

•Charles S. Tu iss 

■-lames |,. Henry 

•Richard Bloss... 

■Moses Frownell 

fWilliam H. Rhodes... 

John Warren 

fRowland Thomas 

fJoel C. Crocker 

•William Johnson 

fGeorge Hill 

fCyrus Bachus 

fJ. 0. Cohl, 

Loirs C. Wheeler 

■-Salmon Moses 

S. A. Boughton 

fLewis McKnight 

D. Bryan Laker 

•John E. .May 

fStephen Wickes 

William L. Cooper 

-j-E. S. Buswell 

»C. V. W. Burton 

William ?. Seymour... 

■■1 'ha I les I 'onk 

Reed I! Bontecue 

•P. II. Thomas 

fJohn Salter 

Charles Freiot 

t Austin 

A. D. Hull 

•Benjamin F. La n ton.. 

Daniel D. Bucklin 

t I.egler 

E W. Cnrmiehael 

* l'a vler Lewis 

•Thomas W. Clark 

W. Hiscock 

.VI. II. Burt,,,, 

f i leorge Oliver 

C. L. Hubboll 

f Henry Palmer 

fjuliu's A. Skilton 

•II. L. Bullions 

Henry B. Whiton 

f.John Know Isou 

F. B. Parm'ele 

I.e Roy McLean 

Alexander 11. Hull 

* \. II. Ben, diet 

Washington Akin 

fJohn B. Gregory 

■■■Charles Brow nel] 

Mahlon Felter 

E. Butts 

\\ illiain S. I looper 

fll. c. Carrington 

f Coo. Inch 

B. Ilalstel Ward 

William X. Boiie.-teel.... 

Date ol 

I.i .1:1- lo Iilun I ontral Med 

" Renssclai 

" Medical - . 1833. 

Roj il ' ' 

Li'-- Ii- n ■ " r County Med. Sooiotj I 

Sfnle Collogi ...1834. 

" " 

University ot Vermont i s;;;, 

... Mid die I. in y College 1836. 

Li--. Medical Society Stateof X. V Is:;;. 

Vale College 

William- College .'.'.!.]]]] I s::r] 

Lie. Rena elai i I ounl y Med loicl 1 ^::7. 

Castleton Academj of Medicine ...".1837. 

\ ermon i " " 1837. 

....Lie Ri n I i. i County M,-d. Society I 

■••• " ' 

" Dutchess " " " ..1838. 

....Williams College 1838. 

----Lie. Medical 5o ietj State of X. V : 

....Williams College | 

.... Vermont Academy of .Medicine |s:;s. 

....Herkimer Co Col. Phys. and 

. Lie. Rensselaer County M,-.| Socii ty..l 

....Vale College ...1839. 

....Castleton Academy of Medicine 1 s;;;i 

" ' •' i 

....Berkshire School of Medicine. I 

....Lie. Rensselaer County Med. Society.. 1841. 

....Dartmouth College ....1841. 

....Lie. Rensselaer County .Med. Soeiety.,1841. 

....Berkshire School of Medicine ....1841. 

....Bowdoin College 1841. 

....Berkshire School of Medicine 1841. 

....Fairfield Medical Institute 1841. 

" 1st]] 

...Lie. Medical Society State of .M iss im;, 

■•■• " Ontario County Vied. Society |s|_- 

• 1842. 


...Lie. .Medical Society State of Conn I S-|J. 

...Castleton Academy of Medicine 1843. 

...Philadelphia Medical Universitj 1 843. 

... Albany .Me Meal College .' is i \ 

...Woo Istock Medical Institute ...184 I. 

...Lie. Rensselaer County Med. Society..l847. 

...Albany .Medical College is is. 

...Castleton Academy of Medicine 1849, 

I sci. 

...Lie. Censors State of Xew Vork I860. 

.. " Saratoga County Vied. Society 1850. 

.. Albany Medical ' '"Ili-ire... 
..University ot Xew York.. 
..Albany Medical College 

Berkshire School of Medicine.. 
.Albany Medical College 



..Lie. Rensselaer County Med. Society..l 853. 

..University of Xew York ....1853. 

..Castleton Academy of Medicine |s;,::. 

..Albany .Medical College 1854. 

Is., |. 


..I v,-,. 



- " " " Is.,;. 

- " " " 1S..S. 

.CastVon Academy of Medicine I s.,o 

..Albany Medical College 1859. 

• " " " ~ 


.AM v Medical College 1860. 

• " " " l-r,|. 

.College of Physicians and Surgeons....l86I. 
.Albany Medical College 

.College of Physicians and Surgeons.... i m; t. 

AH'.ili'. Mr deal College 1864. 

I >ei eased 

f IL lino il 



Gradunto of 

Phi- ..r 

I . B. Boycc 1864. 

Joseph 1'. I. "in. ' x 1864. 

C. A. M inship Ubnny Medical College 181 I. 

,m II. Camp Bork«hire School of Medicine 1864. 

Davis " " •' 1865. 

Col. of Physicians and Snrgs., N. Y....1S65. 

M Hubbard Vormonl Medical College 1866. 

Ben - ' itlin Volo College IS66. 

+E. 17. Vnndcrwarkcr Mbany Medical College 1 ^ < . * *. _ 

Charles U. Burbeck " " " 1867. 

fFrai bio 1 ' 

■ II. in y Venae I 

T. 11. Uoinstrccl Col. of Physicians and Snrgs., N. Y...1867. 

rge II. Mannion University <>t" Pennsylvania 1 v '7. 

II. 'in i lomlorfr .' 1867. 

fAlbcrl S. Ncwcoiub Ubany Medical College 1867. 

J.C. Hutchinson Col. ol Physicians and Surgs., N. Y...1 

.Linn'- M. Shaffer University of Ncfl Y.>rk IS68. 

Henry Q. Adams .Jefferson Medical College 1868. 

J.C, Hutobinson Col. ->t" Physicians and Surgs., N. Y... 1 sr.s, 

\m,.- All. n Pittsfiold Medical Collogc 

•C. I,. P. Giroux Mcgill College 1869. 

II. \ Vlbany Medical College 1869. 

n T. Luck College "t Physicians and Surgeons.... 1869. 

\v. li. Hull Albany Mcdicnl College I 

James I.. Hogcboom Lie. Rensselaer Count) Med. Society... 1869. 

Junes McChi snoy ' !nstleton, Vermont 1S69. 

Edward Yates foBcrson Medical College IS70. 

tj. G. Laviolctlc Victoria University 1876. 

- Allen Albany Medical College 1876. 

I. Wcntworlh.... " " 1871. 

•P.J.C.W. Golding King's College, London 187 

iu T.Boynos llbany Medical Collcgu 187 

I'.. Mcrrcll Bishop University of Now York 187 

ft. II. Greene Dartmouth College 187 

/.. Rousseau Laval University 187 

B.J. l"i-k Albany Medical College is: 

R. D. Tnivcr Bellovuo Medical Colli ge 1-7 

li.iui.-l Magce Dartmouth College 1ST 

Frederick Halves Bellevuc Medical College Is? 

Albany Medical College 187 

Bu kl ii Bellevuc Medical College 1S7 

Nichols University Vt., and Bcllovuej N. V....187 

- Iiuvl.r Albany Medical College 1S7 

t.M. .1. Davis " " " 187 

JC. I 1 . Becker Long Island Medical College 1ST 

I!. W. Capron Ubany Medical College..... 187 

I . II. Davis " " " " 187 

James Warwick " - " 1-7 

John 1'. Prendorgaal " " " 1878. 

A. I!. Willi- • " " 1878. 

.1. A. Thompson University of Miohignn 1878. 

S. A. Skinner University nf Vermont 1878. 

II. Nichols lib Medical College 1878. 

I., 1'. I Bellevuc Medical College 1879. 

Caroline S. Pease Woman's Medical College, Pa 1879, 

I'. II. Nchcr Mbany Medical College 187 

1'. .1. Timmini Georgetown University 

J. II. Cippcrly University "i New York 




The following is a list nf tin- active members in 1^7:i : 

Amos Allen. 

Wm. N 

R, B. Bonti 

I' I. Bncklin. 
Charles 11. Burbeck. 
M. II. Burl 
Klibu I 
V. II. ' 

B. W. Capron. 
K. W. I 

.1. II. Clpparly. 
I II l' 
M. .i. i 


II. Gn ulcndorff. 


T. B. Hemstri et. 
D. w. Hiucox. 

I., tluhboll. 
W. II. Mull. 
.1. C, Hutchison, 
J. I'. Lomax, 
Daniel Magco. 
Jami - Mol Ii''-m>v. 
Li R ■■ MoLcon, 

l . Morris. 
I'. II. ti 
C. B. Ntebola. 
Wm. II. Nichols. 
I". B. Parmelo. 
Carolini - I 
.1. 1'. I'rrtnlrrgnM. 


i I Johuj I'-r. 

w. r. Seymour. 

S, \. Skinnor. 
r i . -i John. 

* Raaioi o l. 

J. A. Thompson. 
1'. .1. Timmins. 
R. ]>. Trover. 
Harry Van Wcri. 
It. II. Ward. 

James Warwick. 
Lewis i'. Wheeler. 
II. B. Whiton. 
C. A. Winship. 

A. IS. Willis. 

Thr annual meetings of the Rensselaer County Medical 
Society are held on the second Tuesday in January, and 
the stated meetings on the seeond Tuesday of each month. 

The following are the officers I'm- 1ST!) : President, V. B. 
Parmele; Vice-President, J. D. Lomax ; Secretary, C. C. 
Schuyler; Treasurer, I'. E. Nichols; Censors, Le Roy 
McLean, 10. YV. Canniehael, Robert Thomson, M. II. Bur- 
ton, Win. T. Baynes; Delegates to State Medical Society, 
R. D. Travcr, William S. Cooper, Charles II. Burbeck ; 
Committee on Hygiene, C. II. Burbeck, II. Van Wert, 
George Rice, C. S. Allen, D. D. Bucklin. E. W. Capron. 


The following are the dates of the licenses of some of 
the early physicians of Troy and vicinity: Dr. James II. 
Ball, Oct. 2, 171)7; Dr. David Doolittle, Oct. 13, 1707; 
Dr. Michael Henry, Oct. 17. 1797; Dr. Edward Ostrander, 
Jan. 13, 1798: Dr. Abner Armstrong, May 27. 1800; Dr. 
David Gleason, July 15, 1800; Dr. Ely Burritt, March 
29, 1802; Dr, Benjamin Woodward. Dee. 11, 1802; Dr. 
Abner Thurber, Dee. 17, 1803; Dr. Rufus A. Burritt, 
April 21,1806; Dr. Simeon Z. Henry, April 3, 1815; 
Dr. Henry J. Ross, Sept. 25, 1S1G ; Dr. Amatus Robbing, 
Jan. 9, 1818. 

The following are some of the fees adopted by the mem- 
bers of the society soon after its organization: 

A consultation visit 

First visit in general practice 

Every subsequent vi.-ii 

A visit after ten o'clock ;it night and bofon 


A visii tu tin- country, one mile 

Verbal advice 

Bli cding in ' tu* in- in 

Bleeding in the foot 

Bleeding in the jugular vein 

Bleeding in tin- temporal artery 

Extracting t<">ili in shop 

Extracting, with :i visit 

Cupping and scarifying 

Ordinary cases in midwifery 

Extraordinary cases in midwifery 

I : . : i ■ i ^r for kino or smallpox 

Ointments nnd liniments, from two drams to 

Miir ounce 

prescribed in powder "r 


Evory Bingle draught, in phial 

All compositions in which musk, oil of cinnamon, or 
other high-priced articles wi re ingredients, were exceptional 
in price. 

MOSES n Ml-. M.D., 

.ii the time of his death, wa> deemed the " Nestor" of his 
profession. It was said that he was more generally known 
in the place than any other man on account of his reputa- 
tion as a surgeon, ami that in "all important surgical i 
was, if ii"' 'In' 'ii-' i" I"' call) d upon, sure to be the last.' 
II.' was born June 12, 1780. II.' began the study Ol 
medicine with Dr. Josiah Kitridge, of Walpole, N. II. I" 
Ordei t ake himself more proficienl as a student of anat- 
omy ami surgery, he became a pupil of the celebrated Dr, 
Nathan Smith. In 180J he came to Troy, and, having "I- 

$4.00 to flu.uu 



2.00 to 


1.00 to 


. .H i., 


.50 i.i 

1 .00 

1.00 to 





1.00 to 


6.00 in 


l.i. Uli n, 


2 mi 

.25 in 


.:';. t.. 





rained his license July 12th of that year, began practicing 
in the village. 

In 1818 he, with Prof. Amos Eaton and Dr. Ira M. 
Wells, of Troy, perfected the incorporation of the Troy 
Lyceum of Natural History. At the first meeting of the 
association, Nov. 9, ISIS, he was chosen, with Dr. 1. M. 
Wells and Dr. Ainatus Robbins, a curator. The Hon. 
[saac McConihe, in an address on his life and services be- 
fore the lyceuiu, said, '-This was a positi I' great labor, 

requiring the greatest knowledge of science to superintend 
and preserve all the property, arrange in cases, name scien- 
tifically, and enter into proper books all inincralogical, bo- 
tanical, and other specimens. Dr. Hale was the first to 
make a report, and the first who made a donation to the 
Lyceum of Natural History. Hardly a year elapsed from 
the commencement before it numbered among its members 
(.nine of the most celebrated men now in the country, and 
the publication of its transactions were commented on and 
printed from one end of the country to the other. This 
was the first society of the kind in this country. The 
celebrity of this one brought into existence a thousand 
others." Dr. Hale was one of the most ardent of its mem- 
bers and supporters, and at his death was its vice-president. 
Several of his essays on scientific subjects are to be found 
in the transactions of the society published in the Plough- 
hoy, a paper printed in Albany, at that time under the able 
Management of Solomon Southvvick. 

Dr. Hale was deeply interested in the establishment in 
1 821 of the " Rensselaer School" (now the Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute i, and was its secretary at the time of his 

Several times he was elected president of the Rensselaer 
Medical Society, and was frequently sent as a delegate to 
the State Medical Society, meeting in Albany. In 1830 
he was elected a permanent member of the latter body. 
The University of Vermont conferred upon him the hon- 
orary degree of M.D. in 1825, and in the same year he 
was elected a corresponding member of the French Society 
of Natural History, of which Baron Cuvier was president. 
" In his disposition," it is said, " Dr. Hale was emi- 
nently social and generous. He attached no value to money 
for itself, but gave it freely with his services to all who 
were in want. His dress was simple, his manners dignified 
and courteous, and in his treatment of his patients cheerful 
and decided. His style of living was plain, with the ex- 
ception of his table, where he gratified a somewhat epicu- 
rean taste." 

Dr. Hale suffered for many years from an aneurism of 
the aorta and hypertrophy of the heart, from which ho 
died suddenly on Jan. 3, 1837. 


was educated at Williams College, and studied medicine 
with Dr. Ely Burritt, an old and eminent physician of 
Troy. Dr. Robbins received his license June 9, 1818. 
After Dr. Burritt's death lie succeeded him in his practice 
and married his daughter, who soon followed her father to 
the grave and left her husband desolate, — a stroke, it is 
siid, from which he never recovered. He died June 15, 
1854. He was said to have been " a gcntlcmau of the old 

school, refined in manners, dignified and reserved in hie 
portment, without asceticism, lie enjoj d n mo I elect 


was burn July 2o, 179 1, in Topsham, Devonshire, Eng- 
land. His father removed t" the United Stat - and sub- 
sequently, in lsti I, took charge of the united congi 
dl' Presbyterians of Lansingburgh and Waterford, X. Y. 
In 1812 he attended medical lectures in the '-New Insti 
tution," New York, of which Dr. Nicholas Romeyn was 
president. In November, 1813, he matriculated at the 

" College of Physicians and Surgeons," and in 181 I he was 
appointed resident physician of the New York State pri on 
in Greenwich. In 1815 he visited Europe, and while 
there he attended in London two courses of medical lec- 
tures at the United Schools of Guy's and St. Thomas's 
hospitals, given by Sir Astley Cooper and Professor dine. 
In 1816 he returned to New York, where he graduated at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1817. After 
practicing for some time in New York, he removed to 
Jamaica, L. I., where he practiced for nine years. After 
the death of his lather he removed to Troy in May, 1828. 
When he first came to Troy, he was not as successful as 
was expected by those who induced his coming, as the best 
practice of the city was monopolized by three or four pop- 
ular physicians. 

It is said that he even thought of returning to his former 
home on Long Island. He soon, however, entered upon 
an extensive and lucrative practice, and became known in 
the profession as one skilled in diagnosis, and whose counsel 
was sought after by the younger physicians of his day. 

His habits of early rising, industry, and methodical ar- 
rangement of his daily duties permitted him to accomplish 
a great amount of work in his lifetime. He was much 
interested, while he lived, with the affairs of the Marshall 
Infirmary. The lunatic asylum connected with this institu- 
tion was originated by him. At his death he left his 
medical library of over six hundred volumes to the in- 
firmary, and which gift is now known as " the Blatchford 
Medical Library of the Marshall Infirmary." 

He was for seven years connected with the board of edu- 
cation of this city, and, with the exception of seventeen 
mouths of that time, was its presiding officer. In 18G2 the 
Fourth Ward school was named the " Blatchford School," in 
honor of his eminent services in the cause of public educa- 
tion in this city. He was also for several years a trustee of 
the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and of the Troy Fe- 
male Seminary. In 1828 he became a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, and in 1839 was ordained a ruling 
elder, which position he held to the end of his life. The 
following incident is related of his habitual attendance on 
religious services on Sunday : 

" A physician of Troy, a member of one of the churches, wasadmon- 
ished by the authorities of his church for his uniform absence from 
public worship. He excused himself upon the ground of professional 
duty. He was asked why it was that Dr. Blatchford could almost 
always attend church, and he almost never. He replied that he 
oould not understand it. for he kuew that his practice was not as 
large as that of Dr. Blatcoford's. He was accordingly advised to 
call on the doctor and learn his secret. He did so ; and upon stating 
the object of his call, Dr. IS. sail to him, "You always attend your 


history of uexssplaer county, new york. 

:t:»ii..i]-. don'l you, Vnd you aim to bo always punctual 

ir appointments, don'l you " " ' ■ 1 « yes," ho replied. " V ell," 
It. Blalchford, " I have a consultation «itli my Divine Master 
nt ten o'clock every Sabbath morning, and I make all my nrra 
to ni' t-i my appointment." 

I>r. Blntchford was the author of a number of excellently 
prepared papers and essays: "Inaugural Dissertation on 

I gned Diseases," 1-17; " Letter on Corsets," 1823; 
■■ Letters to Married Ladies," 1825; " Homoeopathy lllus- 
trated," 1842; " Equivocal Generation," 1844; " [naugural 
Address before the Medical Society of the State of N< w 
York ." •• Two Cases of Hydrophobia," 1854 ; " Report on 
Hydrophobia," L856; by which he was made extensively 
and favorably known to the profession, not only in tliis 
country, but also in Europe; and " Rcporl on It. >t and 
the Abolition of Pain as Curative Remedies," 1856. 

II died of typhoid pneumonia, Jan. V. 18b'G, and was 
buried in Oakw 1 c 


an old Troy physician, was well known and liad a large 
practice. From 1822 to 1823 be studied medicine with 
l>r. Christopher C. Kierstcd, of Saugerties, N. Y.\ also 
with Dr. William C. DeWitt of the town of Catskill, 
■ , ie I ".. and al.-o with Dr. Conant Catlin, at Bethlehem. 

II passed an examination before the Connecticut State 
M licul Society, and was licensed March 9, 1S27. In 
1828 he became a member of the Rensselaer Medical So- 

Pr. Viele, in bis interesting reminiscences of pro- 
fessional life during the last forty years in Troy and vicinity, 
read at a banquet of the Rensselaer County Medical Society 
in January, 1879, says, "He was a man of unyielding 
energy and perseverance. He was foud of science, displayed 
a taste for conchotomy, and hud a very large collection of 
shells and marine Bpi cimi as. In his profession he was in- 
defatigable, ami bis ideas of benevolence to the sick ex- 

ption that I had ever formed of the mcan- 

ing of the word. He refused ne, and 1 presume his 

practice was the most varied and extensive of any of his 
i : formed more work, received more blame 

and less money than any other physician, and when smitten 
on the left cl k he Would turn the right one." 

T1I"M \- 0. BRIN8MADE, Ml'.. 

another prominent physician of Troy who honored his pro- 
ion with "good works," was born June ]i;. 1802, al 
Hartford, Conn. He studied medicine with I' i' 
ol New Marlb ro', Mass .and in March. 1823, was licensed 

a practicing physician by the •'• cticut State Medical 

In ]-.'■'.' the honorary tl of M.D. was con- 

ferred on him by Yale College. In the latter part of I 
he removed to Lansingburgb, and after ten years' practice 
in that village remo d : Troy. Dr Brinsmade maybe 
■ life-long student of medicine and hy- 
II ndustriouslj applied himself in getting knowl- 
ih from men and books, which would be useful t" 
bim in the duties of his profession. 

\- - iid by hit before thi Rei I louuty 

M ■ :.• i - 1 1 ticcd medicine with o sim:! 

of purpose nevci ircfully cultival de- 

partment of the profession, avoiding all tendency to special 
practice, and yet was the trusted counselor of those whose 
tastes led them to cultivate special branches, lie would 
I"- one hour discussing surgical pathology and the propriety 
of an operation; the next, perhaps, equally engrossed in 
grave questions of ^vumcolo^v. on each occasion the asso- 
ciate of men devoted to these specialties. In breadth of 
professional capacity it is safe to say l>r. Brinsmade had 
few, if any. superiors in the profession." 

As a local physician, he was a sedulous observer and 
investigator of diseases special to this vicinity. In the 
irds of bis private practice he has left invaluable data 
for reference and practical application. 

For thirty-five years Dr. Brinsmade made Troy the field 
of bis successful practice, and endeared himself to thousands 
of families who bad secured him as their physician during 
his life in the city. He was always kindly interested in the 
professional career of bis companions in practice. His mem- 
ory is hallowed in the hearts of all who knew him. 

In January, 1S24, he became a member of the Rensselaer 
Medical Society, and in 184S was elected its president, 
serving two years. On bis retiring from tins office in 1850 
he delivered an elaborate address on the medical topography 
of the city of Troy. This address was published in the 
"Transactions'' of the State Medical Society for 1851. In 
1844 he was sent by the Rensselaer Society as a delegate 
to the State Medical Society, serving four years, and in 
1S50 was elected a permanent member of that society, 
after which time he took a prominent part in its proceed- 
ings. In 1 S 5 7 be was elected its vice-president, and the 
following year president. In 1S58, as vice president, he 
delivered an address on the registration of diseases, and 
furnished the society with an accurate record of his prac- 
tice for twenty-one years, carefully analyzed and tabulated, 
covering three hundred pages of the published transactions, 
and comprising statistics ,,f thirty-seven thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-two cases. In 1SG0 he presented 
another paper on the registration of diseases, including 
statistics of two thousand and fifty-six cases treated in 1858 
and 1859. 

lie was a number of years health officer of Troy, and 
chairman of the Hoard of Health. At a very early dati 
became a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, ami 
was for many years a vestryman of St. Paul's Church, and 
at the tin f his death was filling the office of junior war- 
den, lie was al.-o a trustee of the Rensselai r Polytechnio 
[nstitutc for twenty years, and contributed to ii much time 
and material aid. From 18G5 to 18G8 he was ils vi.e- 

president, and in the latter year was elected its president. 

While attending a meeting in the Athenaeum building, 
on First Street, on the evening of June 22. 1868,convi 
io raise funds for the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and 
while reading an important paper, be passed into eternity. 
Tie post- Item examination showed that the cause of 

death was heart-disease, of which he bad had for years a 
well-grounded apprehension. 

(In the 20th of July. 1802, I..' was born at ColchcstOT, 

England. lie graduated at the Royal College of Surgeons, 


1 II 

London, Aug. ti, 1824. After practicing in England, lie 
oame in the United States and made his home in Troy, 

As said by his biographer, " His professional life in 

Tiny was, until the insidious beginning of his fatal sick- 
ness, an eminent success. For more than :i quarter of a 
century he carried the responsibilities of a large and im- 
portant family practice in the city, and al the sunn' time so 
far excelled in surgery as to stand much of the time with- 
out a rival in that specialty, performing during many years 
the most important surgical operations of the city. Dr. 
thorn's fondness for publicity and his ureal personal popu- 
larity naturally led him into polities, and gave him success 
in that field. Besides minor offices, lie twice occupied the 
position of mayor of the city, having been elected in 1862, 
and again in 1864. His terms of ollice were full of more 
than ordinary labor and responsibility. The payment of 
bounties for soldiers during the early years of the war, and 
the relief often needed by the families of volunteers, made 
it his duty to control the handling of large sums of money, 
and the great tire of May 10, 1862, naturally placed him 
at the head of the committee for distributing relief to hun- 
dreds of impoverished families ; yet no one found him guilty 
of selfishness or partiality, and no one believed that he was 
richer after his term of office." 

During the last ten or twelve years of his life he became 
gradually helpless, physically and mentally, and previous to 
his death he sought the care of the attendants of the Mar- 
shall Infirmary, where he died Nov. 27, 1876. 


Prominent in the allopathic practice of the city was Dr. 
Alfred Wotkyns, a sketch and portrait of whom will be 
found elsewhere in this work. As said by Dr. Augustus 
Viele, in his address before the Rensselaer Medical Society, 
" Dr. Wotkyns was the Chesterfield of the profession, but in 
no sense a ' Beau Brummel.' With a mind clear and com- 
prehensive, he was enabled to discharge the threefold posi- 
tion of an honorable physician, a successful financier, and 
a chief executive officer of the city." 


of Lansingburgh, died at that place Jan. 19, 1876, aged 
fifty-three. He was born at Hopkinton, N. II., June 8, 
1821). He studied medicine under the direction of Dr. 
Diamined Davis, of Sutton, N. H., and graduated in June, 
1845, at Vermont Medical College. From that time to 
184'.) he practiced at Bradford, N. H. ; from 1852-.").") at 
East Washington, N. II., where he represented that place 
in the State Legislature. From 1853-59 he was editor of 
the New Hampshire Journal of Medicine. In 1861 he 
was commissioned surgeon to the 2d New Hampshire Vol- 
unteers. He remained in the army until the close of the 
war, having held many important positions in the medical 
department of the army. In 1868 the honorary degree of 
master of arts was conferred upon him by Dartmouth 

The cause of death was a serious cut on the left knee' 
which he received from a fall in getting out of a horse-car. 
Iuflainrnation and blood-poisoning followed. He died in 

tb«' lull vigor of his manhood, beloved by all who knew 
him, and respected and honored bj the profession. 

Among those who have become prominent in the pro- 
fession, and who are still living, maj In- mentioned the 

following : 


was born in Williamstown, Mass., Sept. 16, L827. He 
graduated from Williams in tin- class of 1 846, and from 
Berkshire .Medical College in 1848. lb- fir>t settled in 
Williamstown, but subsequently removed to Troy, in L854, 
where he entered into general practice. 

He is a member of the Berkshire Count) Medical, the 
Massachusetts Stale Medical, and the Rensselaer County 

Medical Societies; was president of the 1 liter in 1874. 

He is the author of a pamphlet on " Medical Examina- 
tions for Idle Insurance," and other articles on medical 
subjects. He was attending physician and surgeon for 
seven years to the Troy Hospital ; also for eight years post- 
surgeon to Watervliet Arsenal ; is now one of the attend- 
ing physicians and surgeons to the Marshall Infirmary. 
He served during the war as surgeon to the Black Horse 
Cavalry, and, after they had disbanded, to the 12th New 
York Volunteers. 

In September, 1S52, he married Juliette E., daughter of 
Gersham T. Bulkley, Esq., of Monroe, Mich. She died 
in June. 1876. 


was born at Troy, N. Y., April 22, 1824. He was edu- 
cated at the High School Academy and Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute of Troy ; graduated M.D. from the Castle- 
ton Medical College, Vt., in 1847, when he entered into 
practice with his preceptor, Dr. Thomas C. Brinsmade, and 
has always resided in his native city. He is the author of 
many papers on subjects pertaining to his profession ; is 
a member of the County Medical Society, permanent 
member of the New York State Medical Society and the 
American Medical Association. 

He entered the United States army in 1861 as surgeon, 
and remained in active service until the close of the war. 
holding many positions of honor and trust. He was brev- 
eted lieutenant-colonel and colonel of volunteers in March, 
1865, for faithful and meritorious services during the war. 
He was married July 18, 1849, to Susan Northrop. 


graduated A.B. from Williams College in 1845, and M.D. 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1848. He was 
professor of materia medica, obstetrics, and gynaecology in 
Berkshire Medical College, and of obstetrics and diseases • 
of women in the Albany Medical College. He is a mem- 
ber of the Rensselaer County Medical Society, of the New 
York State Medical Society, and of the American Medical 


was born in Lee, Mass., Sept. 24, 1827, graduated at Union 
College in 1851, and at Albany Medical College in L854, 
He settled at Elmira, N. Y., but in 1856 removed to Troy, 



in which city ho has since remai I. He is a member of 

tin- i; •■-- laei C unty Medical Society, has held all the 
offices therein; permanent member of the New York State 
Medical Society; is one of the curator.- of the Albany 

Medical Society. Has I n for the past eight years one of 

tin- attending physicians to the Marshall [nfirmary. His 
service in the army as surgeon continued over a period of 
lour 3 


was born in Albany, March 16, 1833. He graduated from 

the Albany Medical Collect' in l^.V). ami located in Troy. 

Hi is a member of the Rensselaer County Medical Societj 
was its president in 1870, is a permanent member of the 

Zork State Medical Society ami the American 

Medical Association. He was for fifteen years attending 
physician and Burgeon to Troy hospital ; was coroner dur- 
ing l s "» -"''' I'll, and lor nine years past lias been health 
officer of the city of Troy. He is surgeon of 3d Division 
National Guard, State of New York. In June, 1S5S, he 
married Frances L., daughter of Anthony Sciler, of Troy. 


was born at Jackson, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1831. He was edu- 
cate! at the Washington Academy. Salem, N. Y.. and at 
the Onion Village Academy. Greenwich. N. Y.. and grad- 
uated M.D., in 1S55, from the Albany Medical College. 
From that year until 186] he was resident medical super- 
intendent of the Mar-hall Infirmary. Troy, and in 1S04 

comme d the practice of medicine in this city, turning 

hi> attention almost exclusively to surgery. 

1I-- is a member of the Rensselaer Couniy Medical So- 
ciety, of the New York State Medical Society, and the 
American Medic il \ --" iation. 

II entered the army in lSi'il as a surgeon, and served 
until 1864, having been during his term of service pro- 
moted to positions of trust tn 1867 he was appointed sur- 
1 Division, National Guard, New York State, 
with the rank of colonel, which position he held until 1877, 
when he tendered his resignation, lie is now attending- 
Burgeon to the Troy hospital, — a position to which he was 
appoint) d in 

JOSEPH D. LOU \\. U D . 

Inim in England, April I. 1829. He came to this 

country in 1832, and after completing his education was 

for some yeai I as teacher in a private classical 

II studied medicine in the College of Physicians 

ami Snt _ '■ York, graduating therefrom in IS 

i serving lor sixteen months in the hospital of the col- 

ik City, he removed to Troy in L863, 

and i Tier appointed medical superintendent of the 

hall Infirmary,— a position he Still holds. He i- a 

member of thi B n laer County Medical Society, and 
New York State Medical Society, ami various scientific 
u- in the city. In 1864 he married Isabella, 
daughter of James Mm. of Troy. 

-'■mi "Tin I! y Mil v PBY8H LANS. 

Up to 1812, !'■ Mcller D G Easl 

•i i Di Ball ol North Nassau, had represented 

the medical profession in Nassau. Just before that time 
Dr. Rowe had died in early manhood in Schodack. Then 
Dr. Samuel MeClellan, upon the decease of Dr. Rowe, 
settled in Schodack, at first boarding in the family of Mr. 
Elmendorph, at the house formerly occupied by Mr. P. 
Frishenger, piano-manufacturer. In 1815, however, he 
removed near to Nassau village, where he remained until 
his death. About the same time Dr. John Miller cotn- 
menced practice at East Gfreenbush, and Dr. Mellon, re- 
moving to Hudson, was succeeded at Nassau by Dr. Ebe- 
nezer D. Barsett. Not many years later Dr. Harris 
commenced his practice in South Sand Lake, and Dr. 
1 1 raves in Stephentown. These gentlemen long occupied 
the territory; but on the death of Dr. Gale, Dr. John H. 
Hay lies settled at East Nassau, and after a few years Dr. 
George W. Strait also opened an office there. Dr. James 
Hogeboom commenced his practice at Castleton in the 
mean time. 

I p to 18-40 no new names appear. Not far from that 
time Dr. MeClellan, having had as partner- Doctors Simp- 
son, since of Hudson, aud Coventry, of Newark, N. Y.. 
associated with himself Dr. Montillion Beckwith, a former 
student, who had practiced for a number of years at New 
Lebanon. Their partnership continued until the death of 
Dr. MeClellan, and Dr. Beckwith continued the practice 
until his death, about 1S70. Doctors Miller. Harris, Gale, 
and Ball, died before 1850, and Dr. John S. Miller has 
long practiced at Schodack, near East Grccnbush, while Dr. 
Harris was succeeded by his son-in-law, Dr. Elliott, and 

afterwards by 1 toctors Anson and Boyce, of Sand Lake. 

Dr. EberW. Carmichael, a former student of Dr. MeClellan, 
has practiced at Sand Lake since about 1S4.'!. Dr. Phi- 
lander 11. Thomas long practiced at West Sand Lake, and 
was succeeded on his death by Dr. Hull, who has a son in 

practice at Poestenkill. Dr. James Hogeb n was succeeded 

by his son and namesake at Castleton. Since 1S30, Dr. 
John Squire has practiced at Schodack Landing. After 
Dr. Beckwith- decease, Dr. Nehcr, formerly connected with 
the army, settled at Nassau, and. later. Dr. Samuel Me- 
Clellan, a grandson of the first doctor, settled there. 


a practicing physician of Troy, and also well known as a 
ii-i. nol only in this country, but abroad, was born in 
Bloomfield, N. J., June 17. 1837. He was the eldest son 
and child of I.-rael ( '. and Aluicda Hank- 1 Ward, a lead- 
ing family of that place, and prominently c cied there 

as well as in the neighboring city of New York, where the 

business interests of the family were mostly located. During 
his thorough academic course of stud) at the celebrated 

local school- of James II. Ixundcll and Rev. E. Sey ur 

lati i . In- taste and aptness for scientific -Indies 

Wi to SO marked that he was constantly sought as an assist- 
ant in the scientific work of the institutions. Entering 
Williams College at the age of seventeen, he was graduated 
in IS.'iS, and three years later received the degree of A M. 
During his college course In was distinguished as an orig- 
inal and analytical writer, and a- an enthusiast ill scientific 

-nid ' II was presidi nl of the " Fhilotcchuian," of 

the large literary societies connected with the college, and 



1'liutu. 1'V Alkint-MTi, Tr<«v 



Dr. Richard Bloss was born in the town of Royalton. Windsor 
Co., Vt~, April 1", IT'.'*. U is father was a respectable farmer in that 
town. Ilis education up to his fifteenth year was confined bo a com- 
mon village school; at that age he commenced a preparatory course 
for college. From tho age of eighteen to twenty-one he taught school 
during the winter, and pursued his academical course the remainder 
of tho time. lie commenced tho study of medicine under the instruc- 
tion of Dr. Joseph Denison, studying and attending lectures for the 
next three years. lie graduated at Dartmouth College, Hanover, in 
Be commenced the practice of his profession in the town of 
Bast Bethel. X. V.. where he remained six years, and then returned 
to Royalton, his native town, where he soon established an ex ten si < 
practice, which he retained up to the time of his removal to the city 
of Tr >;. . in 1840. Here he formed a copartnership with Dr. R. S. 
., nndor the firm-name of Bryan A Bloss. This copartnership 
was dissolved at the end of live years, after which ho continued the 
practice alone until his son, Jabez I\, iru associated with him: and 
on his removal from the city, his son, Richard D. Bloss, was con- 
nected with him in practice to the time of his decease. 

On thi ' January, IS II, he received a slight wound on his 

thumb and forefinger, while engaged in a post-mortem examination 
of a case of puerperal peritonitis. The Inflammation extended up the 
right arm and formed an abscess under the pectoral mosaic, which 
disci mously. Nothing hut nn iron constitution carried 

him through this first struggle with disease. Be never entirely rc- 
thal arm and hand. In 1849 the disease again 
appeared in hU thumb, In 1868, through the effect! 
it again appeared in the form of a earbunolo on the upper lip. In 
the spring of 1859 he mi thrown from his carriage, fracturing bis 
skull and three ribs. II- n tWW 1 from the imed 

bis practice, bal not with hll wonted energy and assiduity. In 1861, 
whil<* getting out of his carriage, he had the misfortune to fall ami 
break his arm. which, for want of recuperative power, nnitod slowly 
and troubled him while he lived. In March, 1801, again a small 
tumor mado its * n his under tip. Its growth 

mnpanied with pain, and choked by the u«o of chloride ol 
•inc. In 1883, T'r. Ifaroh pronounced it seirrhus and removed it. 
Finally a tumor formed n^nr the angle of the jaw, whi^h was 
hard, painful, and of a purple, 'htning appearance. It bled pro. 
fusely and reduce.! him very fast. He suffered excruciating pain, 
bot retained his faculties unimpaired until his death, Sept. 18, 1C 

Lore was the mainspring of his life. As a citizen ho loved his 

country, her institutions, and her greatness. Ho was loyal and 
patriotic He loved his fellow-man. To the talented he gave his 
admiration; to the wealthy, his courtesy; to tho poor, his advice, 
his services, and his substance: they never sought his aid in vain. 
His mission was to heal the sick, and he never inquired of the pros- 
pect of remuneration. He loved science, and sought out her hidden 

II was a member of the Masonic fraternity, and enjoyed all the 
offices and honors in their gift, being successively Master of a lodge, 
High-Priest of a chapter, Illustrious Master of the council (which was 
named aftor him), Commander of the encampment, and member of 
tho grand body of the State; he was also Deputy Grand Master 
of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York at the time of his 

He became a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church at the age 
of twenty-one, and for many years prior to hi.* death he was senior 
warden of Christ Church in this city, and contributed liberally to 
it- support. He built a church edifice almost entirely from his own 
means in hia native village, Royal ton. 

Forty year.- of his life he gave to the practice of medicine, — the 
first half as an allopathist, tho remainder in faithfully testing the 
truth of the principle, " Similia itmilibu* eurautnrj" how success- 
fully, the thousands whom he treated can testify. He began the 
practice of homoeopathy in 1842, and used frequently to relate anec- 
dotes of his early experience, of the ridicule, obloquy, opposition, 
and almost violence he encountered; but these things only brought 
forth greater and more persevering effort, which met with abundant 

;in 1 en. luring SUCCCSS. 

Dr. Bloss was one of the delegates in July, 1858, when Rens-elacr 
County asked admission to the Homoeopathic Society of Washington 
and Saratoga Counties, at which time the society assumed the name 
of the Bom coop atbio Sooioty of Northern New York. At the next 
annual meeting he was chosen president of the same. Hia presence 
in that body was won felt, and the organisation roac from a merely 
social and oolloquial gathering to the dignity of a parliamentary 
body. He fell m deep in teres I in its prosperity and success, and 
labor I van com on t. In all his intercourse he was dignil 

and gentlemanly, yel familiar and approachable, over willing to aid 
all who were seeking for knowledge. Ho gave the members of the 
fraternity confidence in the principle-, and much of the success of 
homoeopathy in Northern Now York may be attributed to bis en- 


I 13 

also one of the editors of the college magazine of the time, 
■ — The Williams Quarterly. He was one of the mosl 
active of tlio students in organizing and carrying out the 
" Florida Expedition," a college excursion to Florida and 
Georgia, in the spring of L857, for the purposes of scien 
tific study and collection, which not only enriched to an 
unexpected extent the natural-history collections of the in- 
stitution, hut also set an example of a new met bod of scien 
tific culture which has been extensively and profitably fol- 
lowed. After graduation, having a strong predilection for 
medical science, he pursued a specially thorough course of 
study under the preceptorship of I>r. N. S. King, a practi- 
tioner of Bloomfield, and at the leading medical schools and 
hospitals of Philadelphia and New York, graduating in 
|t662 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the 
latter city. In the beginning of his medical career, the war 
of the Rebellion being then in progress, he offered his ser- 
vices to the government, and acted as assistant surgeon in the 
United States military hospital at Nashville, Tenn. After a 
i\-w months, however, lie was obliged to resign, on account 
of ill health, and removed to Minnesota, where he remained 
for more than a year, as a sanitary measure. He returned 
to the East in I860, and settled at Troy, where he has since 
resided. For a short time previous to the death of the late 
Dr. Thomas W. Blatchford, he was associated in practice 
with that eminent practitioner, since which time he has 
carried on alone a very large and important family practice. 
In addition to an amount of medical labor which would 
overtax the strength of most persons, he has carried on his 
scientific work without intermission. Having commenced 
the study of botany while in college under the enthusiastic 
professor — now President — Chadbourne, he has continued 
his researches in that branch of science with equal diligence 
and success, giving especial attention to the departments of 
structural, philosophical, and economical botany. In 1869 
he was appointed instructor, and the following year pro- 
fessor, of that science in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, — a chair which he continues to hold in connection with 
the duties of his medical practice. His methods of teach- 
ing arc original and pointed, never losing sight of the prac- 
tical uses of science. Though a skillful and successful 
practitioner and professor, it is in the field of microscopical 
research that he has attained the most distinction abroad. 
His work in this field was commenced during the early part 
of his collegiate course, and for many years he has been an 
acknowledged authority on the subject. In 1871 he became 
one of the associate editors of the American Naturalist, an 
influential journal then published in Salem, Mass., but now 
in Philadelphia, and established in it a microscopical depart- 
ment, the first department of that kind added to any jour- 
nal in this country, and antedating any journal relating to 
this branch of science now in existence here. He is the 
author of a large number of papers and editorials on this 
branch of science, nearly all of which have been republished 
abroad. He has, by his critical skill and original contriv- 
ances, contributed materially to the modern improvement 
of the microscope and its accessories; has done much work 
in medical microscopy, not only for the benefit of his own 
pnin iee, but also for that of other physicians; has used the 
instrument in the study of blood-stains, and other difficult 

ami important questions in medical jurisprudence; ha 

tended its use largely in the investigation of handwriting, 

forgery, and altered writing of various kind- and has fre- 
quently appeared in tb mils as an expert in criminal and 

other cases. In carrying out hi- favorite work of popular- 
izing science, he has become well known 08 a lecturer upon 
his chosen studies; and being thoroughly imbued with the 

love of science, and always logical and iu i tive in the 

presentation of it, he never fails to impart character and 

interest to his public efforts. I>r. Ward is a member of the 

Medical Society of the Slate of New York, and of the 
American Medical Association; also of the Rensselaer 

County Medical Society, of which he was president in !>77. 
and re-elected in 1878. lie is a member and officer of the 

board of governors of the Marshall Infirmary, and holds 
office on the medical staff of that institution. His scien- 
tific associations are numerous and important. He is a 
fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, with which be has long been actively connected 
and repeatedly held office, having been chairman of the 
microscopical subsection in 1876-77; was elected and 
served as first president of the Society of American Micro- 
seopists, which was founded in 1878; is member of the 
American Meteorological Society ; was president of the 
Troy Scientific Association from its organization in 1870 
until 1877, and has since been president of the micro- 
scopical section of the same. He was the originator of the 
American Postal Microscopical Club, and has been actively 
interested in various local societies, and other organized 
efforts to advance the interests of this department of science 
throughout the country. The Belgian Microscopical So- 
ciety has conferred upon him the rare distinction of honor- 
ary membership; and, in addition, be is honorary and cor- 
responding member of a large number of other societies in 
different parts of this country. During his short residence 
in Minneapolis, Minn., he was called upon to act as health 
officer, that being the only occasion on which he has been 
inclined to give the time or strength to serve the public in 
any other than a strictly professional capacity. 

Dr. Ward was married, June 10,1862, to Miss Charlotte 
A. Baldwin, of Bloomfield, N. J., and has four children. 


Pursuant to a call, the homoeopathic physicians of 
Rensselaer County, N. Y., met at the office of Dr. R. S. 
Bryan, "No. 70 Second Street, Oct. 6, 1859. Present, Drs. 
R. S. Bryan, S. A. Cook, R. Bloss, Kellogg, and Searle, of 
Troy, also Drs. Fuller, Carpenter, and Mosher from other 
parts of the county. Dr. Mosher was elected chairman of 
the meeting, with Dr. Searle as secretary. On permanent 
organization Dr. R. S. Bryan was elected President ; Dr. 
Joseph Mosher, Vice-President; Dr. S. A. Cook, Secretary 
and Treasurer ; Drs. Bloss, Fuller, and Searle, Censors. 

In December, 1860, the following officers were elected: 
Dr. S. A. Cook, President; Dr. II. E. Fuller, Vice-President ; 
Dr. W. S. Searle, Secretary ; Dr. J. Mosher, Treasurer ; 
with the addition of Dr. A. M. Cushing to membership. 
From the records of the society, there was no meeting until 
March, 1S63, from which time to the present the nanus 
of Drs. George Kellogg, 1S58; J. P. Ploss, 1863: M. W. 



Campbell, Troy, 1864; •). F. Miller, L865; C. S. W'ood- 
ruff, 1865; R. I' I'm-". 1865; .). Vounglovc, 1865; l>. 
W. Pitta, Johnsonvillo, 1866; B. S. Coburn, Troy, 1868 . 
C. G. Clark, 1868; Charles Thompson, Pittstown, 1868; 
I. II. Ward, Troy, 1868; Jam - • Tonihannock, 

1868; I. H.Green, Tomhannock, 1868; I'. L.Vincent, 
186 I ft. K. Belding, Troy, 1*71 ; L. 1$. Waldo, Lansing 
burgh, 1872; II. I'. Holmes, Lansingburgh, L877; M. L. 

lell, Troy, 1877 ; A. ft. Green, Troy, 1879; William 
Simpson, Hoosick Falls, 1879; G. M. Lamb, Troy, 1879, 
appear on the records of the society. 

The first practitioner of homoeopathy of whom we have 
any record in this county was Dr. F. S. Field, ;i graduate 
of ,i medical college in London, England. He settled in 
Troy in 1839. Although an able and highly-accomplished 
man, he was unable to support himself here on account of 
his being unknown and with new doctrines. Drs. U.S. 

n and ft. Blosa were led to look into the subject of 
homoeopath) by his remarkable cures, and from him they 
obtained material for study. In 1841, Drs. Bryan and 
B lenly avowed their adherence to homoeopathy. Dr. 

ft. S. Bryan was born in Patterson, Putnam Co., X. Y. ; 
graduated in New York City, and began the practice of 
medicine with his lather, but removed to Troy in 1835. 
He died in March, 1860, at t ho age of sixty-four. Dr. R. 
B -- was a native of Vermont, a graduate of the medical 
department of Dartmouth University. He died in 1863, 
al the age of sixty-five. Dr. S. A. Cook came to Troy 

from Vera t. and began the practice of allopathy, but 

in a few years espoused the cause of homoeopathy, which 
he followed most rigidly until his death, which occurred 
March II. 1873. 

Homoeopathy won a decided victory during the cholera 
epidemic of 18.V!; its siim^ was all its must ardent fol- 
lowers could wish, and its march has been steadily onward. 
I 1 CI i - and Joseph Mosher, of Schaghticokc, were 

later converts from the Old School rank, and reuiai 1 

faithful to the cause while they lived. Dr. Edward L. 
Coburn, a native of Columbia County, graduated in medi- 
cine in New York City, 1829; was f the pioneers of 

homoeopathy in that comity. After eleven years of Old 

School practice he beca lonvinced that "similia similibus 

curantur" was the true law of cure, lie removed to Troy 

in 1853, where I njoyed a large practice, but died in 

Chatham, N Y. in 1863, aged fifty-eight, Dr. George 
Kellogg, of Paterson, N. J., removed to Troy in l 
and remained here till 1862, when he entered the army 
under Gen. Butler as staff surg 1 after the war re- 
moved to New Orleans. Dr. 1! I' Blosa graduated in 

Vermont in 1854, and settled inn liately in Troy. Dr. 

.1 P I: - graduated in New fork City in 1853, and 
to Troy. |). || i; Fuller graduated at Berkshire 
M I '-">7. Bottled at Lansiugburgh. Dr. C. 

II Carp ntcr graduated al Albany, 1856; settled in 1 
in 1865. Dr. \V. S. Sail' graduated in Philadelphia in 
doc began tho prai tice of mcdii inc in Ti 

to Brooklyn in 1870. Dr C S. W Iruff grad 

■ ' in 1 357, and camo to Troy in 1 - 

I'r. M \Y. Campbell, a graduate of Cleveland in 1851, 
Bellied in Troy in 1- ■ I 1 \ M Cushing, a 

of Cleveland, settled in Lansingburgh in 1861, and in 
1864 removed to Lynn. Mass. Dr. J. C. Mosher grad- 
uated at Castleton, Vt., in 1860; he began practice in 
Pittstown. Dr. J. Younglove, Jr.. graduated in St. Louis 
in 1861 : began practice in Troy in lS(i."i; has since settled 
in New Jersey. Dr. J. F. Miles graduated at Long Island 
College in 1865, and at once settled in Troy, but stayed 
onbj a short time; his present residence is unknown. Dr. 
D. W. l'itis is an alumnus of Philadelphia College; began 
practice in Johnsonville in lS(i.">. where he now resides. 
Dr. E. S. Coburn graduated at Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege in New York City in lSlj-l; remained two years in 
that city with Dr. W. M. Pratt, when he went to Ohio; 
settled in Troy in IStiO. Dr. F. L. Vincent graduated in 
Chicago in 1861 ; practiced in Illinois eight years, and 
removed to Troy in 18G9. 

I lom pathy has now stood upon its trial in this county 

for thirty-eight years, and to-day its list of practitioners is 
longer, its patrons greater in number, and its social position 
higher, than ever before. 





The Farmer's Oracle was established in Troy, in 1 T : '7, 
by Luther Pratt & Co., who had removed their printing 
materials thence from Lansingburgh. After the discon- 
tinuance of this paper, the Northern Budget was also re- 
moved to Troy, making its first appearance there May 15, 
1T!IS. Its office was on the east side of Water Street near 
Pierce's inn. 

The Troy Gazette, the third paper established in Trojj 
was first issued Sept. 3, 1S02, and published by Thomas 
Collier. It was Federal in polities, ami passed out of exist- 
ence aboul I S(i0. 

Other earlj papers were the Farmer's Register, 180Ckj 
Ciintonian Democratic in politics; Trot/ Post, 1812, Fed- 
eral in politics, published by Parker & Bliss ; and the Troy 
5 tiiiel, in 1823, with 0. L. Holly, editor, and Wm 9 
Parker, publisher. The last named was a National Rcpilb- 

liean organ. 

The Daily Sentinel was the first daily paper ever issued 
in Troy. Its first issue bears date of May 1. 1830. After 
an existence of a little over a year it was chan 


Following the Sentim/. a number of papers were subse- 
quently published which had only a brief existence. U 
their order they were : 

The Folder, April. 1824, by Gilbert Gunflint, Esq. 

tgelicul Restorationist, 1S 4 J.">, by Adolphui 

Troy lit vit w, or /•■ ligions and Musieal llrposilory, Jan. 

I. 1>1Y.. Truman Hastii - • ditoi . Tuttlc A llicl b| 


M h 25, 1826, Castor .v. Pollux, editors. 



Evangelical Repository, lSl'K. 

Troy Republican, L82S, by Austin & Wellington. 1830, 
Thomas Clowes. 

Northern Watchman, 1831. In 1832 changed to '/'/"// 

The Gospel Anchor | Universalis) i, by John M. Austin, 
afterwards by 11 J. Green. 1833, Williamson & Austin. 
The Troy Statesman, June 12, 1832, by T. J. Suther- 

The Troy Press, weekly, first published on Saturday, 
Aug. 4, 1832, by William Yates. It was continued until 
Jan. 1, 1833. 

The Daily Troy Press, which succeeded the Troy Daily 
Sentinel, was issued Feb. 11, 1833, by William Yates, at a 
shilling a week. The paper was first neutral in politics, 
but afterwards anti-Jackson in tone. 

The Troy American, Sept. 18, 1833, published by E. J. 
Van Cleve. It was an anti-regency paper, and was pub- 
lished about one year. 

The Botanic Advocate, 1S34, by Russell Buckley. 
The Troy Daily Whig, published by James 31. Steven- 
son, editor and proprietor, was first issued July 1, 1834, S. 
Richards, printer. A more extended history of this paper 
is given elsewhere in this chapter. 

The Trajan was first published Dec. 23, 1S34, by Rus- 
sell Buckley. It was a penny daily. 

The State Journal, 1830, It. J. Masten ; 1837, changed 
to A r < w Yuri,- State Journal. 

The Troy Daily Mail, Nov. 15, 1837, H. T. Eddy, edi- 
tor, Wellington & Nafew ; 1837, Tuttle, Belcher & Bur- 
ton; 1840, Atwell & 31 ills. It was a morning paper; the 
Whig, afternoon issue. It was of the same polities as the 
Whig, and was its rival for party support and influence. 
It is said to have been conducted with enterprise and edito- 
rial ability, but as two Whig papers could not be profitably 
carried on, the Mail was in 1S40 merged into the Whig, 
which thenceforward became a morning paper. 

The Troy Daily Bulletin, Dec. 6, 1841, William Hagen, 
editor; R. Thompson, printer. 

The Troy Daily Herald, Oct. 24, 1842, Ayres & White- 

The Aquarian, 1843. 

The Troy Temperance Mirror, published by Bardwell & 

The Family Journal, 1844, Fisk & Co.; 1848, the Neio 
York Family Journal; 1851, the Troy Family Journal. 

The Troy Daily Post, a. penny paper, was first published 
Oct, 1, 1843, by Alexander McCall ; 1844, McCall & 
Davis; 1840, Davis & Ayers (Rensselaer County Post); 
1847, Wells & Davis ; 1850, Davis & Johnson ; 1S52, A. 
G. Johnson. 

The Trojan, 1845, a weekly literary paper, by Abbie 

The Troy Daily Telegraph, 1846, by Hagen & Ayres. 
The Rensselaer County Temperance Advocate, 1846, by 
S. Spicer. 

The Troy Commercial Advertiser, 3Iarch 28, 1848. 
Brownell & West ; W. L. Crandal, editor. Sept. 29, 1848, 
Edwin Brownell. Issued daily in afternoon, and also 


The Old Settler, monthly, January 16, 1851, by - 


The Unique, semi-monthly, Thursday, June 12, 1851, 
by Parvus lulus. 

The Troy Daily Times begun its long-continued career 

i.n Wednesday after »n, June 25, 1851, John M. Francis, 

editor; J. M. Francis & K. D.Thompson, publishers. A 
full account of this publication maj be seen elsewhere in 
this work. 

The /." Ruche Canadienne, 1851, was publibhed by 
Dorian & Matbiot, 

Our Paper, issued in January, 1853, by Messrs, Davis & 


The Troy Daily Democrat began its career on Oct. 24, 
1854, James T. Ellis. 

The Troy Daily Traveller, in 1854, succeeded the Troy 
Daily Post. Its publishers were Fisk & Avery ; Fisk, 
Fisk & Avery; Fisk, Avery & Thompson. 

The Daily Arena began publication on Tuesday, Oct. 
18, 1859, by MacArthur & Fonda. February, 1801, A. 
G. Johnson, editor; A. A. Fisk, publisher. 

The Troy Daily Express was published in 1859 by Allen 
Corey; Gaylord J. Clarke, editor. 

The Troy Morning News was issued in April, 1860, E. 
F. Loveridge, proprietor. 

The L'Aigle Canadien, begun in 1S60 by James R. 
Lettore, publisher; L. Cousin and Dr. J. N. Cadieux, 

The Troy Union was first issued on Saturday morning, 
3Iay 18, 1861, at No. 1 First Street, by Van Arnum & 

The Troy City Democrat, June 28, 1862, by J. A. and 
A. Corey, editors ; A. Corey & Co., publishers. 

The Troy Daily Press was first issued on Saturday even- 
ing, Aug. 8, 1803, from the office No. 209 River Street, 
A. S. Pease, publisher; A. S. Pease and F. B. Hubbell, 
editors. A full history of this prosperous journal may be 
found in another column. 

The Sunday Herald made its first appearance Nov. 11, 
1807 ; Wm. F. Boshart, editor and proprietor. 

The Public Spirit was first published by Le Grand Ben- 
edict, in March, 1808. 

The Sunday Telegram began its life in November, 1S70 ; 
Thomas Hurley, editor and proprietor. 

The Troy Volksfreund, a German weekly, was first issued 
April 13, 1872, by August Hillebrand. 

The Sunday Trojan had its first issue on April 25, 1875 ; 
I. F. Bosworth and A. L. Elliott, proprietors. 

The Troy Observer, a Sunday paper, was published for 
the first time Oct. 15, 1870, by William V. Cleary. In 
December, 1878, it was purchased by A. B. Elliott, and 
merged with the Sunday Trojan, under the title of the 
Trojan- Observer. The latter was conducted by A. B. 
Elliott until Aug. 3, 1S79, when it passed into the hands 
of 31. F. Collins" 


The first newspaper published in Lausingburgh bore 
the lengthy title of The Northern Centinel and Lansing- 
burgh Advertiser, and was first issued May 21, 1787, by 


history of i;i:nssi:i.akk county, new york. 

Claxton & Babcock. It was a quarto sheet, seventeen by 
twenty inches in si 

The Federal llerald&w eded the above Feb. 12, 17S3, 

published by Babcock & 1 1 i.k.ik. followed I", the American 
Spy, April 8, 1791, by Sylvester Tiffany subsequently 
Tiffany ,v Wands, and Win. W. Waml-^ ■ ; in turn succeeded 
by the Northern Budget, Juno 20, L797, under the man- 
agement of Robert Moffitl & ( !o. 

The Lansingburgh Gazette, Sept. 12, 1798, was issued 

kly bj Gardiner Tracy. In 1826 the name was changed 

to /' /.'■ •■ ' On '. Gazette, published by .).('. \ 

Jeremiah Young, [ts na was again changed, and in the 

fall of 1828 was discontinued. A new series of the Ga- 

was issue I i:i 1 1 a ember, 1 B26, by BJdw. J. Van Cl< 
which has passed through many proprietary changes, and is 
now published 03 Dr. \ 1!. Elliott. 

The Farmer's Register first appeared Jan. 25, 1803, 

with Francis Adai urt as its publisher. In 1806 it was 

removed to Troy. 

The Democratic Press and Lansingburgh Advi 
Jan. 13, 1838, by Wm. J. Lamb; subsequently chang 
to Lansingburgh U In 18GI, S. V. R. Young 

and Thomas llobinson assumed charge of it, and changed 
its oamc to the New Advertiser. It was discontinued July 
12, 1861. 

Other papers, following in the wake of those above men- 
tioned, have been T/ie Literary Cabinet, by James Peek, 
in 1841; T/ie Golden Rule, by Rev. Rolla J. Smith, in 
l-S-14: Tin' Antiquarian and General Review (monthly), 
1 B - William Arthur, in 1SI7; The Lansingburgh 
Dail} Gazette, by Mitchell & Kirkpatrick, Jan. 3, I860 

S 11- Weekly Chronicle, in 1864, which, after several 
changes, was removed to Cohoes about 1869 ; Our Little 
Paper (a small weekly l>\ K D. Vyrcs in 1872; The 
I ■ . in 1 -Til : and the Lansingburgh Courier, estab- 
lished in 1875 by Isaac L. Van Voasl and Wm 11. Kngle. 
All of this numerous list of papers published in Lansing- 
gh have been discontinued, with two or thr txceptions. 

In other parts of the enmity were the following news- 
-: The Nassau Gazette, started in December, 1850, 
!■;. -I M G r; the Lutheran Herald; published semi- 
monthly, at Wt -• Sand I. ike, in 1844, by rJ. L. Dos ; the 
1, .„/,/;,/, Guardian, established in Is.Vi In \, .1 tinod- 
rich, and subsequently published by J. D. Comstock. 



was fir.-t issued in Lansingburgh on Tuesday, June 20, 
1 T :»7 - mile of first page of first number.) It 

• In thii papar I por, Hi-iij. Thurb 

h>» 11. |.y "( whioh, data I .luni' I. IT 

»inm Tboxbi II la Publio thai hi ntimic* 

the I Jacob Icn'a. with 

I r irbieh be 
will native, in 
rje, ball an I il»\ - lard, rauinionfl, 

I pewter, if 
»' " ; i iv ill 

1 rrill 
give li. 

■ ' 

was removed to Troy, where the first number published in 
that plaee appeared May 15, 1798. (See fac-simile of 
third page of the first number published in Troy.) Hon. 
Giles B. Kellogg, at the " Festival of the Troy News" 
gave the following account of the Budget : 

"The Northern Budget was established in 1797, in 
Lansingburgh, by Robert Motlitt. It was removed to Troy 
the next year, — for a long time published weekly, then 
twiee a week, and subsequently during its existence, daily. 
Troy was then a small plaee. a mere village. In 1800 the 
editor of the Budget took occasion to boast of the rapidity 
of its growth, saying that it then contained about three 
hundred dwelling houses, besides stores, whereas, but fifteen 
years before, it had but two dwelling bouses and not more 
than fifteen inhabitants. The earlier numbers of the paper 
are curious specimens of the art of printing, — small in 
size, the paper coarse and dingy, and the head embellished 
with a wood engraving, meant to be a likeness of Dr. 
Franklin reading the constitution, and having for a motto, 
' Where Liberty dwells, there is my Country.' Before the 
paper was a year old, after its removal to Troy, the pub- 
lisher announced that the weekly expense of bis establish- 
ment was thirty dollars. The contents of the Budget were 
principally selections from other papers, the editorials short, 
and few and far between. 

" When I came to Troy, in the spring of 1830, the 
Budget was published by Kemble cV Hooper, the former 
having charge of the editorial department. The next year 
Mr. Kemble was elected a member of the Assembly, and 
requested mo to manage the paper editorially during his 
absence, as I bad previously occasionally assisted him. 

" Mr. Kemble was a politician, restless, active, aud effi- 
cient. Under his management the Budget bad become a 
power in the country, and in the northern part of the State. 
lie had a great itching for office, and quite as good tin opinion 
OS any one of his own merits and ability, lie was seldom 
defeated iii earning into operation any purpose he cherished. 
His means were limited, and the Budget was not the source 
of much income. He wanted to represent this district in 
the Senate, and one day. in a very positive manner, told the 

cashier of 01 f our banks that he meant to do so. The 

cashier, having no faith in the success of his scheme, 
jocosely remarked that when he got to be a member of the 
Senate he should have all the money he wanted, and no 
draft from him On his bunk should be dishonored, — no 
uncommon occurrence at that time to his paper. Mr. 
Kemble was nominated, the next fall elected, and the cashier 
redeemed his pli 

■■ About the year 1835 36, Mr. Kemble sold his iutere-t 
in the Budget to Mr. Hooper, and in H.'17 Mr. Hooper 
retired, and transferred his interest to Henry W. Strong 

and myself, wl nductcd the paper as editors for one 

year, when Mr. Strong retired, and I remained in tin- 
establishment with Mr. Cook till March 10, 1840, when 
I disposed of my interest, and bade farewell to editorial 

■• During the administration of Jackson and Van Burcn 
; questions were agitating the public mind, and gn 
inten ii stake. The discussion of these questions 

of course filled the newspapers, and the Budget entered 


Northern Budget 

L AN 1 1 N C BUS OK:— Poam.ap, awaiti T.b.da, Miiiim*, a, ROBERT MOFrlTT Ci Co. at Two Dollab. ,h 

S^-Votont I.—] 

TUESDAY, JUNE io, i79f. 

[ — Nowata t. — ] 


HAVE '"f')" ItMiwtf, awd 
art now opening, for Salt*, 
■i (heir Stoic, near 10c Hotel, 
in Lanhngburari, a «rv neat 


Groceries, &C. 
■tcdnrkably Ctitau and of the 
.T«t1t importation,-—- Country 
^rodiKC «Hl be icteivtd in pay- 

ThtTJ"'** '"?* Bnd con, «- 
«ie« StotcNPf Boring Grain, 
«nd «tM pay »* Rnflcft atren- 
t»r> 10 lb« BuGaels.— Every 
fa»cr thankfully a"c*nowl«i B td. 

Janua ry 9, 1797, 

Ncal Duffeer 

HASJuS receded, from New- York. 
ate.- «cry Iwiiome Ladies, Gilt 
and CUt NeU-Laeea, Lockets and 
CUbiitoflbe newei- femtooa i ly*. ■ 
good affortsCB' of Japan Wue. liirwf/'- 
\L RJllowJdjp , _ 


Sr.Cto.s Rmm JjBttici'foirm. 
t iplliod OiM r'nr.;b Brand*, MolsiTes 
iiiultu, '■ iVjft, ' M.bus, Tetienfxe. 
and slrcny Wines, Lump and 
Brown »u«ie*f- Hvfen end B°«*_ 
Teas, Pepper, Al'pu*. Ginger. CoS«, 
Ailum, Copperas, Red-Wood, 
Indigo, hio-megs, muff, Powdei 
(and sltoH* Cotton, Sec 
tul, 8J, iod. 1 id, and iod rC.U»: 
Ail which lie will fell as low- u cu be 
Miduftd in -ny bare in »*na, for .ready 
V-w *» Cafti f r nwfi l-zcda irt oisMtr 

Luifflgbvjh) April 14,. 1797. I 

|lr Jlfltaflg i«" */ --*■*-• ■* '** *^" 

,«»» fir**, 1*7 tWjfcr C*j* w 

No. 50. i-Mon, 550 ac«; 

h7«v 51, Locke, SJ°« 

No. fyLraxe, »S°J 

"No. Jv Dryden, ^j' J l 

No. jo, Yiiyieo, fS-'l 

Ore tor on beneea Lake. * rhc *> at - 
let of Cethong Creek, 7 miles fca* <* 
Centra, «»*hlcbi-a.'igDOA)fr.andi4 
toes) node! improvement , an orchard of 
mdk »od otitis fratt inses : « being for- 
•eity i^IiJanretiftfnffli 

Twt> Ion, eotj?*aur£ $00 acta, ih 
dVrConary otOttitrKb tuwrifcip No: !+, 
tnunwvi w'r sih J mileicfirie town and 
kittiwr of Sndti», wtrb WlmpMvetjrcr.1 of 
fctec or eight' » good fence, ue 
wfl waterrf, «nd of a «ry nch trtd fu- 
jwwr qtuiiir. No (r»fl of couctty of ibo 
U. 5uio is more roatvhally otaetited by 
•aiwcornnnjoicanon, M it is navigabk 
from the Soou» to Niagara, Montrc-l and 
Ofiregci, (wtiicft !a 10 miles fro.n Sodm) 
Wktiy woe mile u^d-canriage (o bcittec* 
«d», A eredit will be grfen on the 
ttice l 'i acattooed tou, cod No. 1 1 

Alfo, two tafta. contri'ing twenty- 
<rUe tDoofitnd t«fe», -jaatcd on ?o«"s 
•ftdCrug'tCKclu, tear- 1-. if (amn'i 
Itiret. fans ofVtrgmia : Pou'- Creek, 
which jiUr^eand contunt, nina nearly 
thtecgli tnt center oi ore craft ol 14,000 
re;, on wrttch u a fall ct beuci than 
ifi (eel : for cooveniencci for errcawg 
milts, orwot'A) Jt *<y mtcnt, itlonoi 
ttreeded in (he United Soi« J ih*« W 
•oiaid nec.n ineil.aoft.ble bed o/itta 
e*r, f iilu'i one rctle of the : ilir. Nci- 
fber tact exceeda ;o roilw ftord rtvs 
lock tttfigsuos of Junst'a Ri^cr. A 
•redit l'o. i*j of the porc^iaio r.oney, 
<-t11 tc gn-cTi on the 1*0 liftmcnuonal 
%ncb— Titles tcdifenitjbte. For terms, 
jfply to Rich as t> M. Wiilumb. « 
Ceaevzi 01 Naiuaiiil V,t 1.1,11 mo, 
•f T^uibngbtirgru 

Nut* * 

;» '797» 

Lord & Sherman 

HAVE irptenilVd ibeV* 5toflt with 
Weft wwl F. alt 'JotUs OOODS, ot 
Aitksriot ouaiiry, slid n»de l-u^r- iJdiii- 
cosififting ol »»nub!c oolWliona on Arta, 
Shooco, fhilofophy. Geography, fUf- 
rory, Biography, Politics, Law, Phytic, 
Govtrnrntnt, MeUprivfics, Voyages, P*»- 
erics : Alfo, School and other Books lor 
Children, of. oeiy age; Blank Booki, 
Paper Hangings, ana vuious otlwr 
kiudi of Paper. 

taoGnghuTgh, Jtme 6> 1707- t 

• ftq-Or«V» from ;he Country, for any 
kinii of !>>okv, whethu lot Libraries or 
Shops, will be poofiually Mteodedto, u 
J>is biuie. 

The Copartnership of 

1T7AS, on the nsttenih inasnt, 
VV difcjvwl, by roctuBl cenfeat.— 

(1 petions, ihcrdbre, wtto have Icpal 
demands sninA (aid (ms. are "rqucli-'j 

piderrt tnem tor Icttlemcnt: Likewise, 
thofc*hoare indcbiedtothc takleonipv 
snj -»hofc ObltnatioM wr acconnn 
hve btcomeNdtK) are requdlcd to make 
imnscdiaie pavV^m. 1 bofc Who do oor 
.Comply, with tliSvnotlee before the filft 
day of lofy nar,_"Vtl be prolecuiei, 
wiihoot dtfcrimination. N . 

The books and obligarwris Me left in 
the hands of Elijah Jane*, >£oi(*atnoti- 
xtd lofeltle the fame ; and w^ WSD, m 
totiire, carry on bnliiiefi st ili'F 60ft 
fonndly Owumcd by the laid firnV I 

lanlingrmrgh, March ij, '797-V 

FOA S A L h, \ 

TWO ThoufsTrd Acres of LAN1V 
cue thonfama of which liti nboai 
14 milea north of johnltown ; the otbex 
thostMid .sear ti^c Rnynl Gnvft. Tlic 
abovc-mairi-VKtl Land WiQ bs fold ni/iw 
good term*, and & title given whicn uriJt 
be lsus£acury to thepurcrafcr, by 
lanfingbatgh, June 6, 171)7. t 

Fall Goods. 

Jujl received, anifo*folt t by 

Cuflcaden » Rurhcrford, 

A very large aid general of- 
fer tment vf 

Dry Good's, 

All of ilie beft Quality, neweft 

fuihioiiMVtnicU Inipyruinin. 

A L S Oi 

A targtfvppij e /a/U!bA 0/ 

Liquors and Groceriesj 

t.L-,]flic|(.'f^vci y 'Jctcnplion ; 

Crockery, by ihc craie ; 

HardWarc; Iron and Steel; 

4d.6d.8d. iod. isd. cod.uTid 
t.jil Nailaj. 

8 by 6 arid g by 7- Window 
Glafs , 


Snuff. Tobacco, &c, 

baili in Quality end quantity, 
*\rty aiTortmcnt ever before of- 
fered for Talc in. this partyfthe 
country ; and will be? fold un- 
ufually low, either by wfaotey „ 
fale or retail. Tor cath or ap. ' gcU Ciitar **/? 
prcved notes atfo days. I <xflku-e*ilar u„.„ 

*viJI be paid for WkJat and ,£ 


A Valuable cfUlf, 00 whtcn ike 
fuWciicx*ao*i llvta, atSchanK, 
ticocrpoioi, cooftillag of a later 
oad well fvniAcd YjWtlV-ntt Hoofc, 
wiih lea looms 1 a Stort, 4a by 10 1 
• large B«oi«d SVd. well fmilhcd j 
witb about cijthry • "lvz icki ol bind, 
bfthehtfl ^ualiry, jo acica of which 
arc low tend, lying on tae jfrajr, and 
about |s acres ol upland, ly I a* 
bout one mile fro.n the above. In 
Complete sence, dfrvtdea) lnio UVrt 
Iota 1 all which have a rtiesm of watet 
run&.ng itif.i-gh rb£tn In Ir% difefl 
feafon. For terma nil piiec, ea- 
q,iiireofih« fubfev ibtf, r>n thaprr 
mi'ef, who will grveao uodHflocab^ 
tttla foe the fame. 

April], 1707. Hi 

•?■ 9. Tee GBste aed dITI of Cap*. 
CHACE, on the Poinf. arc Imewlfe 
lor (Vic, and the terms and oaf win 
be totdeeafyi which say bettnowo 
by cplylng 10 biro, on thapitmtfes* 

A fffifgan fw Sitty HOUSE ™ 
/ V tbe u?nB fmrt of ibt village «/ 
Laa/iagttrghi cu itriinjtji'jr aflin aaia 
3ntf% ittvf aa fxtt/ttar fiond for a mtr* 
ebfrt, ta-iTzL-tpir, or mtebaxie, tht 
bo*/* •' elaefi tein*?ttf{f fiajhtd -j/ith a 
goad Ctltar mrndi* lit -u/bolt cf if, ftnd am 
tzcdteal itlixr kittiti, togtthtr wfifr 


TWO rtif hcaotifal young ST/iU 
LrONS ; ih« 00c a btigbt fciy, 
the other a encfaul bto«a, onoungtbrM 
yesn ola ; fifteen tuodsfc^n ; tcaarkS)- 
biy tlrortg, boury a*0 wtltV^moonh 
Tory were gA by thar nared uvl iho- 
rjogh-brcd horft, bOURKKOUr, otdt 
of two of ibe bell mares in this A <■ i tbo 
ena was Cfteea-fiatem(h) blooded, the o- 
her a full-blooded ioiporicd mate.— 

boarkrow. won eight royal plain u> I 
)Tir 1791, andhsinot oeiej inirainiog 

m bttrt 

!Un.e ; ui the year 1 793, ne vii imj^itej 
ffrm bngland, and now ow.^il by Ko- 
be re Heatoo, of the connry 01 V-eft-CheA 
ret. The pedjgrce and im.--i <A ■, j ',-_ rws 
wry beatrifui yoong aaanlow will be 
pen it- das tvuijucfs, by iLc fnbfcri^ 

Alsniww aajnhra^bnebaf GelJfngt, 

siviuss vety bxaanlbl breeding Masea, 
■itfcb&ueartfas bkoded. For ftirthn 
ntrticalan, apply to tht tWcribcr, aa 
Wanrr-VHctt one mile aortl. ol the air 
•frtlbfcy. * 

Match 17, 170.7, tft 


Attkelj^aOive NEGRO WENCH, 
about »6 years of age, whotmder- 
tandsall kiodsof Kiictum Work, ami is 
an exceeding good Cook. Site i« otti:rr\l 
for fale tor no faaTt ; the nant of em- 
ployment is the only reaXoo. I -^une of 

Pdavg, 1797. I 



HAVE brely retired, in addition 
ro their tor-Mr, a neat and filhi< 
ooitMe Affonment of GOODS, in rneir 
liru* of bofmels, fuirable for the prefent 
lea/on, Tlieir cutlomcr? can, a* ofual. 
be accommodated on the IbortcQ notice. 
Lannngbar^h, June 6, 1797. t 

moil kind: of Cou strt- Pro- 

5CJ-- Sto«Inc # & Pruort: 
t ho. done on toe tnoft. rcafona- 

NjL^iugburgh, Xov, 1, 1796,' -tfi 
~ T ~*QaP£^Pr5iS^*' 

itlro *i7»-r.)t/."V bj *I« ftukiib tviib a 
Kttle fKftwtf fight 6f lawserui ttUo m 
Stor*,J soda wrver failing tttll of W*.'/ r • 
ibewbo/e otakimg e Junae-)* -u/kitfifir 
ad rarue*i**U : . it tibardfyf 

dcgfitKe mad 

*ttv oiled latb'u tows : Parjurttv"i**tr~ 
tvletn rnonirr of the /ft/fit Att Imtxg em 
• lie prem/u : 

Mi he* e tj\,/n %-ih, . 

T_ A smiHsv*' of Ion <J L JH2J, ,io *%*■'■ 
fiKcopwtrrerlB.pol B. BBECKER ' ,^ M ,/^^bm ,» &/*» $?£& 
rjreo. « at, on the 1 1 atb uR-difolveH £l vawt „ t „ ,*, t\ ttV a, : .„ $ j#vbam*4» 


SOMt time in Apnl Ufi, a Kgoeia- 
ble Note ef Hand against Henry A. 
Delmsarrcfi given to the (uhiciiac/, for 
thirty-two Pounds, New-Vort oatreacy* 
Whoever has losod ftid nott> thill b* 
bandtbmeJy .ewaxded by rcetuni^g it to 
Lanfingbwffc, May i, 1797. rfy 

by mutual confem, ' All ic.jr.» there- 
fore, who sre indebted 10 laid firm, are gr/f qiiitfirj 

■npany fatrti) 

Tee Upu it of ih* 

folicited to make Immediate pcymeat ; ^t^^iuaSewi,, tfcitti \blfi 
andttofetowhomlaid 6r.nts indebred, , vbo-ue.Ji, <->fej>-l*e*j a ,JknJ, my beaten 
ore reqnefied tft exLibff their accounit for ; modntedwbfiirm, f„*\ot>n toootfr»rf 

a fetUctncar. , 

LsaCngburgb, May ty 1397. 

THE bu5nd: will be contin- 
ued by Eli at Paimbii sikI R«n<s- 
ma!i bEtCRia, underJbehrm of PaI- 
Mtia and Bcecnea) srbo « ill contiu- 
oe mancfitioring Turpentine and Shaving 
SOAP, Mould and D.p'd CANDLEb. 
u ufuil. The/ i^vcuor oaliaada t8iail 
affawmcot of 

■b, ai ma* Utft fait them., oJn* Op lb> 
mefl reafonableeetm. TbefubfSber in- I 
ttnii bvilJiig agri/t end fawauilja/eiJ ' 
totu/t lb* tnfmmg (umntr. The title wilt 
b* vierrraaui on fit Ceasedieat tia-im bj 
ibe/mbAnber. * 


Lamjhtgitirgbf Itb. X, 171,7. * 

Leather DrefJer St Glover) 

HAS for fab, at the Ego of ihf 
Breecbetfic Gtov.s.ot/'ifite W.ilto, 
Geo. 8e Sen. TibSu, good Wata- 
Leirher, Bu-b nndDoeSkio, She** 
SfidLombdo, Vhlre Lea'aer, Call. 
Goer, Sheep aid Lamb Sklof, tao*ej 
Sheep fend -Lamb Si*m»[ Trw U\ | 
BB«,*«etn4yon>cn*tabQ59i Ladiet'aodJ 
^iJtraM'i CI --<■■"!, oftJIfgjts. 

A L $ Q> 
Aquaorhy of good .^pinnftig fit Ha&- 
lerv' 7'ou! : all which he * ill fell 
cheap lot cafe j a-idth:faaIleflrs,or 
graTeluIIy arhnowlc dg-d, 

N. B. Cslh giveo for fmall Calr*, 
Colt r. a SAcep ;i> ' '. 
Laoriogbofsh, Oct. 4, 1750", 



A 'Jit/Cat HOVSE, and lot of 
Ground, en K'lg'Slntf, tfpffitt 
ibe Printing Ofict* an lie -Village of Lan- 
fttgbofgb; lb* Hasfe iinoojtortee bigbf 
*rd:<* an eUsibU fixat'tos for bitfinefi I 

Alfo* oar ImedreJ and forty one Ocrtt vf 
tntrtUmt Lacdt fiwat* m the ajtfijide of 
Lata Qbamptmn. For tit terns of pay* 
aire/, apply is chefttbfcribtr, ,W Larjiug- • 
••rgb. t JOHN D. DICKJMO.- 

h CHOATE and '0 

HAVB received at thfir, Card M»- 
nulaclury- an alf^ilmenr of 


which dwy will difooli of low, for Caft. 




THE Dwelling Hoofe and Lot 
wnuc tbc fuhfctaier now bra, to- 
gether wife- two ohoja tbctetui, feparan, 
tri)anli9dweHiao,fu;^Meiot Ivteehania,. , 

The front c*.£tuWeb oecumien J7 ^.^ •«7«»«™ «J 
meTcba^, Tr»pternitV are m> ; '^.^ 5 * « ,he Mam ftm - *«!-«- 
liie.\teiT.G.a!B.*:iob(u*e. <** *> fM " 

EnijIiiTi C«d Wirt, of an faeeH'nt 
quaitiy i they aietherr-iore teady to 
fjoply thsir ftirr.dsapd cullnnwr', on 
ibr IhofteO nntice..wi'hCARL:S U\ 
any defcrlplion. By the v'fi'fs d icn | 
or line;*? pajr. vpry cbe«P^ ard rcjuil fupeiior la'ao* Maaufaciu(rd 
in 1 he United Sine*. 

I.«r.l,ngbaii;n. ]uly ro I706. 1 I 



AND pOJfcffi&n uamedtately given, 
b vety convenient dwelling Hoofe 


FOR fide by the fubfesiber a 
quantity of the beft ltd 
clover .t«d. By the hundfcd or 
ingle pound ; tikewife a general 
rtfortmantof Hollo*- ware. tfl5 

LaeCn.jbur.jih, Jan. 24, i**Q7- 

Troy HoceL 

THE fubferiber moft ref^ettnlly in- 
R-rTiia Kis friend!,, and the public, 
that he Tu» lately removed from Lea/rig- 
burglr w Tsoj, where he has take-i a good 
*kT convenient Hoafc fr*TAV£itN, 
oppofite Ass let's, at the Ferry; and be 
ftattrtf U: n-.feli that nothing (nail prevent 
hia makinghis emtcrtainrnen.e^ual to any 
in thii jaa of the country, by ull.dii.ty 
and .atlcotirm in the life of his bjunefi, 
i May 16, 1797. I 


A Convenient Dry-Good* 
STORE, with <- good 
Cellar tinder it. in the moil el- 
igible* part of this town, "for bu- 
Gneft. AppW to 

Imn/itgtwti, fei. :E, 17-17. (fi 

uatcd oppoli 
on a comer lot, bounded c.t HoUck and 
K.»g Streerj. The hoofe is ^nnvemenr 
icr a t.imilv, andluia ooodgarden ; td- 
fo, a building, ocmpitd as a ftaMe, 
wbereb can be Itorcd nboor rood bu(b> 
rb of ..■"'■■-. 

■ The whole will be difpofed of on ger4 

terms, and polTellicn jikh ' by the tin. 

cf (Jctober next, 01 fooou if nrcciftr} . 

Wm. BELL. 

LanCo"horgh, Na y 8, 17Q7. tfi 


A l.! v.; I .-, fmi'; young NEGRO 
WENCH about if ytan.l 
age. ■ Enquire cf the Printer. 

Lanlingborgri, May . j, 1797. ■ 1 

W A M T E 

dtttant not aore than Jibees miles 
uom Albany, In?* o N SwSatusgbargh j 
!jr vbafh a crnr't*, ta will be given 
—or picbated,, if p.act, 1-c rr.-.?-. , 
:"!• withci of the pcribn wamiftg. For 
rurthci ir.tDiiv.tien, enquire cf Mttfri. 
CutcAnsv end rtuTui.aigB.e, Lau- 

N. B. Ob th* HidlV I'ltwdd be 

LmSngborgb, April u. tit 


Spanish Hides 

Arrived this day, of the befi kinu. They 


JVftt' - York Pricey by 


Albany. Ap; ; lj4. 1 

Calvin Barker, 

Painter and Glazier^ 

Has for tale, st his Shop, oppofite Mo, 

Galpin's inn, 

A. GENERAL aJTonmeot of Paints, 
dry an J ground in oil . Lik*ewife all 
kinds o| Colon, ready mixed and prcpa- 
ed fir ya.-iime deigns, dens, ire Oil ; 
Putty, by the hundred or tLTaller qnanti. 
ty, and great wuiuwanca, ma tie to those 
who porchalc by tbe bandied ; Psiaren* 
Hid Limners' BruBtes and Tool*; Gold 
Leaf; a, gescral c&rtnnei of Wud'iir, f.-om aa by 16 to the fmallelt gar, 
tthieb he Will cut to any dinienri on. 
\ S4uln^s*rgh, Nov. 1%, ■ 390. a 


i*>o Eirreltof Cider, fort if 
go-xl Ipr pre/ept ofe ; the acipajiaijei raj 

a good' for Vinrvar; a.fn, a few 
Band, of Pork- ) dWi£L BUCSLY, 

Laofiusburgli,- April 18, 1-LJ7. 1 

Hh»F \S Hug* MMdJeroo.of 

PIJlrfbiKfti. in tin; (in:, y- uf 
Cliaton anitnariof Mew- Ycrb, rjrc, 
on she tfcuieenth dsy of Jjnuerv. it.- 
the year one thoufaBd.rcves I .. u -.d:.<j 
•-•■d fit, ro f;curc (he ['.■.,o.,[ 
ol ninety pou'.dt. with liwinl !r.tei - - 
ert. oq 01 before the brlt cay cit-c- 
btuaty nest eaftjlng, rr.ztt.iy? i,> 
Chatlc; Dunham, sit ihaienrain lor^ 
piec^ut parcel ol hod, fiin-te, lying 
*i. J b .. !'■ " ir. Clinton County and it.-te 
of New- Yelk, beinr psrrcf let No^ 
%}, i:. ihenifl cIlvITionof the t. -,.. 
BiipofP.atr.W.fli, and betrlnt it m 
whlr^n-iul ■.■i.ipllac, ^itki'l N 1. 3^ 
bein^ rhe conb eaft cojc'-rof lot N»^ 
j8. thvocsiaOtth, ttui'.y-oncct.ainii 
ro a beech Ufe, maikcdontbiccfir*C7- 
(heoee tn-a, twcety-ihtee chitw^ 
f ghty-fisre li.>ks. t r.. . 1:.- f uth, twes. 
ly>o^e chains. Ih-ncu cafl, :j chains, 
crghty links, 10 the pI.C; of be* 
Slfir.tng 1 conttini -g ttlry ecsea of 
lind. Ant) ■ wvhc.ass default i Q 
paytssDt has beeo made uf the aSore 
mentioned nltvety poUi^-, Vkb tb? 
inteieS, according ro tht tero ana 
e*T.<- of fdd Dorfgage: rJotice^. 
tiwrtfrre, berclrf r-veo, that ifea f5o" 
oof igsg-d pecBslfta will be fold, at 
public eucsioo or vtodue, at tti hou'a 
(*f Pbxbf KcfehMSt, In 
on she tenth day cf Dumber cn*t p 
at to o'clock In ihc forcoooc, to tb* 
higheft biddei*, acording to the ft«> 
ttrte ia fucb cale i&ide acd p. 0, u , .'. 
and In c-a<c realty 10 tlac power cco« 
.sioed io the tBoncage ana] of faict 
premifci 1 ar which .i3>catd ,'Tsra 
tbc CODc..ioosof f*!* will be mads 
keont), ted • c-jc -yeni-,', ftifTiciexx 
In tbc Uv7. rziTvrs6 to. he r-tcs._ 
fee. by CHARLES DVWitm. 
rja.iCwrg\ Xhj ?«,, 1797. »} 




Tax 0.1 H.* Jo, Landi i 

■ '■ ■ 

r* M arfat'/ t\#.ii#» Jti ».. ■ 

* ■ r o r r. 

T*BJ. U ibt* t^M. M "li: »• Bt-rdVy 

Inn, *• bt 

■ffB*Maa*l MM|l!i Tt-ii' lm, » .J-J- 

. . 

m4« 4 ■ ■» »Jl ef U^lanl 
••4 aa h flUai tc be «MM ii<«fW«i IW 


Tb-» eaaaeaa ■ Vi birr f »r J-I aa t t '«* 

•I >*- |*T .O* — v-t *l tht r.'-att r». 



• *rbi>pai - ta, Tum. 

. 1, ••-.■?*■ t, •!•*%■ 




I ■ _■ Lit , JT. 

**JB. an met »■• - . r, 1 BjaaaVr, t* at- 



r i - - 

Vi, *-t • i«b t-l en; 

b»-Ot* • *>! rw > 

~i*fc. .rtr-j". H I 

. fc*l t*«J-.I a-J 

*at"at-*i, »*.-. a. «■*;-■ at i r Btl| —■ ll I- 

1 . - i^,,. 

■ aa *», trttd ew tit af 

J -a! »«J fWty tw i: I 1 an, Ceagtrfi to* a* 
Ptdrat UaJt, Un J 

taara, Ul taaaaan-g u CM ifc*lhe«, Mt|j 
'""»-6< k»- fcaa^^twttWrr urta 
-■ .1 bti*t dtdaPttd Iteai ik>>[. 
S' *l nntMiuj npr^ti, hnta a 
tMiaactaf tec ■i W —, tint kaaJraj •ad 

. . J.-vl by Ma >rrt-i«, 
7 as tjaaaalltt «Wd itfj a| 
tea. mliMmiiM lb* tabu to it* taani «| 
I it-t. V*.-.-(..j la Ctai a* a. 

J do*: mi, ikiKiiui ki) ea 

^•<l«niViil .! DfCfaV 

bt* - tea rrttVni T«M. Il.*i'lbt lo/lr* 

I fa i.. i .. . ' , bear fat pambH la ,b, 
.'..aura al iku abiami aatbi a^a- i e 
«"*»■ ia^htk|TM>aNMnaUn. 
rd ai eertfuy, ibt tat: j ta»W 
pratnard fat by n». maj ajaj, u tat teat af 
.*« au.'.a, larra kak] and n.ntty tti 
iWaCaaaV litn at.aJ.rJ a-a ri-r aal'ut. 

Tan ia**, « auihiaMm* ■'. I 
dtrahii AWtaf iat • f .j.. <•■ — K.i k. ibt 
prrteet llMUal .( it.- . , . v , ;, 

ptnbabOfy ef iMrnkdn^MCM fart pa*. 
kbaut, aat » f*7 afvt »t . rj, d dtftlAnaa 

_ ia tat jrr»-.d br jr. b al ia« aritmt m raar, 
"•« ba>*4 MJM«at|T dai) i MaHfetOTi 
■ o"foli'(ut i.-nniMniiUiMi 

I **^ riwict, bj iktiWrtTNlrfrbt, tndtbt 

) i.-^if^jg o^»la-f,o( itotwrpnd-bt,— 
ta» (a lai i ttyooaMibpik it Ltli lauaif*. 
|4«t xo atVW^cil tmur, (r,n [-,ir»f 

P*a««ti ire fti^d j; taa bm- 

aWd ib .»aJ %..i»»^ jaaa.1 t ; 

n a n . ia t caaco'i tc bt iJSu 

T.» .r >*■ fc^tl fn ii tf tar nrnar 
■ ■ . 

- ilrtiia', t-jfci i«-- 

• - tj.fctaa JcLait, L Vir, n>|. 

..i at at*«»| ' 

■ -. L-r», a-*« NaWin) 

. iaoi adi W * (Lot axi-aa. 

-. t./w-r- 



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a ■ 

■ iaa;a* tf a* 1 , • fia», 


tJaai »-J IK17 i-*<.i 

. i... t 

waaa^ibt fA')a»«i£(rlataiic«it . 



■J. Taiirt -.11 bt d| 
iamai mtnacai' 
:l m. 

<t.'. Tbii ibedajukt^tattel* 
''■J. **T actlMia aA.S^tai, v« ti-'j, tuvfei 

1 K'v*ni. Tnt: fht trpnn-oanMni of 
.►» [mI ut iv(*t aihr iaaj« t m aag la. fes 
•<r.l Baa, KrtaiLnt 10 ibot .»t r ..1..» 
autabn al aa ht baaatt. at ifttttaiaad b) tat 


pkpok r. 

1- pj-». r,«a, t W naniiln a^ela itj^ lb 
•"■■» J tatPrtt'-laai'i irttta »i -t j-i 10 
<a» r >:.■««. fl | (Hnaxrrr, ind it« <**• 
(taa ol ihc itoij faati afllil en ihc 
1 ; b ' K. ta nq»t aaJ upon *|Mihci 
»-Tt »vl artui ■u«fii^a, a>»j t-« t*et(- 
(uT.itiat aa^anJtk^, "A* aft t« ct> 
T'tlfrm rakaf aaiurilitil>oe, 
5 fif.ii'c" p^Tai ea 
' it iba I* teaailit and 

irpoti vpon ih« np-dm-er cf rflibl Qdri 
bt ta*. 1 - f Alien 

'""»( a. KJVftaf »•■!■» tat Ua*«d 
• '" — I r-To' te it* 

n ■■ ■ a tt «l tba *a»M bMl« en tbe tmit 
of iS itiaa. 
t(*aw aaJtt twtlwo. ia .V HovEt of 

Rqfi frwiiim 1 

31# naajirtiv *pv*ttJ** lift fmrftf th 

^Wf» r '*» f'cAaVat a/ fl* l/«iWrf f UUt 

vtftrfittrj nu*f-i2i* f c-mrwtt 

«*/(Af tkftmttfj :liCt±*tr,,l4\t fmr.u 

.■'Hi £:nStJ H if* Hi*t« Rt 

-. tt m lint rtJttUtm f/ lif t ata 

aA. aU i.'fr/j^ti, 

Riroat , i% r«(T, 

faMa)lkM% Uti.W, "An 
- fl u rti 1 .. -i , n ar\:finia'< al ■Manl. 

a ' 

k.i oe mat tatrrar." alirat an rhaJlta] to 

BtMaJ it* Uo ml Stim. wbm. 

tail 1 ■ wm-itw, tbnt it t <n 

attaftof bVili tpaOa— ita iW 

li-t nal a^ltiit ef (h« toe a try, 10 toiitk 

•br« to i«cb ptirilr-e ; acd ibit for ibii 

p««;«tf, a lanrcr irdAtet «nba 1 - Uai 

, btfaN xfaai&oa, lUn lb* at> 

pronJn. u 1S.1 tul wwJ cut!" ta bt r-qun- 

"■•- Tat CMaTtmri *ra alio ef opinio*. IXu 

•at** |jitt«-j'i tj«r» tV* pcowIcuKt 

aad luairKC af tiitnt, >k.kai) 

- -. ai .<. ritjH, »:>.■ i\'r.'<". n 

■ri| arcrfbi* tad >ra- 

l laa H.urrf ar avan. 

Vila! ikntaWhi! btU(a<a«lef avlJt 


Oa ibtaj fu'Vfl* nfpttS^f. ib* can 
evnw beg fame ia i Kaa o m J it* i»i*rai£* 

t. /.Art-? y, Tatt prariGe-i cv(M 1 1 ba 

a-aia b 1- i^nef rra 

Oal tnuJ.iwn. -tart tWI 

aa r*«**J at ae in. klni S; 1 

aafar-l 1* bn. aw a uirta al lbs UemlJ 


■Van. at tu'l Vr» J. 

— N- f-nhaf 


. -CJ* a. ami 

.. S- ' j«>i r.. 

IWH *%**■ lb« 


•"'I «l| f« ftStll 

af b-Ci 

»**»t. Pran. 

aYi (-f ' 

•Aim art aa> 

.; a*j> 

»• I*" t» 

fe«t"i> '. -■ bVfiki, b-t 

ab' bit 

latBairyu. aiiaal iiiiawil. 

■t «a»--rra 11 ca-il at t,-.ktJ ii.te ib* hiS. 
rtl. Tar reouuiln ioj ». t.ui ccramf 
id t*» J^, , 

Tat 1 1 iad. ibt llMtft of RfptCrtitttitti 
i-t ibt L'a.inl b*Mn *f m Mite 1 t.iiuciirt 
of ik. labaHea b/ai't.-I lb. Unioc, 01 ibr 

!«-.,. Mi. Om *MLdit* iirf ■ipmlifi. 
*S<hbt bad b»rnp.»foi.*!. irO 1^ li.nt 
rrlalnmai rtpmita «cra ibra ar-rtd it, 
BTibrai orrXurwa, oo»ri.iw>,0j. T ht orm- 
auiitt raft, «b>-a Mi. Otu ewrrd la aa>c*«I 
ibt UCiamlat.eab; add.o K aJirr akii 11 
(an) tboq. ainaca »ad pmLlcr| istviaem, 
lUir «crf.. *ct (bill mbai.:- 
»(».aH iht Uentd Suiti.- ." 
arftjatrai bad «D>icT*aa« taabdfaait da. 
Mr. ,%:r. Ailta rrep^-dcj* «!t[i idj.t. 
trdnJ h, «itiBdin> l^T piBUJi 
pnajarOe ibt PitbJtai kiTlJ.eai 
Ibt 1 rue 111 it) utai araasi bt ft.'«:j th 
•lio^r.-ai ta ibt p«a;t cf ibt erven y. 4 
iBTca«l€rrabU dttu ( , Mr. A. « aaJtra 
praoofiioa. «at»> ibt ^. Urs-n oa Mt. Ot 
aratedaKei rttaiatd,* aad ^ - . 
H ■« tj. It bniax bttn I 
ll*il»,lr«fm.f»»i» ibe" 11: 
tart tt't f>ajtrj flmiU fird >i artilfiij tc *u ■^ainll FtxHi, Mr. v< " 
irpa'arrd (tt |rl!a*»ijr iaxn!a, "• b«1*Vt& 

mk 03u.«!:bc Cabal fiun «ult 
r*'tdwtt" Al .t Kbb* data'*, M 1 

Cinatt etttrd ij Hv tA ibt rnotkm hj ai- 
■««. ** at dka.1 -*nh *it/ haflilXT »f- ■■.»> its* 
U i<rd |uart| H b«i Mt. Drt tt duubtiag 
abtibn tldt bmbU eat infiiaPt on i-t rro- 
•■■i"icti- tf Ibt ttr-.l.'jii r. rr 

| ■ ■ , , ■ 

It i> jpoc*J till acxi tey t the «k>1i jo «u 

Tnov, ftLy 15. 

Tic dtUnjr Gazette, of bfl weft. 
mcrfliont. «l 3 report, tlui Wiiium 
Nonh, Efq. i> appouiied, by the Ex- 
ecutive ol ihiiSuie. »Scnjturol llie 
United Stales, art J. S. Hcbirt, 

poir.icd Diilrja Ju.ige. 

A Bnflon paper, of the tiTi Jnft. 
ftM*. Cjpum Davis, horn London. 
iafimaa, lb*t, Miicli s 5. off Ircbnd. 
he fpoke a Brii.fh Gfnina \< ll.-l. jufl 
om of port, thccapuiri ol wlucli fjlj. 

that newi had been received of the 
eapinrc of 3 French fngJtet and ^o 
tranfpont, on thcii way lro*n Don- 
tiik, to BrcO, by a Bntifti fijuaJron. 

73af tffefo e/tle Britifi Orier, N 
For caplunnc sll American vefTel*. 
bound to or frorn the ports of thcii 
rnemict,- are hid to be, that t$ per 
crnl. premium it now paid agamfl 
ibe nOi of capture by 'he Bntifii 
cruifcii. from New -Yotf tothcWcfl 
Indies. f/*&l»> R 

The French, flufhc-l'wilh viflorY, 
altJ •-"■'■ ■ 1 

aflcd in a way *» to make audi 
weep." It it, we (car. the univtr* 
fat conduQ of man. in crreumftaD* 
ces lite thofe in which the French 
ate. Lei ui, therefore, aamiic their 
braven-, refill the;t oppreiTiun, offef 
litem peace, and weep over poor hii. 
man ruiuie. [ *V. fa ', j h 

On the tlO April, a lire hrwlc* 
Ml in Wilnuomui N.C.1 arbico, in 

eir-ht hoiin, dcftmiej iuu ihtidt of 
tbC tOVn, [AVW'JW/atplT.] 

A st:-;.i F. 
[ T-fra fnm «• lr^ ^aarr.l 

I ««« MI>fl( |h* •!■ - 

•Vat tea Id o-riBr* IV at-.' < 
irti<aajbl-, a.!<a locki-| en ir- hn I a*(n. 
! <i|.i.oii I catttdad uV ft* 

t**Vf., j;J ,,hil kin(fl fal lit*. .rail. 
lad in 1 fnaean»tflaliBar|radka!iT errr 
pfcaJi axalt^-saabaaiaf aatb unlx 
tj and b-iuty. (n« IwJt alr-ii.pi av* 
bt dtri.r.1 traailBt vautl rf tb« pinnlt ef 
aaaaiaautd natttt, ho* a»rb to n bra-&;>- 
a : -,U .. bt lariat *vld d .n 
*' liit btttbrtw. J-ri tatnati ia aailt 1" 

On tie icVa r/ .fyrlt, tkt ite in lie 
river St. L*cn*c* yteijrJ wfi ill 
Jl'frutk, *\4 a-ai heJtm ut frittej by 
ii/ fl*tf /■# /ar/ 4Uttttki tj ffrtnf. A 
SUntrrjl /Si^rt _/)a.vj /jCu /if ^/a* 
o-ii attjnlh ~ ~ ~ 
1 ■ 

Tbc O&al axntOD let adjeorr. 
me*' to '•j-niiy 'on nudt. but nrr".rtc. 
at to 11— vl eowfi ibt Hcu_- lu ta »Uui< 

A Pari* paper, of March 6, roen- 
lioni the followicg cAiiaordinajj' oe- 
(oitcnic : 

Tlia of cevernmcm 
a; C-Ij:j, has tl.iu wuiten to ihc 
Minifier ol the Interior; " 1 hold 
it fufir-tcntly imponant t» give you 
th*. inlormation, thai ihe Caoyennc 
Foumict, on the ml, bIt. wai deli- 
vered oi fir living childxeo, ihrre 
bo)i a"r.d Hire* girli, bui wlucb tiajc! 
fo-yi attei they were bom." 


**• , iad •% Mm al a*. 

* tl HaaV • -- : Ot, (-»• 

| a* *« Us**d i tad rt- 

-faaef rbrtaaaMta »W— aaff- 

[ aa* btaajrtaf rtaak*>» -»t <• (jaa- 

taa, tamaaWaalf a-a *a -aWat laant. 

-» •*. Haa<t af H-* ia iafwt 
-» a. tj* t-r*-t a* 

-' tba aafwii«aaaa af a-awt i 
•««• Mt. !■».«• prit aal — a***d the rr 
raft ay i' • •*-§ laai tBajarta* -» aWt 

- ■■ tttMf dt 

- i:%Mbji af tar t 

n aadr, taaadnHBl ' 

I- r-».*dai»»t vara - 
•■ aj» «-* 
> - • ■ Sea af bbbbbb ar 
H'-*i «tC-*d^aar>. Xar. Itatytt 
avtuua, ^.., b| ia»j 

fnlh /.rami, tnni tk( er-p 'c*r\ 
enp, rtUtne fa- M/ j 
rnttafu li/ Wuu ef ike in- 
k*hU*li en cUrmfcr tke ftfetj eflke 
a.-t/fj aAd* /.'.*/r tufrevemeati *m tke 
riaaT /fa>. C4TifiJersHe ffary omj 
dV«f f# fitat lArrf *y U/ tmentftg 
e%* Wirt «.*«• i »*//», -//> /t *f4rt,m 
fitmtUeJ #a fi/ M»a, /*/ tr/ anaj firaata 
a/- fa fit */W*J y JO /'■»• ^// r r- 
4nr/inf b«rr c-jerUimed tkst g'rjt 
aV*ra<7/e*. tf p'efertj W—U af*e em 
tie fids I ef Oe nvtr rda*a iLurtii 

| ■ --C tat a/ Hi pufiili 
l-t t a* if- U-.-td a-atrt -*i. njlij 1 
St#» - aWt-fi*- tba traacnaat ttat Iraaa 
pff-jbaj kaat ta Mt. F— tbar), 
«r Ur> awa d wt at tba ta a rtt af Omi Bra. 
ta aid apa-a. — rreana ibt fyrttmt af. 

_ _ V-a. W 'ba* tawtt Ufa* L - 
batr BtaiB i *»B»a-J aaaa af tW • 

. nd ta, ia i*t ca*>- 
•'•. m •* tl I tad at tkt 


aaf ibt tkM MiatWU 

[J- To the Citucni of Lanringburgh. 

5iTt/ pvtt-JJjKc exr Ufi »mW, a 

■ Ural Ai.-;-- irJuitJ 

m ic M/etr i* t!itextrJtBn.\ cj reau, 

Pn/c.itt, Oj:-e to uui far: 

it k&i therefore, htm Jo*f.~- 1 

*«rXiwa/>»tT7ii*i nntittcftkn ncr<* 

»»/«. Jrfd* ea-r au'aa'i Ae/a ejuirt,\ intei 

mp ea the Jut-jell ty axel. Ii\ Oft 

€t>aftdat, iawcPcr; ttj/ na itu-awtf'- 

< :'-Ji to your bufie ej i t c jar 

HaxJt. 7>r A^ien'ftrit'ii requii'e3 

... aii^n^/t Ir^ol cbzioiioa, 

ly tkeir tttiiuanon here, uhih tkry 

ucmU tj pahbfnei al Leajhghtgk : 

4<if,/ f»f <.- Adx*rttf*+tKtt n-U 

teattBtu tc ivtirxmlaUJ aiHoin'hc fame 

tvjlctani &i ujad, J/> 

teaa'd. Hut tee 'tttuta y ; 
/4jc patronage trtntk yon I i 

• j' ■ ■• \liiUfit Lanfin^bn- ',. li'c 
fieiter ck'fdi+i pttr Papa - 

Jer*Jy kexa fiich as we aUuird you 
it (hould be. jy agreealU, tee jhdi 
eennnue to fene ytu mtk i/jj u/aa/; 
OK4lJka!f % upoa eoery cuafca, kekap- 
py i« lecefjittgarjexct jtt*e.icir ten- 
ia the iiae ej cur ifjixrji . \ 

THE OfTiecof »! ); NORTHERN 
BUDGET it letnuvrd I id 
l jt 'j'''£ fl,r $* lo Jtej — aud i> r.:i\9 
trp: or, -.lie eaft fiJe of Wata-Jtrttt, 
four doon aorth ol Pi:ri:;'j Inn. 
This papei ccntinuti lo have an ex-' 
tenfive ciifiilauon in the Pale ol 
Verataai, and in the counties of 
Resteer, Seraxga, ICtJatatua 
Mcrctiapu and o:hej», 
wha aVifh lo fccuie an eaienli\ etude 
aftd conn-.'iion to (lie KbrthVdtd,' 
may avail llbemfelva of ihii chan, 
nc!. lo ad-.eilile the Public ol ihett 
vanoui flaati*, lines of buCnefj 
— Tlicir cenimand; i?il] ci'^i meet 

The 1'lUN J INC BUSINESS, irl 
all its vaiir'.v.eejblcuird atilmORirb 
with neJtncU sn.l uccurjci ; A0- 
ufuai temifaJlLANKii, c! all fcantjjk. 
"kepi (oi tfcTan 
ouUced, bv 

R.MOFnTT e Co. 

5 1 ' May \*fk, i7oB r 

C/th'S Paper Jeet a pattttaU'r |/«. 
fur< m ■.niivateJftnr the nery liberal 
ememi ahteh tie CtttZOIt of 
Ttty kji-ejien-n /ef tflabhJJJog iketr 
Prt*bB%Ojf,tt in lbs plate: , 
Tf ft <$* re d, tk&t trerv txtmo* Jhalt 
b* cade to render the Paper ttj'ftuead 
eatert&im nr, a*4 to eeiieli 
a txaeaer, as JkaU continue **d in 
treafetL:! I, me left 

K'{'j[cn jcr e;ir tuMtaefi i 
tkanjat eut rtfeeil-: 
hut J, V rvtr yeai u 

mvma\ that c Meats-Paper u repaleda 
}ifl miirer.Jreitt n 
tke manners and imptaunaentt cj 
tkeptjpU amoag a ham it u pnMfis3 t 
amd i > ,• i~*mu'; r - , ; , . , M j a uzitrip* ky 
akkh to Arm mux tk'i' ta.Qr. , A., 
therefore, the ttpmtetttm ef Iku eitT* 
' ■ ll, tr ft,*/ 

aVB/arT, cttnwtltj to tkeNon.1 It LK.M 
Bl- hc it. tk< LMtort oilt en/t*tuns , 
(-Lrf fi>r Prrfsj 
totA j jit 


; andcvciy fivxHU d'-ly 


L tj >« " t> - a»tl / .a-L ^i yi- 

■ 1- . frv 
r^r.r-al. ih.ii 1;» ct t.'io- 
li^rd i Fr.KKV. ai ibt lowtnj.i' l*aoV| 
opponre i» thu '.f Mr '■ U 1 ' I; fit h» -red fitt Bo.-.. ttrv<tnca1 
Funnxiii sad wUrrt r-omtint tiitaHaaca 
. ■ Ai itui F»try it t.-i . I 

Hub tbr olarr, and ai nml":^ ftlal bl 'lit- 
lit or hi. pjrt la wr f iri iy nWiI'Mimll ibt 

pabU. ht fimrri bim> r u o.rci uio tul 
tccauia^tir.iri »bub it mt"r 


Troy. Mn n, I7gl. »l 

iVc/rn pr Strayed. 

FKOM ibt nlfam ef Trov. lant : tri 
Uit arwS:, » dait hro^o JJOK^F.. *. 
brat itn Jt:.*i nH ; ite *uir bu f*-n arV*! 
off tbe 10C1I* ol Lu bind left, tod (roo i J 
tvi L:-i| I, Li nue< binrt oe fc-;h G-« af 
bit nctfc i ind, afiii ii tar ptt-jlwl. W 
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<xdi mxii tHt£t Ltrrnui praix 

---^ Postscript* 

Atf.fcrt. May 
Yeflerdav arrived her.- i ■ I 
C^farxaVe. Alarr.fon, in ^4 days 
from liriilol. havinr, paned iom*oy 
in a -*!e ten days alttr he failed. 

A Cork paper, by itiii Uuji. of 
the tilt ol Match, eotifinn: *':e cap- 
ture, hySir J. B. Wancn. of fcvcral 
Frcneh fiipaiei, and GxtT Ifanfpoto, 
from DunLirk. brfand lo UieQ. 
Verbal accounts date, that on the 

t-tb Marcb, [Si, Pairick'i day) a 

general maflacie aru 10 ban taxen 

place in Ireland : but a timely dif- 
cover)", and the apprchenfion of part 
icta, prevented thc-bomd 

On Xfonday, in the Hotife of Re- 
prefentatives. the Ripuhiicant fue- 
ceeded in limiting thi.-pro|>ofcd I^ind 
Tax to one yeai t by a couCdcrabLe 

Af^r 11. 
We heat ihat ihc dir^atc bctw**n 
BrrxVholfiLavir.^ftofl. Ef<] and Mr 
Jtmei Jonei, occafiohed b] 

j Mr. L. in ihr ^rrai of 
Monday.) I d < -Young 

Men. was, oaf Wrdnefday, termina- 
t'A at Hocbuck hv a n L' 1 l. in which 
Mr. Jnnrt w»» rili in. 

I BTbatb broke n-t la Wil. 
BJn gl u O, N C. (memionetl »n oiir 
Mijniiji ) proved very <kf- 
trutlive Kt thai town, aj.i«i 55 or 
6©dweHto»rMuft, jn J flo- 
fmall b«,: dtoafliea. 

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■■t r "F THIRP r »«.f OF Tin PI rHEI15 BrDOCT PL'BLtSHBD 15 TROT. 

• RK 

C^. c\L , /?rv, c^cz C&r~/H. L 



into (Ih-iii with all the ability and zeal it could command. 
The discussions were long and sharp, often bitter, but the 
bitterness of feeling passed away with the disposition of the 
Questions in controversy. 

" In December, 1834, a call fora public meeting appeared 
in the Budget, for the purpose of considering the expedi- 
ency of organizing in tins city a Young Men's Association 
fur Mutual Improvement. The meeting was held and 
largely attended, and a committee appointed to report a 
plan and constitution, consisting of Thomas Coleman, 
Ralph Ilawlev, M. I. Townsend, T. I!. Bigelow, and my- 
self. The committee reported at a subsequent meeting, 
the constitution was adopted after considerable debate, and 
the association, now grown to be one of our most im- 
portant public institutions, was organized. From the outset 
Mr. Kemble opposed the scheme, and was only induced to 
withhold his opposition in the paper, and let the Budget 
take the course it did, by the consoling reflection that it 
was a boy's experiment and would not last six months. 

'• There are persons here who remember distinctly and 
will never forget the condition of the city and the state of 
the public feeling during the cholera seasons, especially 
when the plague first visited the city in 1835,— the alarm 
of the public mind, the panic that prevailed, the stagnation 
of business, the sudden deaths, and the gloom that over- 
shadowed the whole community. The Budget was then 
published twice a week, but the people were not satisfied 
without more frequent information as to the state of the 
public health. Bulletins were usually issued from the 
office, under the authority of the board of health, two or 
three times a day, giving the names of the persons who 
died each day, and of the physicians by whom they were 

In 1836 the Budget passed to the control of Hooper & 
Cook, and was the organ of the Jackson-Van Buren party, 
known by the name of the Locofoco party. In 1837, 
Kellogg & Strong ; 1838, Kellogg, Strong & Cook ; Octo- 
ber 1, Kellogg & Cook; 184(1, Daily Budget, Carroll & 
Cook; 1840, in May, Francis & Brownell ; 1847, in Au- 
gust, Francis & MacArthur; 1S40, W. \V. Whitman ; edi- 
tor, C. L. MacArthur; 1851, C. L. Mac-Arthur; 1852, 
W. W. Whitman; 1S54, C. L. MacArthur; 1859, Jan- 
uary 3, William Hagadorn ; Hagadorn & Merriam ; 1861, 
changed to Troy Union and Budget, Van Arnum & Brow- 
nell ; then Troy Daily Budget, Brownell & Jones. In 
1802 it suspended publication. 

Subsequently the Troy Northern Budget was re-estab- 
lished by C. L. MacArthur as a Sunday paper. It is now 
of the size of the New York Times, is published by C. L. 
MacArthur & Son, has a very large circulation, aud is one 
of the most prosperous journals in the State. 

W. L. Marcy, afterwards Governor of the State, Secretary 
of War and State, was once an editor of the original 


senior editor and proprietor of the Troy Northern Budget, 
Troy, N. Y., was born at Claremont, N. H., Jan. 24, 1824, 
of Scotch parentage on the father's side, and New England 
on the mother's He learned the trade of a printer in the 
North American office at Watertown, N. Y. After a par- 

tial education in district and select schools, he pursued a 

higher i ree of studies, and was graduated at the Black 

River Institute at Watertown. Sub equcntly, for a shoii 

time, be was editor and proprietor of the Carthaginian, al 
Carthage, N. V. Thai proving unremunerativo, he 'went 
West." He was nexl a local reporter on the Detroit / 
Press. From thence be went to Milwaukee, Wis., aboal 
1842 or 1843. Milwaukee then bail a population of ten 
thousand, and was the rival of Chicago, whose population 
was only twelve thousand. Wisconsin and Iowa were Ti i 
ritories, and vast regions oul of which States have been 
since carved were then uninhabited by any white settlers, 
unsurveyed, and unexplored. He went with a government 
party, as secretary to the expedition, to make a treaty with 
the Sioux Indians on the upper regions of the Platte River. 
Returning with the expedition, he became the senior editor 
of the Milwaukee Sentinel, writing its first and leading 
article on its first appearance as a daily paper. It was the 
first daily paper published in Wisconsin. He remained 
there until the spring of 184(5, when he went to New York 
City, and subsequently became the city editor of the New 
York Sun, then owned by Moses Y. Beach, and edited by 
the celebrated Mordecai M. Noah. 

In September, 1S47, he joined John M. Francis in the 
purchase of the Troy Daily Budget. He went to Europe 
in 1851, and wrote a series of letters, some of which were 
widely copied into the newspapers. In 1850 he visited 
Cuba, under a secret government commission, to look into 
certain matters mainly connected with the Havana con- 
sulate, and made an elaborate report to the State Depart- 
ment. From Cuba he visited the Southern States, and 
wrote a series of letters to the Budget, which attracted 
wide attention. He continued with the Budget until Jan. 
1, 1859. On Oct. 18, 1859, he established the Troy 
Daily Arena, but sold it in the spring of 1801 to go to 
the war. Taking a prominent part in the organization of 
the 2d New York Volunteers, he was appointed regimental 
quartermaster, with the rank of first lieutenant, embarking 
with the regiment for Fortress Monroe early in the spring 
of 1801. This regiment was the first to cross into Vir- 
ginia from Fortress Monroe. He was at the battle of 
Great Bethel ; witnessed the " Merrimac" and " Monitor"' 
fight in Hampton Roads; went with the regiment, after 
the capture of Norfolk, to Portsmouth, and participated 
with it until appointed by President Lincoln and Secretary 
Stanton as captain and assistant quartermaster in the regu- 
lar army. Subsequently he served as brigade and division 
quartermaster; was at the battle of Fredericksburg; through 
all the battles from Fair Oaks to McClellan's seven d.iys' 
fights in the " change of base" to the James River. 

On quitting the army he received two brevet promotions 
from Governor Fenton "for faithful and meritorious services 
iu the late war." 

In the fall of 1S04 he established the Troy News, the 
first Sunday paper in Troy, and in the State outside of 
New York. It was almost the first Sunday paper in the 
country that was a live neics paper. It proved a great 
success, was taken by all classes, and lifted Sunday journal- 
ism from the average flashy region of sentimental storv- 
writing to the higher plane of disseminating the latest aud 



fullest reliable intelligence, both locally and generally. Mr. 
MacArthur sold the Nercs at a handsome figure in 1SUG, 
having become one of the editors and proprietors of the 
Troy Daily Win',/. The Troy Daily Budget having died 
during the war of " too much copperbeadism," and the 
Sunday News failing to meet the public wants in Sunday jour- 
nalism, on Marco 21. 1869j Mr. Mai-Arthur re-established 
the Troy Northern Budget as a Sunday journal, and it 
bi c tme i great success from the start. It is now a paper 
of the size of the New York Times, has a large circulation, 
and is one of the best paying pieces of newspaper property 
in the State. 

In its publication Arthur MacArthur is associated with his 
father, under the firm-name of C. L. MacArthur & Son. Mr. 
MacArthur has been an active and influential politician; 
was a Free-Soiler in 1S4S. and remained a Democrat up to 
the advent of Lincoln. lie was for several years a member 
of the Democratic State Central Committee, a delegate in the 
National Convention of 1S56, and a frequent delegate to 
State Conventions. lie was an alderman from the Second 
Ward in 1S52 and 1S53, and for a number of years, under 
Democratic rule, the collector of the port of Troy. Since 
Lincoln's first election Mr. MacArthur has been an un- 
wavering Republican. For a number of years he hold, 
under the Republican administration, the office of collector 
of the port, until that office was abolished. He has also 
been an extensive traveler to all parts of this country and 
the West Indies, the Pacific coast, etc., and his various travel 
letters published in the Budget, fromjlorida, the South, the 
Bahamas, Pacific coast, etc., have been read with a relish 
by many thousands who have personally expressed to him 
their admiration of the vivid and graphic descriptive pic- 
tures which they afford the reader. In newspaper contro- 
versy be writes with a directness and iucisive force that 
usually makes his opponent desire to "stand from under." 
II i- regarded as one of the most vigorous, forcible, inde- 
pendent, and courageous newspaper editors in this section 
of the State, and that he is endowed richly with the 
"second sight" of true journalism the great success of the 
Budget abundantly testifies. 

Till'. TROY Wit Id. 
The first daily newspaper printed in Troy was the Troy 
Daily Sentinel, whose primal Dumber appeared May 1, 
1830. When this well-conducted daily, which was an even- 
ing paper, was discontinued, a paper known as the Tiny 
Daily J'ress succeeded it in September, 1 -:'•'_'. In the latter 
part of June, 1834, the printing establishment of the Troy 
DaUy Preti was purchased by James M. Stevenson, a gen- 
tleman of refinement and education, who changed the name 
of the paper, and on July 1. 1834, tin' first number of i(a 

--or. the Troy DaUy Whig, appeared. On the Ti 

day following the appearance of tin' initial number of the 

daih i)i Weekly Whig, which, like tho daily, 

had a continuous life for more than fori-, five years, and 

ill published. After the establishment of the Whig 

ih. | ., :il partisanship of the citizens of 

Troy were divided between that paper and the Troy Budget, 

pet which i in the spring of L862. The 

Whig WU the representative of the political organization 

then newly denominated the Whig party, which was com- 
posed of all the elements that were adverse to the Jackson 
party, and also of that small portion of the Jackson party 
which began, at this period, to revive its former modes of 
thought and to refuse to be turned over to the advocacy of 
the claims of Martin Van Burcn for the presidency in 183G. 
With supporters of this nature, and with the constant op- 
portunity afforded of attacking and exposing the weakness 
of the opposing party, the Whig rapidly gained in favor, 
and came to be regarded not only as the exponent of the 
opinions of those whom it represented, but also as the 
political guide of thousands in the counties of Rensselaer, 
Washington, and Saratoga. 

With Mr. Stevenson was associated Alexander McCall, 
both in editorial and business management. These gentle- 
men, of Scotch abstraction, were well adapted to conduct 
the business in whose prosecution they were engaged. Mr. 
Stevenson was exceedingly affable and courteous in his 
manners, while Mr. McCall attended with great assiduity 
and patience to all the details of matters which demanded 
his attention. The new aspirant for favor was well received, 
and its affairs were prosperous. The merchants, the business 
men, and the citizens generally were anxious to have a per- 
manent daily paper, and contributed liberally to render its 
circulation wide-spread, and to increase its advertising pa- 
tronage. While affairs were in this condition, the Troy 
Morning Mail was established by Tuttle, Belcher & Burton, 
about the year 1838. This was a daily paper issued in the 
morning, and, being of the same politics as the Whig, was 
its rival for party support and party influence. But this 
rivalry did not long continue. Two Whig papers could not 
then be supported in the city. The Mail was merged in 
the Whig in 1840, and from that time forward down to the 
present time the latter has been the only morning daily in 
the city of Troy. On July 1, 1S39, Mr. McCall sold his 
one-half interest in the Whig to Mr. Stevenson, who there- 
upon became the sole owner and proprietor of the paper, 
and in his charge it remained until his death, which oc- 
curred at his home at Cambridge, in Washington County, on 
Aug. 22, 1S50, in the forty-third year of his age. 

From IStl'i to" 1848 the editorial management of the 
Whig was in the care of the late Joseph Barber, known in 
literature as "The Disbanded Volunteer." when it passed 
into the hands of J. N.T. Tucker, where it remained during 
the presidential campaign of the latter year. Mr. Tucker 
was succeeded by Charles 1>. Brigham in the early part of 

1849, and during the fall and winter of 1S49-50. John 
M. Francis was employed by Mr. Stevenson to organize and 
maintain a local department for the paper, a duty which he 
performed in an acceptable manner, making that depart- 
ment a special feature of the journal. In the spring of 

1850, Franklin B. Hubbcll became the local editor. After 
the death of Mr. Stevenson, Mr. Bingham succeeded to the 
proprietorship of the paper on Oct. 1. 1850. At the fame 
time Mr. Hubbell retired, and his place was taken by Abra- 
ham Fonda, who had for many years been foreman of the 

Whig, and'who now assumed editorial labors with case, and 
became known aa the wielder of a trenchant and effective 


\loiii this period the political parties of the country wers 



in a transition state, and during the latter part of the period 
in which the Whig was under the proprietorship of Mr. 
Bingham it was conducted as an organ of what was known 
as the American, or, more popularly, as the Know-Nothing 
party. Meantime, Mr. Fonda had left the Whig and Mr. 
Huhhell had resumed his editorial labors. In the latter 
part of IS.")."), George Abbott, who had long been connected 
with the Whig establishment, first as a compositor, and sub- 
sequently and for several years previous to the last-named 
year as its business manager, became its owner. From that 
time until 1803 the paper was in the editorial charge of 
Mr. Hubbell. In 185!), James S. Thorn became assistant 
editor, and so continued until about 18(32, when he was 
succeeded by Thomas Hurley, who served in that capacity 
for fifteen or twenty months. In accordance with the views 
of those interested in the management of the Whiff, it ad- 
vocated the principles of the Democratic party during the 
latter years of Mr. Abbott's proprietorship. 

In 1863, Mr. Abbott sold the Whig to an association 
represented by two Massachusetts gentlemen, — Hugh \V. 
Greene and George C. Hill, whose firm-name was Hugh 
W. Greene & Co., and under their direction it was edited 
in the interests of the Republican party, whose principles 
it has since then maintained. Mr. Greene was the business 
manager, and Mr. Hill the editor. On Nov. 10, 1SG4, the 
paper passed into new hands, and for a little more than a 
year its business was managed for its owners by George 
Evans, Alexander G. Johnson serving as editor, Charles E. 
File, and, subsequently, Capt. Howell being assistants. 
During a part of the year 18(50 the affairs of the Whig 
were in charge of C. L. MacArthur. On April 1, 1807, 
Wm. D. Davis and Robert II. MeClellan became the pro- 
prietors of the Whig, under the firm-name of Wm. D. 
Davis & Co., Mr. Davis being the business manager, as- 
sisted by Le Grand Benedict. Charles L. MacArthur was 
for a short time editor, but was succeeded by Isaac M. 
Gregory, the local department being in the care of Thomas 
Hurley. At this period in its history the form of the paper 
was changed to that of a large quarto of eight pages. 
About Sept, 1, 1808, the Whig passed into the hands of 
Alexander Kirkpatriek, who had for some time previous 
been the proprietor of the Lansinffburffli Gazette, and on 
the 14th of that month it was again issued, and since then 
has continued to be issued in its original folio form. Alex- 
ander G. Johnson became the editor of the paper, in which 
position he continued until his retirement, on April 18, 1878. 

From July 9, 1872, to May 3, 1S73, W. A. Linn was 
associated with Mr. Kirkpatriek in the management of the 
paper, the firm being Kirkpatriek & Linn. From the 
latter date until Nov. 19, 1873, the ownership was in Mr. 
Kirkpatriek. At this time the Whig was organized as a 
stock corporation, under the name of the Troy Whig Pub- 
lishing Company, which is its present form. Mr. Kirk- 
patriek was chosen president, and held that position until 
his interest in the company ceased on April 18, 1878. 
During a portion of this period its business affairs were iu 
charge of Charles E. Davenport. Among those who, in 
later years, have been engaged on the Whig in the per- 
formance of editorial duties, whose names have not been 
before mentioned, were the late George W. Demers and 

Do Witt Van Duron, also (',,1. Latham C. Strong, E. H. C. 
Clark, John Johnson, now of the S<inii<, : i<i Eagle, B.C. 
.Maine, now connected with the Rochester Democrat "«</ 
Chronicle, L. 11. Sexton, A. J. Weise, and James H. 
Potts. The business management of the job ami news 
department is now in i he charge of George W. Conn, one 
of the most experienced printers in the State, who for more 
than twenty-three years has, in different capacities, been 
connected with the Whig. Among those engaged on the 
editorial stall' of the paper are Stanton P. Allen, Philip 
II. Sullivan, M. F. Hemingway, M. L. Furry, and George 
B. Van Santvoord. 


There is not in the State, outside of New York City, 
a more brilliant instance of newspaper success than that 
of the Troy DhUij Times. Established June 25, 1851, 
by John M. Francis and R. D. Thompson (the latter re- 
tiring in 1853), with little or no capital but brains, indus- 
try, and determination, the Times has become one of the 
leading journals of the country, and wields a wide and salu- 
tary influence in the thousands of homes to which it is a 
welcome daily visitor. Little by little it crept into public 
favor. At first it was printed upon a small sheet, about 
one-half its present size (forty-six by twenty-nine inches), 
and its circulation of only a few hundred was mainly con- 
fined to the city of Troy. Now it daily prints ten thou- 
sand papers, which are distributed over a wide extent of 
territory, embracing all of Northern and Eastern New York 
to the Canadian line, Western Vermont and Massachu- 
setts, and extending in a considerable distance on the line 
of the Central Railroad in the interior of the State. No 
daily journal published in New York (with of course such 
exceptions as the leading metropolitan newspapers) can 
boast of a circulation approaching these figures, nor is 
there one that exercises a more commanding influence over 
the minds of its readers. 

The Times was begun as an independent journal, though 
it expressed clear and positive views upon political subjects 
generally in harmony with the more liberal Democratic 
thought and policy of the day. In the struggle to keep 
slavery out of the free territory of Kansas and Nebraska 
it took open and decided ground against the extension of 
the barbarous institution, and when the Republican party 
was formed the paper was already prepared to advocate the 
principles which breathed the breath of life into that or- 
ganization. In all the presidential struggles since 1S60 it 
has been a conspicuous and faithful supporter of the Re- 
publican candidates ; and when Mr. Lincoln was elected and 
the Rebellion was inaugurated it distinguished itself by 
the zeal with which it advocated the national cause, and 
urged the most earnest prosecution of the war, that slavery 
and treason might be overthrown and the Government be 
perpetuated for all time. It supported Mr. Lincoln's ad- 
ministration in all the measures adopted to maintain the 
national authority, and having made itself obnoxious to the 
secret friends of the South in the city of Troy, by the per- 
sistency with which it urged the enforcement of the draft 
to recruit the shattered armies of the North, its office was 
attacked by a mob and destroyed in the month of July, 



18G3. In less ilia le week the issue of the paper was 

resumed, and from that time, if possible, the ZYroes became 
in, re earnest in ii- support of the administration, and more 
Bsive and defiant towards the enemies of the Govern- 

In ilir spring of 1871 ground was broken for a new and 
splendid publication-office ti>r the 7Ymes. The site selected 
ma on thi corner of Third Street and Broadway, and em- 
braced a plot of ground fifty by one hundred and thirty 
secured at a cost of forty thousand dollars. An iron 
building lour stories high was erected thereon at a cost of 
one hundred and ten thousand dollars, and in the following 
M . 1872 the office was occupied and the paper issued 
therefrom. In the month of February, 1877, the building 
was partially destroyed bj fire, and the effects and material 
of tlu> office nearly all burned. Thereupon the edifice was 
rebuilt upon improved plans, and for light, convenience, 
mmodation, and elegance, it constitutes one of 
the most complete newspaper publication houses iu the coun- 

Mr. Francis conducted the Times as sole proprietor from 
the retirement "I Mr. Thompson until 1S64, when Henry 
O'R. Tinker was admitted to partnership. Mr. Tinker 
devotes his entire attention to the care and management of 
the business affairs of the office. 

Mr. Francis still retains the editorial control of the 
Timet, and though he has been for more thirty years a 
laborious and indefatigable journalist, he may yet be found 
at the post of duty, supervising the daily issue of the paper 
and devising new plans to improve its character and pro- 
mote its usefulness. 

When the Times was founded it employed lass than a 
dozen men and hoys; now its editors alone reach nearly 
thai number. Nearly two hundred persons find permanent 
or j artial employment in connection with the establishment. 
Correspondents are located in all the villages and towns 
within its parish, and for more than fifty communities the 
Timet i> the vehicle through which the local news of each 
day is transmitted to them. 


The life of John M. Francis, the founder, editor-in-chief, 
and senior proprietor of the Troy Daily Times, affords a 
tuple of how much one, with no especial ex- 
traneous advantagi - ma] accomplish in this country 
through the exercise of talents industriously applied. Elis 
father was by birth a Welshman, and came to America in 
1798. When a young man he served as midshipman in 
the British navy, and was on the flagship with Admiral 
Rodney "Inn he achieved his celebrated victory over the 
Him nided by the Count de Orasse. Subse- 
atly Midshipman Francis resigned from the British 

navv, mainly bccau I the sympathy 1 ntertained for 

cause of the colonies, ami upon the first opportunity 
ht a home in America. After having resided in this 

- he married a Com ticul lady, ami the 

young couple removed to £ I '• Y., where they set- 

. on a -mall farm that required I lomy and si 

r of the hind- to furiii-h a livelihood for the family. 
Tie ir son, John M . was horn at Prattsburgh, in that 

county. March 7, 1S23. He had only the limited advan- 
tages of early education which the sons of farmers in pio- 
neer settlements enjoyed, attending school winters and 
working on the farm in summer. 

In 1 S:iS, at the age of fifteen, he left home with fifty 
cents in his pocket to seek his fortune. He went to Canan- 
daigua, Ontario Co., and entered the office of the Ontario 
Messengt r, where he learned to set type. During the Pres- 
idential campaign of 1844 he was employed as editorial 
writer on the Wayne S ntint I. published at Palmyra. Wayne 
Co., which, owned and edited by the late Pomeroy Tucker, 
was, at the time, one of the most influential journals in the 
State. In 1845. Mr. Francis had further editorial experi- 
ence in connection with the Rochester Daily Advertiser. 
About this time ho studied law with the late Judge Theron 
R. Strong, and the Hon. Oliver II. Palmer, now of New 
York City, but finally abandoned the law for the more 
congenial profession of journalism. In January, 1846. Mr. 
Francis moved to Troy, and became editor of the Troy 
Daily Budget, of which the Hon. Thomas R. Carroll and 
Col. Alanson Cook were proprietors. In the spring of that 
year, with the late Edwin Brownell, he purchased the liuJ- 
;/rt. In 1S47, C. E. MacArthur bought the interest of 
Mr. Brownell, and the latter withdrew from the paper. It 
was during this period in Mr. Francis' journalistic career 
that he first distinguished himself. The Democratic party 
in New York was split into factions known as Hunkers and 
Barnburners, and in the exciting contest between them he 
espoused the cause of the latter, and gave utterance to those 
fearless expressions in favor of liberty and the rights of 
man. which have since characterized his published writings. 
He sustained the Free-Soil branch of the party through the 
Presidential campaign of 1848, with Martin Van Buren 
and Charles Francis Adams as its candidates for President 
and Vice-President. The Budget was generally recognized 
as one of the most powerful of the journalistic advocates of 
Free-Soil principles in that day. It was while connected 
with the Jim/get, from which he withdrew in 1S4!>. that 
Mr. Francis established the local department, which has 
since grown into such prominence as one of the most im- 
portant features of newspaper enterprise, and also introduo 
the system of summarizing news, now so popular with (he 
journals of the country. For a brief season he was cm- 
ployed on the Troy Whig, and also on the Troy Pott) 
but in is ."ill be left journalism to engage in the O'Reilly 
telegraph enterprise, and resided for a little time in New 
York City. 

In 1851, Mr. Francis returned to Troy and established 
the Troy Daily Times, issuing the first number of that 
journal June Joth. K. I >. Thompson, late of the Pittsburgh 
t bmnu rcial, was associated « ith Mr. Francis for the period 
of nearly two years, and after that time until the accession 
of Mr. II O'Reilly Tucker, Mr. Francis conducted botB 

the editorial and bu-ine— departments of the paper. Under 
his management the Timet has enjoyed a growth and 
prosperity unexampled in the history of journalism in this 
• ii. and but i'\\- papers in the country rival it in circu- 
lation, influei and character. Such as it is Mr. Francil 

hi- made it. His was the brain to conceive the journal, and 
so it has been his proud achievement to solve the problem 



/ / 



of its success. No American citizen need covel a finer 
monument to commemorate personal talent, enterprise, and 
good fortune than the Troy Daily Times constitutes for 
its founder ami editor-in chief. 

Mr. Francis began life as a Democrat in politics, but 
Bcvered Ins connection with that party when it surrendered, 
as he thought, its principles at the behest of slavery. In 

185(1 lie was mil' of the representative iiii'm who assisted in 
the convention at Syracuse in effecting the union of the 
Free-Soil Democrats with the Free-Soil Whigs, am] so form- 
ing the Republican party in this State. With this politi- 
cal organization he has since been closely identified, giving 
it the service of his able pen and mature counsel through 
the columns of his paper. lie was elected a member of 
the State Constitutional Convention in 1867—68, Serving 
on the committee having jurisdiction of the subjects rc- 
lating to the government of cities. Some delicate and 
intricate questions were referred to this committee, among 
them the powers and duties of police organizations, and 
the source from whence such organizations should derive 
their authority. 

Mr. Francis was an advocate of the principle of State 
sovereignty in all matters pertaining to police government, 
and wanted it engrafted on the constitution. The Hon. 
Ira Harris, who was a member of the committee, opposed 
this view, and. representing a majority of the committee, 
presented a report placing the police government of cities 
solely in the hands of the people thereof. Mr. Francis 
made a minority report sustaining his position. A lengthy 
debate ensued, in which Mr. Harris and Mr. Francis made 
long and exhaustive speeches. On the third day of the 
debate the vote was taken, and Mr. Francis had the satis- 
faction of carrying the convention with him by a small 
majority, though the principle for which he contended was 
subsequently lost with nearly the whole of the work of the 
convention. In this contest Mr. Francis proved his ability 
to cope intellectually with the foremost men of the State. 
In 1871, President Grant appointed Mr. Francis United 
States Minister to Greece, and for two years he represented 
the government at the court of Athens, resigning in 1S73. 
In 1875-7(5 he made the tour of the world, visiting all the 
principal places on the line of travel, and making extensive 
journeys into the interior of China and other Eastern coun- 
tries. He has never aspired to political honors, declining 
many tenders of official position made to him by the repre- 
sentative men of his party, and has preferred to pursue the 
more quiet profession of journalism, believing it to be one 
of the grandest as well as the most powerful means of edu- 
cating the masses and enlightening the world. 

In 1846, Mr. Francis married Harriet E. Tucker, 
daughter of Pomeroy Tucker, of Palmyra. They have 
two children, — Alice A. (wife of John C. Havemeyer, of 
New York City), and Charles S. Francis, the present city 
editor of the Troy Daily Times. 


A newspaper of this name was published in Troy some 

forty years ago, and another during a part of the period 

embraced by the civil war. That paper failed, and the 

Press was again started in 1867, by Hawley Brothers. In 


I 368 a half intcresl in the paper wa I i B 

Parmenter, of Troy. A few months later the other half- 
interest was bought by Charles C. Clark, of Hudson, and 
the paper was then conducted by Parmenter & Clarl 
proprietors and editors. Mr. Clark died Feb. 12, LE 

since which time the paper has been owned and i ducted by 

Mr. Parmenter alum-, he hu\ ing purchased M r. < 'lark's inter- 
est of the count} of Columbia, to whom it was assigned. 

The daily issue of the Press is a large thirty two column 
paper, and the Weekly Press has latclj been enlarged to 

thirty six columns. The daily has a circulati iqualed 

l'\ only one paper in the city, and the weekly has double 
the circulation of all other weekly (not Sunday) papers in 

the county < ihinrd. In politics the paper is I lonsei \ ative- 

Democratic. It supported Mr, Seymour for President in 
1868, Mr. Greeley in 1872, and Mr. Tilden in 1876. It 
has now existed more than twice as long as any Democratic 
paper previously published in Rensselaer County, and is well 
established. For the first eleven years of its existence it 
was published at 208 and 210 River Street. In May, 
1879, it was removed to more spacious ami elegant quarters 
at 225 River Street, opposite the Troy House. 

Mr. Parmenter, the proprietor, was burn in Pittstown, 
near Johnsonville ; graduated at Union College, Schenec- 
tady, in 1S57 ; studied law in the office of bis brothers, 
Roswell A. and Franklin J. Parmenter, at 47 First Street; 
wasadmitted to the bar in 1859 ; was a captain in the 169th 
Regiment New York Volunteers ; was discharged on account 
of physical disability contracted in the service in December, 
1863, from hospital at B